Chapter 08: Health Promotion of the Newborn and Family Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 08: Health Promotion of the Newborn and Family

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which is the most critical physiologic change required of the newborn?

a.

Closure of fetal shunts in the heart

b.

Stabilization of fluid and electrolytes

c.

Body-temperature maintenance

d.

Onset of breathing

ANS: D

The onset of breathing is the most immediate and critical physiologic change required for transition to extrauterine life. Factors that interfere with this normal transition increase fetal asphyxia, which is a condition of hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. This affects the fetuss adjustment to extrauterine life. Closure of fetal shunts in the heart, stabilization of fluid and electrolytes, and body-temperature maintenance are important changes that must occur in the transition to extrauterine life, but breathing and the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide must come first.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 186

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Which is a function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the newborn?

a.

Provides ready source of calories in the newborn period

b.

Insulates the body against lowered environmental temperature

c.

Protects the newborn from injury during the birth process

d.

Generates heat for distribution to other parts of body

ANS: D

Brown fat is a unique source of heat for the newborn. It has a larger content of mitochondrial cytochromes and a greater capacity for heat production through intensified metabolic activity than does ordinary adipose tissue. Heat generated in brown fat is distributed to other parts of the body by the blood. It is effective in heat production only. The newborn has a thin layer of subcutaneous fat, which does not provide for conservation of heat. Brown fat is located in superficial areas such as between the scapulae, around the neck, in the axillae, and behind the sternum. These areas would not protect the newborn from injury during the birth process.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 186

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. Which characteristic is representative of the newborns gastrointestinal tract?

a.

Stomach capacity is approximately 90 ml.

b.

Peristaltic waves are relatively slow.

c.

Overproduction of pancreatic amylase occurs.

d.

Intestines are shorter in relation to body size.

ANS: A

Newborns require frequent small feedings because their stomach capacity is approximately 90 ml. Peristaltic waves are rapid. A deficiency of pancreatic lipase limits the absorption of fats. Newborns intestines are longer in relation to body size than those of an adult.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 187

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. The nurse notes the first stool of a newborn is black and tarry. Which term is used to describe this type of stool?

a.

Meconium

b.

Transitional

c.

Miliaria

d.

Milk stool

ANS: A

Meconium is composed of amniotic fluid and its constituents, intestinal secretions, shed mucosal cells, and possibly blood. It is the newborns first stool. Transitional stools usually appear by the third day after the beginning of feeding. They are usually greenish brown to yellowish brown, thin, and less sticky than meconium. Miliaria are distended sweat glands that appear as minute vesicles, primarily on the face. Milk stool usually occurs by the fourth day. The appearance varies, depending on whether the neonate is breast-fed or formula-fed.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 187

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. A nurse notes that a 12-hour-old newborn has not had the first meconium stool. The nurse documents this finding and continues to monitor the newborn because, in term newborns, the first meconium stool occurs within how many hours of birth?

a.

6 to 8

b.

8 to 12

c.

12 to 24

d.

24 to 48

ANS: D

The first meconium stool should occur within the first 24 to 48 hours. It may be delayed up to 7 days in very lowbirth-weight newborns. Although it may occur earlier, the expected range is the first 24 to 48 hours of life.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 187

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. A nurse is doing an assessment on a newborn. Which is characteristic of a newborns vision at birth and an expected finding during the assessment?

a.

Ciliary muscles are mature.

b.

Blink reflex is absent.

c.

Tear glands function.

d.

Pupils react to light.

ANS: D

Although at birth the eye is still structurally incomplete, the pupils do react to light. The ciliary muscles are immature, limiting the eyes ability to focus on an object for any length of time. The blink reflex is responsive to minimal stimulus. The tear glands do not begin to function until ages 2 to 4 weeks.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 188

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. The Apgar score of a newborn 5 minutes after birth is 8. Which is the nurses best interpretation of this?

a.

Resuscitation is likely to be needed.

b.

Adjustment to extrauterine life is adequate.

c.

Additional scoring in 5 more minutes is needed.

d.

Maternal sedation or analgesia contributed to the low score.

ANS: B

The Apgar reflects the newborns status in five areas: heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. Scores of 7 to 10 indicate an absence of difficulty adjusting to extrauterine life. Scores of 0 to 3 indicate severe distress, and scores of 4 to 6 indicate moderate difficulty. The Apgar score is not used to determine the newborns need for resuscitation at birth. All newborns are rescored at 5 minutes. The newborn does not have a low score.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 189

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. The nurse is presenting an in-service session on assessing gestational age in newborns. Which information should be included?

a.

The newborns length and weight are the most accurate indicators of gestational age.

b.

The newborns Apgar score and the mothers estimated date of confinement (EDC) are combined to determine gestational age.

c.

The newborns posture at rest and arm recoil are two physical signs used to determine gestational age.

d.

The newborns chest circumference compared to the head circumference is the determinant for gestational age.

ANS: C

With the newborn quiet and in a supine position, the degree of flexion in the arms and legs and the arm recoil can be used to help determine gestational age. Length, weight, and the chest/head circumference reflect the newborns size and weight, which vary according to race and gender. Birth weight alone is a poor indicator of gestational age and fetal maturity. The Apgar score is an indication of the newborns adjustment to extrauterine life, and the mothers EDC is of no importance in determining gestational age.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 189

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. The nurse is assessing a 3-day-old, breast-fed newborn who weighed 7 pounds, 8 ounces at birth. The newborns mother is now concerned that the newborn weighs 6 pounds, 15 ounces. Which is the most appropriate nursing intervention?

a.

Recommend supplemental feedings of formula.

b.

Explain that this weight loss is within normal limits.

c.

Assess child further to determine cause of excessive weight loss.

d.

Encourage mother to express breast milk for bottle feeding the newborn.

ANS: B

The newborn normally loses about 10% of the birth weight by age 3 or 4 days. The birth weight is usually regained by the tenth day of life. Because this is an expected occurrence, no further action is needed. The mother should be taught about normal newborn feeding and growing patterns.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 192

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. Why are rectal temperatures not recommended in the newborn?

a.

They are inaccurate.

b.

They do not reflect core body temperature.

c.

They can cause perforation of rectal mucosa.

d.

They take too long to obtain an accurate reading.

ANS: C

Rectal temperatures are avoided in the newborn. If done incorrectly, the insertion of a thermometer into the rectum can perforate the mucosa. Rectal temperatures, if taken correctly, are considered an accurate reflection of core body temperature. The inherent risks and intrusive nature limit the use. The time it takes to determine body temperature is related to the equipment used, not the route only.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 192

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. The nurse should expect the apical heart rate of a stabilized newborn to be in which range?

a.

60 to 80 beats/min

b.

80 to 100 beats/min

c.

120 to 140 beats/min

d.

160 to 180 beats/min

ANS: C

The pulse rate of the newborn varies with periods of reactivity. Usually the pulse rate is between 120 and 140 beats/min; 60 to 100 beats/min is too slow for a neonate and 160 to 180 beats/min is too fast for a neonate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 193

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. A nurse is palpating a newborns fontanels. The nurse documents the anterior fontanel is which shape?

a.

Circle

b.

Triangle

c.

Square

d.

Diamond

ANS: D

The anterior fontanel is diamond-shaped and measures from barely palpable to 4 to 5 cm. Neither of the fontanels is a circle or a square. The triangle is the shape of the posterior fontanel.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 196

TOP: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. Which is the name of the suture separating the parietal bones at the top center of a newborns head?

a.

Frontal

b.

Coronal

c.

Sagittal

d.

Occipital

ANS: C

The sagittal suture separates the parietal bones on top of the newborns head. The frontal suture separates the frontal bones. The coronal suture is said to crown the head. There is no occipital suture. The lambdoid suture is at the margin of the parietal and occipital bones.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 195

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. In a newborns eyes, strabismus is a normal finding because of:

a.

congenital cataracts.

b.

lack of binocularity.

c.

absence of red reflex.

d.

inability of pupil to react to light.

ANS: B

Newborns are unable to focus their eyes on an object. Binocularity does not develop until ages 3 to 4 months. Congenital cataracts, absence of red reflex, and inability of pupil to react to light are not normal findings and need further evaluation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 197

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. A nurse has determined that a newborns respiratory breathing is within a normal range. How should the nurse document this finding?

a.

Irregular, abdominal, 30 to 60 breaths/min

b.

Regular, abdominal, 25 to 35 breaths/min

c.

Regular, noisy, 35 to 45 breaths/min

d.

Irregular, quiet, 45 to 55 breaths/min

ANS: A

The respirations of a normal newborn are irregular and abdominal, with a rate of 30 to 60 breaths/min. Newborn respirations are irregular. Pauses in respiration less than 20 seconds in duration are considered normal. The newborn is an abdominal breather with a wider range of respiratory rates.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 197

TOP: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. When doing the first assessment of a male newborn, the nurse notes that the scrotum is large, edematous, and pendulous. This should be interpreted as a(n):

a.

normal finding.

b.

hydrocele.

c.

absence of testes.

d.

inguinal hernia.

ANS: A

A large, edematous, and pendulous scrotum in a term newborn, especially in those born in a breech position, is a normal finding. A hydrocele is fluid in the scrotum, usually unilateral, which usually resolves within a few months. The presence or absence of testes would be determined on palpation of the scrotum and inguinal canal. Absence of testes may be an indication of ambiguous genitalia. An inguinal hernia may be present at birth. It is more easily detected when the child is crying.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 199

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. Stroking the newborns cheek along the side of the mouth causes the newborn to turn the head toward that side and begin to suck. This is which reflex?

a.

Perez

b.

Sucking

c.

Rooting

d.

Extrusion

ANS: C

Stroking the newborns cheek along the side of the mouth causes the newborn to turn the head toward that side and begin to suck is a description of the rooting reflex, which usually disappears by ages 3 to 4 months but may persist for up to 12 months. The Perez reflex involves stroking the newborns back when prone; the child flexes extremities, elevating head and pelvis. It disappears at ages 4 to 6 months. The newborn begins strong sucking movements in response to circumoral stimulation. The reflex persists throughout infancy, even without stimulation. Newborns force their tongues outward, when the tongue is touched or depressed. This reflex usually disappears by age 4 months.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 197-198

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. Which statement best represents the first stage of the first period of reactivity in the newborn?

a.

It begins when the newborn awakes from a deep sleep.

b.

It ends when the amount of respiratory mucus has decreased.

c.

It is an excellent time to acquaint the parents with the newborn.

d.

It is an excellent time for mother to sleep and recover.

ANS: C

During the first period of reactivity, the newborn is alert, cries vigorously, may suck the fist greedily, and appears interested in the environment. The newborns eyes are usually wide open, suggesting that this is an excellent opportunity for mother, father, and child to see each other. The second period of reactivity begins when the newborn awakens from a deep sleep. The second period of reactivity ends when the amount of respiratory mucus has decreased. The mother should sleep and recover during the second stage, when the newborn is sleeping.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 201

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. The nurse observes that a new mother avoids making eye contact with her newborn. The nurse should perform which action?

a.

Examine newborns eyes for ability to focus.

b.

Assess for other attachment behaviors.

c.

Recognize this as a common reaction in new mothers.

d.

Ask mother why she wont look at newborn.

ANS: B

Attachment behaviors are thought to indicate the formation of emotional bonds between the newborn and the mother. The mothers failure to make eye contact with her newborn may indicate difficulties with the formation of emotional bonds. The nurse should perform a more thorough assessment. Newborns do not have binocularity and cannot focus. It is uncommon for a mother to avoid making eye contact with her newborn and it is confrontational to ask why; this would put the mother in a defensive position.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 202

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. At the time of birth, what is the grayish white, cheeselike substance that normally covers the newborns skin called?

a.

Miliaria

b.

Meconium

c.

Amniotic fluid

d.

Vernix caseosa

ANS: D

The grayish white, cheeselike substance that normally covers the newborns skin is the vernix caseosa. Miliaria are distended sweat glands that appear as minute vesicles. Meconium is the newborns first stool. Amniotic fluid is produced in utero.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 194

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

21. What are distended sebaceous glands that appear as tiny white papules on cheeks, chin, and nose in the newborn period called?

a.

Milia

b.

Lanugo

c.

Mongolian spots

d.

Cutis marmorata

ANS: A

Distended sebaceous glands that appear as tiny white papules on cheeks, chin, and nose in the newborn period are milia, which are common variations found in newborns. Lanugo is fine downy hair. Mongolian spots are irregular areas of deep blue pigmentation, usually in the sacral and gluteal areas. Cutis marmorata is transient mottling when the newborn is exposed to decreased body temperatures.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 203

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

22. Where would nonpathologic cyanosis normally be present in the newborn shortly after birth?

a.

Feet and hands

b.

Bridge of nose

c.

Circumoral area

d.

Mucous membranes

ANS: A

Cyanosis of the feet and hands is termed acrocyanosis and is a usual finding in newborns. Cyanosis present at the bridge of the nose, the circumoral area, and the mucous membranes is a potential sign of distress or major abnormality.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 199

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

23. What term describes irregular areas of deep blue pigmentation seen predominantly in newborns of African, Asian, Native American, or Hispanic descent?

a.

Acrocyanosis

b.

Erythema toxicum

c.

Mongolian spots

d.

Harlequin color changes

ANS: C

Irregular areas of deep blue pigmentation seen predominantly in newborns of African, Asian, Native American, or Hispanic descent are Mongolian spots, which are common variations found in newborns of African, Asian, Native American, or Hispanic descent. Acrocyanosis is cyanosis of the hands and feet that is a usual finding in newborns. Erythema toxicum is a pink papular with vesicles that may appear in 24 to 48 hours and resolve after several days. Harlequin color changes are clearly outlined areas of color change. As the newborn lies on one side, the lower half of the body becomes pink and the upper half is pale.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 203

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24. The nurse observes flaring of nares in a newborn. This should be interpreted as:

a.

nasal occlusion.

b.

sign of respiratory distress.

c.

common response to sneezing.

d.

snuffles of congenital syphilis.

ANS: B

Nasal flaring is an indication of respiratory distress. A nasal occlusion would prevent the child from breathing through the nose. Because newborns are obligatory nose breathers, this would require immediate referral. Sneezing and thin white mucus drainage are common in newborns and are not related to nasal flaring. Snuffles are indicated by a thick, bloody, nasal discharge without sneezing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 207

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

25. A nurse has completed an assessment on a newborn. Which finding is considered abnormal?

a.

Nystagmus

b.

Profuse drooling

c.

Dark green or black stools

d.

Slight vaginal reddish discharge

ANS: B

Profuse drooling or salivation is a potential sign of a major abnormality. Newborns with esophageal atresia cannot swallow their oral secretions, resulting in excessive drooling. Nystagmus is an involuntary movement of the eyes. This is a common variation in newborns. Meconium, the first stool of newborns, is dark green or black. Pseudomenstruation may be present in normal newborns. This is a blood-tinged or mucoid vaginal discharge.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 204

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

26. Which is most important in the immediate care of the newborn?

a.

Maintain patent airway.

b.

Maintain stable body temperature.

c.

Administer prophylactic eye care.

d.

Establish identification of mother and baby.

ANS: A

Maintaining a patent airway is the primary objective in the care of the newborn. The nurse uses a bulb syringe to clear the pharynx, followed by the nasal passages. Conserving the newborns body heat and maintaining a stable body temperature are important, but a patent airway must be established first. These are important functions, but physiologic stability is the first priority in the immediate care of the newborn.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 206

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

27. The nurse is careful to place the incubator away from cold windows or air-conditioning units. This is to conserve the newborns body heat by preventing heat loss through:

a.

radiation.

b.

conduction.

c.

convection.

d.

evaporation.

ANS: A

Radiation is the loss of heat to a cooler solid object. The cold air from either the window or the air conditioner will cool the incubator walls and subsequently the newborns body. Conduction involves the loss of heat from the body because of direct contact of the skin with a cooler object. Convection is the loss of heat similar to conduction but aided by air currents. Evaporation is the loss of heat through moisture. The newborn should be quickly dried of the amniotic fluid.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 207

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

28. Parents of a newborn ask the nurse why vitamin K is being administered. The nurse accurately responds by explaining phytonadione (vitamin K) is administered to the newborn to:

a.

prevent bleeding.

b.

enhance immune response.

c.

prevent bacterial infection.

d.

maintain nutritional status.

ANS: A

Vitamin K is administered to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Vitamin K is synthesized by the intestinal flora. Because the newborns intestine is sterile and breast milk is low in vitamin K, a supplemental source must be supplied. The purpose is not to enhance the immune response, prevent bacterial infection, or maintain nutritional status. The major function of vitamin K is to catalyze the liver synthesis of prothrombin, which is needed for blood clotting and coagulation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 208

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

29. In the newborn, intramuscular phytonadione (vitamin K) is administered into which muscle?

a.

Deltoid

b.

Dorsogluteal

c.

Vastus medialis

d.

Vastus lateralis

ANS: D

The vastus lateralis is the traditionally recommended injection site. The deltoid and dorsogluteal sites are not recommended for the vitamin K administration. The ventrogluteal may be used as an alternative site to the vastus lateralis. The vastus medialis is not used for intramuscular injections.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 208

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

30. Recommendations for hepatitis B (HBV) vaccine include which statement?

a.

First dose is given between birth and age 2 days.

b.

First dose is given between ages 12 and 15 months.

c.

It is not recommended for neonates who are at low risk for hepatitis B.

d.

It is not recommended for neonates whose mothers are positive for HBV surface antigen.

ANS: A

To reduce the incidence of HBV in children and its serious consequences in adulthood, the first of three doses is recommended soon after birth and before hospital discharge. Between 12 and 15 months is too late. The recommendation is for the first dose to be given soon after birth. It is recommended for all newborns. Newborns born to mothers who are HBV surface antigen positive should be given the vaccine within 12 hours of birth. They also should be given hepatitis B immune globulin.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 209

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

31. A newborn is being discharged at age 48 hours. The parents ask how the newborn should be bathed this first week home. The nurses best recommendation is to bathe the newborn:

a.

daily with mild soap.

b.

daily with an alkaline soap.

c.

two or three times this week with plain water.

d.

two or three times this week with mild soap.

ANS: C

The newborn newborns skin has a pH of approximately 5. This acidic pH has a bacteriostatic effect. The parents should be taught to use only plain warm water for the bath and to bathe the child no more than two or three times a week for the first 2 weeks. Soaps are alkaline. They will alter the acid mantle of the childs skin, providing a medium for bacterial growth.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 209

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

32. The stump of the umbilical cord usually separates in how many days?

a.

3

b.

10 to 14

c.

16 to 20

d.

28

ANS: B

The average cord separates in 10 to 14 days; 3 days is too soon and 16 to 28 days is too late. The cord should be separated by these times.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 211

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

33. The parents of a newborn plan to have him circumcised. They ask the nurse about pain associated with this procedure. The nurses response should be based on the knowledge that newborns:

a.

experience pain with circumcision.

b.

do not experience pain with circumcision.

c.

quickly forget about the pain of circumcision.

d.

are too young for anesthesia or analgesia.

ANS: A

Circumcision is a surgical procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that, when circumcision is performed, procedural analgesia be provided. Pain is associated with surgical procedures. The newborn experiences pain, which can be alleviated with analgesia. Topical and injected analgesia are available for this procedure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 212

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

34. Early this morning, a baby boy was circumcised by using the Plastibell method. The nurse should tell the mother that the baby can be discharged after:

a.

the newborn voids.

b.

receiving vitamin K.

c.

yellow exudate forms over glans.

d.

the Plastibell rim falls off.

ANS: A

The circumcision site is evaluated for excessive bleeding every 30 minutes for at least 2 hours. After these observations and voiding, the newborn can be discharged. The newborn should have received vitamin K soon after delivery. This normal yellow exudate will usually form on the second day after the circumcision. Discharge can occur earlier. The Plastibell rim will separate and fall off within 5 to 8 days. The newborn should be discharged before this.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 212

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

35. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that the best form of newborn nutrition is:

a.

exclusive breastfeeding until age 2 months.

b.

exclusive breastfeeding until at least age 1 year.

c.

commercially prepared newborn formula for 1 year.

d.

commercially prepared newborn formula until age 4 to 6 months.

ANS: B

The American Academy of Pediatrics has reaffirmed its position that a newborn be breastfed exclusively for the first year of life. This group also supports programs that enable women to return to work and continue breastfeeding. Two months is too short of a period. The recommendation is for breastfeeding, not commercial formula. If the mother has stopped breastfeeding, then commercial formula, rather than whole milk, should be used until age 1 year.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 214-215

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

36. Successful breastfeeding is most dependent on the:

a.

mothers socioeconomic level.

b.

size of mothers breasts.

c.

mothers desire to breastfeed.

d.

birth weight of newborn.

ANS: C

The factors that contribute to successful breastfeeding are the mothers desire to breastfeed, satisfaction with breastfeeding, and available support systems. The mothers socioeconomic level may affect the mothers need to return to work and available support systems, but with support, the mother can be successful. The size of the mothers breasts does not affect the success of breastfeeding. Very lowbirth-weight newborns may be unable to breastfeed. The mother can express milk, and it can be used for the child.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 216

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

37. A nursing intervention to promote parent-newborn attachment should include:

a.

delaying parent-newborn interactions until the second period of reactivity.

b.

explaining individual differences among newborns to the parents.

c.

alleviating stress for parents by decreasing their participation in the newborns care.

d.

allowing a newborn to fuss for a period of time before soothing by holding.

ANS: B

Nurses can positively influence the attachment of parent and child by recognizing and explaining individual differences to the parents. The nurse should emphasize the normalcy of these variations and demonstrate the uniqueness of each newborn. The nurse should facilitate parent-newborn interaction during the first period of reactivity. Decreasing the parents participation in care will interfere with parent-newborn attachment. The parents should be encouraged to hold the newborn when he or she is fussy and learn how best to soothe their newborn.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 219-220

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

38. A new mother wants to be discharged with her newborn as soon as possible. Before discharge, the nurse should make certain that:

a.

newborn has voided at least once.

b.

newborn does not spit up after feeding.

c.

jaundice, if present, appeared before 24 hours.

d.

appointment is made for home care or a primary care practitioner office visit within next 2 or 3 days.

ANS: D

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that newborns discharged early receive follow-up care within 48 hours of a short stay in either a primary practitioners office or the home. The child should void every 4 to 6 hours. Spitting up small amounts after feeding is a normal occurrence in newborns. It would not delay discharge. Jaundice within the first 24 hours of life must be evaluated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 222

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

39. Nursing interventions to maintain a patent airway in a newborn should include:

a.

sleeping in the prone (on abdomen) position.

b.

wrapping neonate as snugly as possible.

c.

positioning neonate supine while sleeping.

d.

using bulb syringe to suction as needed, suctioning nose first, and then pharynx.

ANS: C

Supine is the position recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics to prevent sudden infant death syndrome. Sleeping in the prone position is not advised because of the possible link between sleeping in the prone position and sudden infant death syndrome. The child can be wrapped snugly, but should be placed on side or back. A bulb syringe should be kept by the bedside if necessary, but the pharynx should be suctioned before the nose.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 206

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

40. A nurse is assessing the presence of expected reflexes in a newborn. Which figure depicts the elicitation of the tonic neck reflex?

a.

c.

b.

d.

ANS: B

The tonic neck reflex is elicited when the newborns head is turned to one side; the arm and leg extend on that side, and opposite arm and leg flex (fencing position). The Moro reflex is elicited by sudden jarring or change in equilibrium. The newborn has extension and abduction of extremities and fanning of fingers, with index finger and thumb forming a C shape followed by flexion and adduction of extremities; legs may weakly flex. The dancing reflex is elicited when the newborn is held so that the sole of the foot touches a hard surface; there is a reciprocal flexion and extension of the leg, simulating walking. The crawl reflex is elicited when the newborn is placed on the abdomen; the newborn makes crawling movements with arms and legs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 198

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A nurse is teaching a class on breastfeeding to expectant parents. Which are contraindications for breastfeeding? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in mother

b.

Mastitis

c.

Inverted nipples

d.

Maternal cancer therapy

e.

Twin births

ANS: A, D

HIV in the mother and maternal cancer therapy place the newborn at risk. HIV can be transmitted through breast milk, as can be the metabolites of chemotherapy. Mastitis, inverted nipples, and twin births are not contraindications.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 215

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. A nurse is conducting discharge teaching for parents of a newborn. The nurse instructs the parents on which method of care for the umbilical cord? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Covering the cord with the diaper

b.

Cleansing the cord with water daily

c.

Keeping the cord area free of urine and stool

d.

Monitoring for signs of infection

e.

Applying bacitracin ointment to the cord daily

ANS: B, C, D

Parents are taught to keep the cord area free of urine and stool, cleanse daily with water if needed, and observe for any signs of infection. The diaper should not cover the cord. The diaper is folded in front below the cord to avoid irritation and wetness on the site. Bacitracin ointment should not be applied because the cord area should be kept dry, not moist.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 211

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. A nurse is planning a teaching session for parents of a newborn who plan to bottle-feed. Which should the nurse include in the teaching session? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Limiting the feeding to 15 minutes

b.

Propping the bottle for night feedings is acceptable

c.

Proper technique for cleansing the bottles and nipples

d.

Feeding infant on alternate sides of the lap

e.

Use of bottled water without fluoride should be avoided to mix powdered formula.

ANS: C, D, E

Parents preparing infant formula must wash their hands well and then wash all of the equipment used to prepare the formula (including the cans of formula) with soap and water. Sterilizing bottles and nipples 5 minutes in boiling water may be required when a hot-water dishwasher is not available. Similar to breastfed infants, bottle-fed infants need to be held on alternate sides of the lap to expose them to different stimuli. Bottled water should not be considered sterile unless otherwise indicated; bottled water without fluoride should be avoided for mixing infant formula. Propping the bottle during infant feedings at night time could cause the infant to aspirate. The feeding should not be hurried. Even though they may suck vigorously for the first 5 minutes and seem to be satisfied, infants should be allowed to continue sucking. Infants need at least 2 hours of sucking a day. If there are six feedings per day, then about 20 minutes of sucking at each feeding provide for oral gratification.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 217-218

TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. A nurse is performing a gestational age assessment on a newborn. The nurse determines that the newborn is term if which findings are assessed? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Posture with fully flexed arms and legs

b.

Arm recoil brisk

c.

Square window at 90 degrees

d.

Scarf sign of elbow crossing over the midline

e.

Popliteal angle less than 90 degrees

ANS: A, B, E

A term newborn will have a posture that is fully flexed (arms and legs) and a brisk arm recoil. The popliteal angle in a term infant is less than 90 degrees. The square window should show no angle, the hand should lie flat on the ventral surface of the arm in the term newborn. In a term newborn, the elbow should not cross the midline during assessment of the scarf sign.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 190

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

SHORT ANSWER

1. A nurse is performing a 1-minute Apgar on a newborn. The nurse assesses that the newborn has a heart rate over 100, a good strong cry, some flexion of extremities, sneezes, and has a pink body with blue extremities. The nurse records what number as the Apgar? Record your answer in a whole number.

ANS:

8

0

1

2

Heart rate

Absent

Slow, <100 beats/min

>100 beats/min

Respiratory effort

Absent

Irregular, slow, weak cry

Good, strong cry

Muscle tone

Limp

Some flexion of extremities

Well flexed

Reflex irritability

No response

Grimace

Cry, sneeze

Color

Blue, pale

Body pink, extremities blue

Completely pink

The newborn gets 2 for heart rate, 2 for respiratory effort, 1 for muscle tone, 2 for reflex irritability and 1 for color = 8

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 189

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. A nurse is preparing to administer a prescribed phytonadione (vitamin K) injection 0.5 mg intramuscularly to a newborn. The phytonadione (vitamin K) ampule is labeled 1 mg equals 0.5 ml. How many milliliters will the nurse administer? Record your answer using two decimal places.

ANS:

0.25

Formula:

Desired

Available Volume =

0.5 mg

1 mg 0.5 mL = 0.25 mL

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 208

TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

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