Chapter 05: Mathematics Review and Introduction to Dosage Calculation Nursing School Test Banks

Workman: Understanding Pharmacology

Chapter 05: Mathematics Review and Introduction to Dosage Calculation

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What is the most important consideration when using a calculator for drug dosages?
a. Always check the answers with a pharmacist.
b. Ensure the numbers are entered in the correct order.
c. Work the problem by hand and then check all work using the computer.
d. Calculate the answer with the computer and then check the answer by working the problem by hand.
ANS: B
Remember that math problems are punched into the calculator just like they are written or just like you would say them out loud. For example, 24 12 is punched in as 2, 4, , 1, 2 = answer. If you punch in either of the numbers backwards (e.g., 4, 2, 1, 2 or 2, 4, , 2, 1) the answer will be wrong.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)
REF: p. 68 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

2. What specific safety technique is always used when calculating an insulin dose?
a. Use a calculator and never calculate the dose by hand.
b. Calculate the dose by hand and never use a calculator.
c. Have another health care professional check the dose.
d. Wear sterile gloves to administer the calculated dose.
ANS: C
Insulin is a high alert (PINCH) drug that can cause serious damage if the wrong dose is administered. Always have another health care professional double check the dose you calculate by independently re-calculating the dose and comparing it to the dose you calculated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 68 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

3. What is the best definition of a fraction?
a. Part of a whole number obtained by dividing one number by a larger number
b. The answer obtained when one number divided another number is always an even number
c. The smallest unit or part of a number that can be obtained by dividing one number by itself
d. The dividing point between whole numbers and parts of numbers in a system based on units of ten
ANS: A
A fraction is always a part of a whole number. A proper faction is always less than a single whole number.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)
REF: p. 68 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

4. In the equation 2X = , which element is the numerator?
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. X
ANS: B
The numerator is always the top number in a fraction that will be divided by the bottom number (denominator).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)
REF: p. 69 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

5. Which fraction represents the whole number 10?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: D
All whole numbers can be converted to fractions by placing the whole number as the numerator with the denominator of 1. When the denominator is anything other than 1, the result is a number that is only a part of 10. So, = 0, = 1, = 1 tenth of 1 (much less than 10, in only 1% of 10), and only = the whole number 10.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 69 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

6. Which number is expressed as a proper fraction?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: C
A proper fraction is one that is always less than a whole number, with the numerator always being smaller than the denominator.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 69 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

7. Which fraction accurately represents the mixed number 6 5/8?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: D
The number 6 is a whole number that reflects 6 or . This number () is added to to make the improper fraction of .

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 69 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

8. Which fraction is expressed as its lowest common denominator?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: B
The fraction cannot be further reduced. The number can be reduced to , the number can be reduced to ; and the number can be reduced to .

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 69 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

9. What is the lowest common denominator for the fraction series of 10/15, 9/27, 10/30, 34/51?
a. 3
b. 5
c. 6
d. 10
ANS: A
The fraction can be reduced to , can be reduced to , can be reduced to , and can be reduced to .

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 69 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

10. Which fraction represents the largest part of a whole number?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: C
When reduced to their lowest terms, = ; = ; = ; and = . Then reducing these to their lowest common denominator (24), we have = ; =; = ; and = . is the largest part of the whole.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 70 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

11. What is the correct response when , , and 2 are added together and then reduced to the lowest terms?
a. 2
b. 2
c. 3
d. 3
ANS: C
First converting the mixed number fraction 2 = . Then convert all fractions to their lowest common denominator (16). = + + = = 3 .

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 71 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

12. Which fraction represents 0.6?
a.
b.
c.
d.
ANS: D
The decimal 0.6 represents 6 tenths of the number 1. The fraction can be reduced to .

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 72 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

ESSAY

1. A patient is prescribed aspirin 650 mg orally. The aspirin form on hand is 325 mg/tablet. How many tablets does the nurse give this patient?
_____ tablet(s)

ANS:
2 tablets
Want 650 mg/Have 325 mg; = 2.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

2. A patient is prescribed 160 mg of acetaminophen (Tylenol). The drug on hand is acetaminophen . How many milliliters does the nurse administer?
_____ mL

ANS:
5 mL
Want , Have ; = 2 2.5 mL = 5 mL.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

3. A patient is prescribed 0.0625 mg of digoxin (Lanoxin). The drug on hand is digoxin 0.05 mg/mL. How many milliliters does the nurse administer?
_____ mL

ANS:
1.25 mL
Want , Have ; = 1.25 1 mL = 1.25 mL.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

4. A patient is prescribed 750 mg of amoxicillin (Amoxil). The drug on hand is amoxicillin . How many milliliters does the nurse administer?
_____ mL

ANS:
15 mL
Want , Have ; = 3 5 mL = 15 mL.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

5. A pediatric patient is prescribed 20 mg of acetaminophen (Tylenol). The drug on hand is acetaminophen . How many milliliters does the nurse administer?
_____ mL

ANS:
0.6 mL
Want , Have ; = 0.25 2.5 mL = 0.625 mL, rounded down to 0.6 mL.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

6. A pediatric patient is prescribed 0.004 mg of digoxin (Lanoxin) orally as a one-time dose now. The drug on hand is digoxin 0.05 mg/mL. How many drops does the nurse administer?
_____ gtt

ANS:
1 gtt
Want , Have ; = 0.08 1 mL = 0.08 mL, at 15 gtt/mL = 0.08 15 = 1.2 gtt, rounded down to 1 gtt.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

7. An infant is prescribed 50 mg of amoxicillin (Amoxil). The drug on hand is amoxicillin . How many milliliters does the nurse administer?
_____ mL

ANS:
1 mL
Want , Have ; = 5 mL = 1 mL.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

8. A patient is prescribed 4 mg of morphine IV. The drug on hand is morphine 10 mg in a 1-mL syringe. How many milliliters does the nurse administer?
_____ mL

ANS:
0.4 mL
Want , Have ; = 0.4 1 mL = 0.4 mL.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

9. A patient is prescribed 25 mg of meperidine (Demerol) IV. The drug on hand is meperidine 100 mg/mL. How many milliliters does the nurse administer?
_____ mL

ANS:
0.25 mL
Want , Have ; = 0.25 1 mL = 0.25 mL.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

10. A patient is prescribed 2000 units of heparin subcutaneously. The drug on hand is heparin 5000 units/mL. How many milliliters does the nurse administer?
_____ mL

ANS:
0.4 mL
Want , Have ; = 0.4 1 mL = 0.4 mL.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

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