Chapter 04: The Therapeutic Relationship Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 04: The Therapeutic Relationship
Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition


1. Which of the following statements about values is true?
a. It is impossible for someone to understand his or her values.
b. Values evolve over time; they are not static.
c. Values assimilated in childhood are those held for a lifetime.
d. Values clarification tells a person how to act.
Values take time to develop, and they may change with education, experience, exposure, or a combination of these.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: p. 83

2. A nurse is providing education about improving self-awareness to a small group of women who have been victims of domestic violence. Which of the following should the nurse recommend the clients do first to improve their self-awareness?
a. Use self-disclosure to share aspects of self.
b. Listen to and learn from others.
c. Listen to oneself and pay attention to emotions, thoughts, and reactions.
d. Use others to bounce back your own thoughts and recollections.
To achieve a high self-awareness, three steps must be taken. The first step is listening to oneself and paying attention to emotions, thoughts, memories, reactions, and impulses. The second step is listening to and learning from others. The third step is using self-disclosure to share aspects of self.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 84

3. The nurse shares with her client the news that she, the nurse, is going to be married soon and tells the client about her wedding plans. Which of the following best describes the nurses actions?
a. The nurse is sharing inappropriate personal information with her client.
b. The nurse is exhibiting a communication technique called self-disclosure.
c. The nurse is attempting to show empathy with her client.
d. The nurse is violating client confidentiality rights of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
Sharing aspects of the self enriches interpersonal life and is a use of the technique labeled self-disclosure.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 84-85

4. A nurse has started admitting a new person on home care and is beginning to establish a relationship. Which of the following would be the most important thing for the nurse to do?
a. Complete the paperwork in a timely fashion
b. Establish open communication
c. Conduct a complete physical health assessment
d. Provide feedback to the persons questions
Communication is the foundation for any professional relationship. It is the cornerstone of a positive nurse-person relationship. It refers to a set of strategies and actions to enhance reciprocity, mutual understanding, and decision making.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 85 | p. 87

5. Which of the following best describes person-centered communication?
a. The nurse says to the person seeking care, Why do you continue to drink when you know it is not good for you?
b. The nurse responds to person seeking cares request for pain medicine by saying, It is not time for your pain medicine. You had it hours ago.
c. The client says to the nurse, I think my husband is cheating on me. The nurse responds by saying, You think your husband is cheating on you?
d. The client says to the nurse, I cant believe I have cancer. The nurse responds by saying, One of my closest friends had cancer and had to have chemotherapy.
The nurse recognizes that the person seeking care has some concerns that she would like to discuss and paraphrases her statement to give the person an opportunity to elaborate on thoughts that are important to him or her.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 87

6. A nurse is counseling someone who has recently been diagnosed with diabetes. The nurse says, Tell me more about how this diagnosis has affected your daily activities. Which of the following best describes the type of communication the nurse is using?
a. Verbal communication
b. Nonverbal communication
c. Metacommunication
d. Functional communication
Verbal communication is the transmission of messages using words, spoken or written. Nonverbal communication encompasses all messages that are not spoken or written. Metacommunication refers to a message about the message, the relationship aspect of communication.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 88

7. Which of the following statements about nonverbal communication is true?
a. Nonverbal behavior is not usually contextual.
b. Nonverbal behavior is culturally and situationally bound.
c. Nonverbal communication is the most important type of communication.
d. Nonverbal communication is easy to interpret.
Cultural exposure and situational impact are essential components of interpreting nonverbal communication and must be taken into consideration in attempts to interpret nonverbal communication.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) REF: p. 89

8. Which of the following scenarios best describes a nurse using metacommunication?
a. Using both touch and silence when counseling an individual
b. Practicing reflection when interaction with an individual
c. Discussing with an individual how to solve a problem
d. Understanding that an individual needs a break before proceeding
Metacommunication refers to a message about the message. It is the relationship aspect of communication. In a sense, it involves reading between the lines or going past the surface content of the message to glean nuances of meaning.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 89

9. Which of the following statements can be identified as a method for clarifying a message?
a. I get very upset when you talk to me in that tone.
b. You make me very angry when you drink alcohol.
c. I can make you happy. I know I can.
d. What I want from you is to be left alone!
Use of I statements is one technique that can be used for clarifying and qualifying messages.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 90

10. A nurse and a man are involved in a conversation. When the person folds his arms across his chest, the nurse almost simultaneously folds her arms across her chest. This behavior is recognized as:
a. empathy.
b. reciprocity.
c. flexibility.
d. spacing.
The patterning of similar activities within the same interval by two people can facilitate communication. This patterning is known as reciprocity.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 90-91

11. A nurse and her client are engaged in meaningful conversation when suddenly there is silence between the two. To facilitate effective client-centered communication, the nurse should:
a. ask the person what he is thinking, so they can understand each other.
b. restate what the person said before silence ensued, to get clarification.
c. change the subject to one that is more pleasant for the person to discuss.
d. wait quietly to give the person time to reflect where he wants to lead the conversation.
Silence allows the person to reflect on what is being discussed or experienced and lets him or her know that the nurse is willing to wait until he or she is ready to say more.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 91

12. A person has just been admitted to the hospital. In talking with the person, the nurse is able to elicit from her that the reason for her hospitalization is that her husband beat her up. Which characteristic of the therapeutic relationship is being demonstrated?
a. Empathy
b. Trust
c. Rapport
d. Purposeful communication
The nurse focuses communication for a particular aim: to obtain information to be used in care of the person.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 93

13. An individual reveals to the nurse that he is having an affair with his wifes best friend. Which of the following statements will enhance effective therapeutic communication between him and the nurse?
a. You know that what you are doing is wrong.
b. Why would you want do something like that?
c. How could you do that to your wife and children?
d. This affair seems to be troubling you.
The nurse is seeking to determine the clients own feelings about his affair. By seeking feedback, the nurse helps explain the meaning further. The nurse suspends judgment and responds in such a way as to encourage him to keep talking rather than make judgments about his behavior, which would shut down communication.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 95

14. A nurse is working with a person to increase his daily exercise and activity. Which of the following statements by the nurse best demonstrates the use of reflection?
a. I have also struggled with finding time to exercise on a regular basis.
b. Regular exercise plays an important role in preventing many health problems.
c. You said that you have difficulty making time in your day for exercise.
d. It may be helpful if we developed a goal related to daily exercise.
Reflection is the restatement of what the individual has said in the same or different words. This technique can involve paraphrasing or summarizing the persons main point to indicate interest and to focus the discussion. It is the selective paraphrasing or literal repetition of the persons words to underscore the importance of what has been said, summarize a main concern or theme, or elicit elaborated information.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 95

15. A woman tells the nurse that she is very nervous about their meeting today. Which of the following relationship stages are the nurse and woman most likely experiencing?
a. Orientation phase
b. Working phase
c. Therapeutic phase
d. Termination phase
The orientation phase begins when the nurse and individual meet. This meeting typically involves some feeling of anxiety because neither party knows what to expect.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 98

16. Which of the following is the first step in the valuing process?
a. Acting out the choice
b. Selecting from alternatives
c. Being happy with personal beliefs and actions
d. Choosing freely
The seven-step valuing process involves (1) choosing freely, (2) choosing from alternatives, (3) choosing after careful consideration of potential outcomes of each alternative, (4) cherishing and being happy with personal beliefs and actions, (5) affirming the choice in public, when appropriate, (6) acting out the choice, and (7) repeatedly acting in some type of pattern.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 83 (Box 4-2)

17. The nurse makes sure that the distance between himself and the client is at least 6 feet before he begins to ask questions related to the clients health history. Which of the following statements is true?
a. This is the ideal space for intimate communication.
b. This distance is too far for the nurse to build a therapeutic relationship while obtaining the information.
c. This is the recommended distance between client and nurse for effective therapeutic communication.
d. The nurse should position himself an additional foot away to facilitate the conversation.
Personal space of 18 inches to 4 feet is appropriate for close relationships in which touching may be involved and good visualization is desired.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 91 (Box 4-8)


1. A nurse is working on values clarification with a person who has chosen to smoke during her pregnancy. Which of the following statements would be the most appropriate for the nurse to assist in this process? (select all that apply)
a. Why do you smoke cigarettes?
b. What do you value most in life?
c. Who has influenced your decision to smoke?
d. Is your decision to smoke consistent with your values?
Techniques to clarify values include assisting the person to identify her own values (What is important to you?), identify values conflicts or conflicts between values and actions (Are your actions consistent with your values?), and using reflection to restate the value and make it explicit.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 83 (Box 4-3)

2. A nurse is in the process of establishing a therapeutic relationship with a person. Which of the following techniques should be used by the nurse? (select all that apply)
a. Learn about the persons interests.
b. Sit close to the person.
c. Show interest in the persons concerns.
d. Define the parameters of the relationship with the person.
Purposeful communication should be an aim of the therapeutic relationship. Social chitchat, communication without a goal, should not make up the bulk of the therapeutic interaction. The amount of space between communicators varies from culture to culture, so sitting close to the person may not be culturally appropriate. Building rapport by showing the person that his or her concerns interest the nurse is important. Also, trust can be built with the person by clearly defining the relationship parameters and expectations.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 93

3. Which of the following is an essential question that nurses should encourage individuals to ask at every health visit? (select all that apply)
a. What is my main problem?
b. What health information do I not understand?
c. What do I need to do?
d. What is the plan for the next visit?
Health literacy is the capacity to read, comprehend, and follow through on health information; it is a critical component of health promotion. To combat low health literacy, nurses can encourage individuals to ask three essential questions at every health visit: What is my main problem? What do I need to do? Why is it important for me to do this?

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 100

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