Chapter 08: Health and Illness Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 08: Health and Illness
Linton: Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What is the basis for the healthillness continuum?
a. Prevention of acute illness
b. Individual response to health or illness
c. Promotion of health and wellness
d. Variation in degree of health or illness
ANS: D
Currently, health and illness are viewed as relative states along a continuum. Individuals are at neither absolute health nor absolute illness but are in an ever-changing state of being.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 91 OBJ: 1
TOP: Current View of Health-Illness Continuum
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Safety and Infection Control

2. What is the current concern of the health care system?
a. Treating illness
b. Preventing illness
c. Promoting optimal function in the chronically ill
d. Caring for patients with acute and chronic illness
ANS: B
Health promotion activities are directed toward maintaining or enhancing well-being as a protection against illness.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 95 OBJ: 5
TOP: Health Promotion KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Safety and Infection Control

3. What is the traditional view of health?
a. Promotes optimal function
b. Views health and illness as separate concepts
c. Defines health as an absence of illness
d. Emphasizes the prevention of disease
ANS: B
Traditionally, health and illness have been viewed as separate entities with a focus on the illness and not in attaining the highest quality of life possible when a cure is not possible.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 91 OBJ: 2
TOP: Traditional View of Health and Illness
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Safety and Infection Control

4. What is the current view of health?
a. Promotes the highest quality of life possible, both mentally and socially
b. Includes mental, physical, social, and emotional adaptation to the environment
c. Includes the basic physiologic needs and self-actualization
d. Relies on alternative therapies for the treatment and cure of diseases
ANS: B
A healthy person maintains stability and comfort by adapting physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially to internal and external events.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 91 OBJ: 2
TOP: Current View of Health and Illness
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Safety and Infection Control

5. During the initial gathering of data, a patient reveals a weight loss of 17 lb since the death of his spouse 5 weeks earlier. He says that he is not sleeping and has no appetite. What category of unmet needs should be considered by the nurse according to Maslows hierarchy of needs?
a. Physiologic
b. Safety and security
c. Love and belonging
d. Self-actualization
ANS: A
Physiologic needs include oxygen, fluids, and nutrition and must be met before the higher levels of needs are provided.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 92 OBJ: 3
TOP: Maslows Basic Human Needs KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Safety and Infection Control

6. What is the major advantage of using Maslows hierarchy of needs when planning nursing care for patients?
a. Establishes a nursing diagnosis
b. Improves problem-solving techniques
c. Prioritizes patient care
d. Establishes priorities of care
ANS: C
Priorities for nursing care can be based on the level of human needs; physical needs take priority over security needs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 92-93 OBJ: 3
TOP: Maslows Basic Human Needs KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

7. A nurse points out that a physiologic response to stress involves the total body. Which syndrome is this considered?
a. General adaptation
b. Local adaptation
c. Negative feedback
d. Total adaptation
ANS: A
General adaptation syndrome is the physiologic response of the whole body to stress.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 93 OBJ: 4
TOP: Stress Response KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

8. What are the ability to solve problems and to maintain self-confidence and the willingness to accept criticism incorporated in according to Maslow?
a. Safety and security
b. Self-esteem
c. Self-actualization
d. Love and belonging
ANS: C
Self-actualization is characterized by the ability to solve problems, the willingness to accept suggestions and criticism from others, and the maintenance of broad interests and communication skills.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 93 OBJ: 3
TOP: Maslows Basic Human Needs KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

9. A patient returning from surgery complains of incisional pain that is now rated 7 in intensity on the 1-to-10 pain scale. What should the nurse be aware that pain exemplifies?
a. General adaptation syndrome
b. Local adaptation syndrome
c. Counter-current response
d. Neuroendocrine response
ANS: B
Local adaptation syndrome is a short-term, local response to a specific stressor. Examples include pain, blood clotting, and wound healing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 93-94 OBJ: 4
TOP: Stress Response KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

10. A nurse clarifies that a neuroendocrine response involves both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Which syndrome is this considered?
a. Local adaptation
b. Total adaptation
c. Acute adaptation
d. General adaptation
ANS: D
The neuroendocrine response primarily involves the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems and is considered part of the general adaptation syndrome, which is physiologic and affects the entire body.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 93-94 OBJ: 4
TOP: Stress Response KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

11. Which syndrome includes the alarm reaction stage, resistance stage, and exhaustion stage?
a. Local adaptation syndrome
b. General adaptation syndrome
c. Total adaptation syndrome
d. Absolute adaptation syndrome
ANS: B
After the initial alarm stage (of the general adaptation syndrome), the body stabilizes and physiologic processes return to normal levels. This is followed by the resistance stage. If the stressor lasts too long, the individual may enter the third stage of adaptation, which is exhaustion.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 93-94 OBJ: 4
TOP: Stress Response KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

12. A nurse gives the example of when an individual becomes frightened and experiences an increased heart rate and mental activity along with increased blood flow to the skeletal muscles and dilated pupils. The person is experiencing an alarm reaction that helps the body defend against stressors. What type of response is the alarm reaction considered?
a. Positive feedback response
b. Negative feedback response
c. Fight-or-flight response
d. Homeostasis response
ANS: C
The alarm reaction causes the body to respond to stress physiologically. Hormone levels, heart rate, cardiac output, respiratory rate, oxygen intake, and mental energy are increased, and the pupils dilate. These reactions together are called the fight-or-flight response.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 93-94 OBJ: 4
TOP: Stress Response KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

13. A patient is being discharged from same-day surgery after a tonsillectomy. The nurse is aware that the patient will be in the phase of general adaptation syndrome, in which the body begins to heal after injury. Which stage is this considered?
a. Alarm stage
b. Resistance stage
c. Exhaustion stage
d. Initial stage
ANS: B
The resistance stage is characterized by adapting to the stressor. If the stressor can be overcome or repaired, as in a short-term illness or injury, the body begins to heal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 93-94 OBJ: 4
TOP: Stress Response KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

14. An anxious co-worker who is to present a comprehensive report to the hospital board on innovative staffing patterns sits down at a table in the lunchroom and begins to tell you what will be presented in the report. Which coping strategy is this co-worker using?
a. Event rehearsal
b. Problem solving
c. Event review
d. Social support
ANS: A
Coping strategies include event rehearsal, confrontation, distancing or denial, self- control, social support, accepting responsibility, faith, problem solving, positive reappraisal, and event review. Event review is discussing situations.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 94 OBJ: 4
TOP: Coping KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

15. What is the best example for a nurse to use when explaining chronic illness?
a. Acne
b. Appendicitis
c. Heart attack
d. Asthma
ANS: D
Chronic illness, such as asthma, usually involves lifetime impairment or disability and requires long-term rehabilitation and medical or nursing treatment. Examples of chronic illness include coronary artery disease, diabetes, and endocrine disorders. Acne, appendicitis, and a heart attack are conditions that are acute in nature, although they may indicate a serious illness.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 96 OBJ: 6
TOP: Concept of Illness KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

16. A nurse assesses that smoking, drinking alcohol, and exercising compulsively may occur as responses to a stressful situation. What type of response should this be considered?
a. External
b. Withdrawal
c. Denial
d. Internal
ANS: D
Examples of internal resources are physiologic and psychologic responses such as smoking, drinking alcohol, eating, and crying.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 95 OBJ: 4
TOP: Adaptation to Stress KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

17. Which type of response is demonstrated when an individual seeks help from family, friends, or a community resource during a time of stress?
a. Internal
b. External
c. Physiologic
d. Psychologic
ANS: B
Patients who deal with stress may use external responses, including help from family, friends, and service agencies in the community.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 95 OBJ: 4
TOP: Coping and Adaptation KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

18. What is the term for activities directed toward maintaining or enhancing well-being against illness?
a. Health promotion
b. Health treatment
c. Health evaluation
d. Health assessment
ANS: A
Health promotion activities are directed toward maintaining or enhancing well-being as a protection against illness.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 95 OBJ: 5
TOP: Health Promotion KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

19. A home health nurse is assisting a patient who is chronically ill with congestive heart failure to reorder time. What is the best intervention to assist this patient?
a. Encouraging the patient to get up earlier or to go to sleep later
b. Developing a daily schedule that allows time for activities, as well as for medical regimens
c. Giving up time-consuming activities such as watching television or answering e-mail messages
d. Encouraging the patient to complete only one task a day
ANS: B
Reordering time is developing a schedule that includes not only a medical regimen, but it also includes social and interpersonal activities, as well as hobbies.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 98 OBJ: 5
TOP: Reordering Time KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

20. What type of illness are the common cold, appendicitis, and urinary tract infections considered?
a. Chronic
b. Disabling
c. Emergency
d. Acute
ANS: D
An acute illness or disease is one that has a relatively rapid onset and a short duration.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 96 OBJ: 6
TOP: Concept of Illness KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

21. What concept is believed to be the cause of illness with nontraditional therapies?
a. Evil spirits
b. Lack of harmony with the environment
c. Deliberate abuse of the body
d. Inappropriate diet
ANS: B
Alternate therapies are designed to recreate harmony and balance with the environment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 99 OBJ: 9
TOP: Alternate Therapies KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

22. What is the first step in helping patients to increase adaptability?
a. Assess past methods of coping with stress.
b. Suggest using past coping strategies.
c. Determine external coping strategies.
d. Determine what the patient perceives as stressful.
ANS: A
Nurses can help patients deal with stress by identifying the patients usual methods of coping or adapting.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 95 OBJ: 4
TOP: Adaptation KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

23. How can a nurse assist when a caregiver is frustrated and is complaining of being overwhelmed? (Select all that apply.)
a. Taking over the care
b. Referring the caregiver to a support group
c. Seeking assistance from a home health agency
d. Listening to the caregivers concerns
e. Assisting in making a daily schedule for the caregiver to follow
ANS: B, C, D, E
Taking over the care is not a permanent solution. Seeking a helpful support group, listening, seeking assistance from a home health agency, and making a daily schedule to help the caregiver identify duties that can be put aside are all helpful in coping with stress.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 99 OBJ: 8
TOP: Coping with Stress KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

24. What should the nurse explain as reasons why a person who is ill should be allowed to adopt the sick role. (Select all that apply.)
a. Exempt from usual roles
b. Seeking attention
c. Expected to get well
d. Actively seeking remedy
e. Using illness as excuse for failure
ANS: A, C, D
The sick role allows the patient the time to recover by exempting him or her from the usual obligations with the expectation that the patient will seek remedy and recover.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 97 OBJ: 7
TOP: Sick Role KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Coping and Adaptation

25. Why are nontraditional remedies becoming popular? (Select all that apply.)
a. Many remedies are available without a prescription.
b. Remedies do not interfere with traditional medications.
c. Treatment modalities can be self-taught.
d. Practitioners charge lower fees than medical physicians.
e. Remedies are noninvasive.
ANS: A, C, D, E
Alternative remedies are frequently available without a prescription and can be self-taught. The fees of the practitioners are much less than physicians, and the remedies are not invasive. The remedies may conflict with regular medications, however.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 99-100 OBJ: 9
TOP: Alternative Remedies KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

COMPLETION

26. A tendency of biologic systems to maintain stability of the internal environment while continually adjusting to changes is _____.

ANS:
homeostasis
The term is derived from Greek and describes the tendency of the body to maintain stability.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 95 OBJ: 4
TOP: Homeostasis KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

27. The term that a nurse uses to refer to persons who fail to maintain treatment protocols is _____.

ANS:
nonadherence
Nonadherence is a term that describes the patient who fails to maintain treatment protocols. The term is less negative than the earlier term, noncompliant.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 96 OBJ: 5
TOP: No Adherence KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

28. A nurse explains that a patient who is taking Valium for a nervous disorder but is also taking passion flower tablets to combat symptoms is using a combination of traditional and alternative therapy that is called _____.

ANS:
complementary
Complementary therapy is the use of traditional medication with the addition of nonprescription herbs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 99 OBJ: 9
TOP: Complementary Therapies KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological Therapies

29. A nurse describes yoga as an alternative therapy that creates a(n) _____ intervention.

ANS:
mindbody
Yoga is an alternative therapy that creates a mindbody intervention. Some individuals can attain a trancelike status.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 100 OBJ: 9
TOP: Yoga KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

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