Chapter 02: History of Public Health and Public and Community Health Nursing (FREE) Nursing School Test Banks

Stanhope: Public Health Nursing, 8th Edition

Chapter 02: History of Public Health and Public and Community Health Nursing

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. In the past, population-centered nurses have been called:
a. District nurses
b. Almshouse nurses
c. Soldier nurses
d. Sisters
ANS: A
In the past, population-centered nurses have been called public health nurses, district nurses, visiting nurses, school nurses, occupational health nurses, and home health nurses.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 23 OBJ: 1

2. Public health practice is an appealing specialty to nurses because of its:
a. Interactions with wealthy contributors to secure funding
b. Autonomy and independence of practice
c. Ability to locate the source of diseases and cure patients
d. Opportunities to meet a variety of people
ANS: B
Community health nurses have a long history of autonomous practice, problem solving, and decision making. Community health care nurses engage in the other activities as well, but overall, they have been best known for autonomy of practice.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 23 OBJ: 1

3. The Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 is similar to which current law?
a. Welfare
b. Food Stamps
c. Medicaid
d. Medicare
ANS: C
The Poor Law guaranteed medical care for poor, blind, and lame individuals, similar to Medicaid.

DIF: COG: Evaluating REF: 24-25|36 OBJ: 1

4. Current threats to health in the United States that community health nurses are faced with include:
a. Diphtheria, cholera, and hepatitis
b. HIV, H1N1 influenza, and bioterrorism
c. Avian flu, tuberculosis, and radiation
d. Polluted water and air
ANS: B
The newest threats to health that public health nurses are involved in are HIV, H1N1 influenza, and bioterrorism. Hepatitis is also a current threat, but diphtheria and cholera are not concerns in the United States. Avian flu may be a threat, but radiation and tuberculosis are ongoing. Environmental pollution has been reduced; however, there are pollution issues that do raise concerns.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 23 OBJ: 2

5. A colonist working in the public health sector in early colonial North America would likely have focused on:
a. Establishing schools of nursing
b. Developing vaccines to administer to large numbers of people
c. Collecting vital statistics and improving sanitation
d. Developing public housing and almshouses
ANS: C
The other choices are events that happened after the colonial period.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 24 OBJ: 2

6. The original work of the National Organization for Public Health Nursing has influenced nursing practice today by:
a. Requiring that public health nurses have a baccalaureate degree in nursing
b. Standardizing public health nursing education
c. Developing nursing cooperatives
d. Opening the Henry Street Settlement
ANS: B
The National Organization for Public Health Nursing sought to standardize public health nursing. The Henry Street Settlement was already in existence. The baccalaureate degree in nursing was not developed yet.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 29 OBJ: 2

7. A public health nurse is compiling information about how to promote early detection of breast cancer in women. Which document would most likely provide useful information about this  topic?
a. The Future of Public Health
b. Healthy People 2020
c. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
d. Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing Practice
ANS: B
The Healthy People documents propose national strategies to improve significantly the health of Americans by preventing or delaying the onset of major chronic illnesses, injuries, and infectious diseases.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 38 OBJ: 2

8. A major provision of the Social Security Act of 1935 was the establishment of:
a. The Frontier Nursing Service to provide nursing service to rural communities
b. State and local community health services and training of personnel
c. District nursing to provide home health care to sick people
d. Community-based settlement houses
ANS: B
Title VI of the Social Security Act provided funding for expanded opportunities for health protection and promotion through education and employment of public health nurses. Nurses completed educational programs in public health and funds were provided to assist states, counties, and medical districts in the establishment and maintenance of adequate health services.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 32 OBJ: 3

9. Public health nurses are involved in health care reform because reform should:
a. Promote the nursing profession.
b. Increase funding for public health nursing.
c. Address the concerns of nurses.
d. Improve health care access and reduce health care costs.
ANS: D
Public health nurses have been involved in health care reform for several years. An emphasis of reform is that health promotion and disease prevention appear to yield reduction in costs and illness/injury incidence while increasing years of healthy life.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 38-39 OBJ: 3

10. A neighborhood health center is researching its origins. Which of the legislative acts most likely provided funds for its development?
a. Emergency Maternity and Infant Care Act of 1943
b. Medicaid legislation
c. Social Security Act of 1935
d. Economic Opportunity Act
ANS: D
Funding for neighborhood health centers, Head Start, and other community action programs began in 1964 with the Economic Opportunity Act.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 36 OBJ: 3

11. What task would have been a responsibility of a nurse who was employed by the Marine Hospital Service?
a. Setting policy on quarantine legislation for immigrants
b. Establishing hospital-based programs to care for the sick at home
c. Identifying and improving environmental conditions
d. Providing health care for merchant seamen
ANS: D
Providing health care to seamen was an early effort by the federal government to improve public health. The purpose of the Marine Hospital Service was to secure its maritime trade and seacoast cities.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 24 OBJ: 3

12. A 66-year-old woman is retired and no longer has health insurance through her place of employment. Which program would be appropriate for her health insurance needs?
a. Medicare
b. Medicaid
c. Social Security
d. Economic Opportunity Act
ANS: A
The Social Security Act was amended to include health insurance benefits for the elderly, which is addressed through Medicare.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 36 OBJ: 3

13. Florence Nightingales contributions to public health included:
a. Caring for the sick, poor, and neglected in institutions and at home
b. Using a population-based approach that led to improved environmental conditions
c. Writing the Elizabethan Poor Law to guarantee medical care for all
d. Founding of the district nursing association to provide health care to needy people
ANS: B
During the Crimean War, Nightingale progressively improved the soldiers health by adopting a population-based approach that used simple epidemiological measures and greatly decreased mortality.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 25 OBJ: 4

14. Lillian Walds major contribution to public health nursing was:
a. Founding the American Nurses Association
b. Developing the New York Training Hospital for Nurses
c. Creating the Public Health Service
d. Establishing the Henry Street Settlement
ANS: D
Lillian Wald established the Henry Street Settlement.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 27 OBJ: 4

15. Neighborhood centers that provided health care, education, and social welfare programs were called:
a. Settlement houses
b. Nursing care centers
c. Nurse-managed clinics
d. Public health services
ANS: A
Settlement houses were neighborhood centers that provided health care, education, and social welfare programs. Nursing centers, nurse-managed clinics, and public health services are not necessarily in neighborhoods.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 27 OBJ: 4

16. Which topic is most likely to have been discussed when Lillian Wald provided public health education?
a. Taking and recording blood pressures accurately
b. Safe and sanitary baby and child care
c. Environmental pollutants and their effects on lung disease
d. Time management: balancing factory work and the home
ANS: B
Lillian Wald provided health care that included educating the community on health care matters.

DIF: COG: Evaluating REF: 26 OBJ: 4

17. Nurses who provided care to people in their homes and provided that care to several people at a time were called _____ nurses.
a. Private duty
b. Visiting
c. Public health
d. Community staff
ANS: B
The visiting nurse cared for several families in a day and helped to make care of the sick poor at home economical, whereas a private duty nurse may live with a family of clients receiving care and was to be available 24 hours a day.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 26 OBJ: 5

18. Which of the trends in health issues in the United States between 1900 and 1955 is accurate?
a. There was a rise in chronic disease such as heart disease and cancer.
b. There was a rise in communicable disease.
c. The crude mortality rate increased dramatically.
d. The life span after diagnosis remained the same.
ANS: A
Leading causes of death in 1955 were heart disease, cancer, and cerebrovascular disease, whereas in 1900 they were pneumonia, tuberculosis, and diarrhea/enteritis. The mortality rate decreased by 47%. There was a decrease in communicable disease, and the life span after diagnosis increased.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 34-35 OBJ: 5

19. Local health departments were formed in urban areas in the late 1800s to:
a. Target environmental hazards associated with crowded living conditions.
b. Facilitate interdisciplinary efforts and promote practical nursing.
c. Provide immunizations and health care services to all citizens.
d. Offer public health education to nurses who had finished basic training.
ANS: A
Local health departments were formed to handle environmental issues in cities, including problems associated with crowded living conditions and dirty streets, and to regulate public baths, slaughterhouses, and pigsties.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 29 OBJ: 5

20. The practice of a school nurse in the early twentieth century would have focused on:
a. Investigating causes of absenteeism
b. Teaching school as well as being a nurse
c. Promoting nursing as an autonomous practice
d. Providing medical treatment to enable children to return to school
ANS: A
Early school nursing focused on investigating causes of absenteeism, not providing medical treatment. That was the responsibility of physicians.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 28 OBJ: 5

21. When comparing the practices of industrial and occupational health nurses, it is noted that:
a. Industrial nurses invented new machines to streamline production of medical goods, whereas occupational health nurses provide care to employees.
b. Industrial nurses investigated industrial injuries to improve work conditions, whereas occupational health nurses demonstrate proper body mechanics.
c. Industrial nurses treated work related-injuries, whereas occupational health nurses care for families in their homes.
d. Industrial nurses provided care for workers in their homes, whereas occupational health nurses care for work-related injuries.
ANS: D
Early occupational health nursing did not provide care for work-related injuries, but instead focused on the care of employees and their families in the home. Contemporary occupational health nurses provide care for work-related injuries.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 28 OBJ: 5

22. The document, Visiting Nurses in the United States, highlighted the fact that:
a. Nurses were trained by Boards of Education.
b. Trained nurses adequately covered less densely populated areas.
c. Visiting nurse services were concentrated in the northeastern United States.
d. Nurses were curing diseases such as tuberculosis and typhoid fever.
ANS: C
This report emphasized the fact that visiting nurse services were concentrated in the northeast, which underscored the need for rural health.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 28 OBJ: 6

23. Which statement is true about African American nurses in public health?
a. Certificate and graduate education were more difficult to obtain.
b. Cities were the major areas where they practiced.
c. They often belonged to the Frontier Nursing Service.
d. They were recruited heavily as military nurses.
ANS: A
Due to segregation, certification and graduate education were more difficult to obtain.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 30 OBJ: 6

24. An example of the resourcefulness of a nurse during the time when the Rural Nursing Service was operating through the American Red Cross was:
a. Using hot bricks, salt, or sandbags to substitute for hot water bottles
b. Testing well water for pollutants
c. Teaching school and developing curricula for rural nursing programs
d. Providing post-surgical care
ANS: A
In providing medical care, rural nurses were resourceful in finding alternatives when they did not have medical products that were available in urban areas.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 28 OBJ: 6

25. A nurse working with Mary Breckinridge would have likely assisted with:
a. Establishing the Henry Street Settlement
b. Developing health programs geared toward improving the health care of the rural populations
c. Blazing a nursing trail through the Rockies, providing nursing care to miners and their families
d. Teaching birth control measures to large numbers of women in the South
ANS: B
Mary Breckinridge developed health programs geared toward improving the health care of the rural and often inaccessible populations in the Appalachian regions of southern Kentucky. Lillian Wald established the Henry Street Settlement.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 30 OBJ: 6

26. Which client would have been most likely to receive care from the Frontier Nursing Service?
a. An injured soldier
b. A homebound, elderly male
c. A woman in labor
d. A child with measles
ANS: C
The Frontier Nursing Service nurses were trained in nursing public health and midwifery and provided care to rural and inaccessible areas, which led to reduced mortality.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 30 OBJ: 6

27. A nurse is considering joining the American Public Health Association. What information about this organization should be considered when making this decision?
a. APHA focuses on the public health concerns of the medical profession.
b. APHA represents concerns of nursing specialty practices.
c. APHA provides a forum for nurses to discuss their public health concerns.
d. APHA focuses on providing health promotion education to the public.
ANS: C
APHA was formed to facilitate interprofessional efforts and promote the practical application of public hygiene. The Public Health Section within APHA provides nurses with a forum to discuss their concerns and strategies. It also serves as a focus of leadership and policy development for community/public health nursing.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 29 OBJ: 6

28. A nursing student during World War II would likely join which group?
a. The Public Health Service of New York City
b. The Marine Nurse Corps
c. The Frontier Nursing Service
d. The Cadet Nurse Corps
ANS: D
The Bolton Act of 1943 established the Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II, which increased enrollment in schools of nursing at undergraduate and graduate levels.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 33 OBJ: 6

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. The impact of World War I on public health nursing included (select all that apply):
a. Many communicable diseases were eradicated.
b. The depletion of the ranks of public health nurses to the war.
c. The feeling that the greatest patriotic duty was to stay at home.
d. Expanding nursing services in the community was limited by lack of funding.
ANS: B, C, D
Both World Wars I and II depleted the public health nurse population as nurses went off to war. The feeling of patriotism extended to the idea that patriotic duty could also be served on the home front.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 30 OBJ: 6

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