Chapter 08: Nursing Care of the Family During Pregnancy Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 08: Nursing Care of the Family During Pregnancy

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse caring for a newly pregnant woman would advise her that ideally prenatal care should begin:

a.

Before the first missed menstrual period.

b.

After the first missed menstrual period.

c.

After the second missed menstrual period.

d.

After the third missed menstrual period.

ANS: B

Prenatal care ideally should begin soon after the first missed menstrual period. Regular prenatal visits offer opportunities to ensure the health of the expectant mother and her infant.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 186

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Prenatal testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is recommended for:

a.

All women, regardless of risk factors.

b.

A woman who has had more than one sexual partner.

c.

A woman who has had a sexually transmitted infection.

d.

A woman who is monogamous with her partner.

ANS: A

Testing for the antibody to HIV is strongly recommended for all pregnant women. A HIV test is recommended for all women, regardless of risk factors. Women who test positive for HIV can be treated, reducing the risk of transmission to the fetus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 195

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. Which symptom is considered a first-trimester warning sign and should be reported immediately by the pregnant woman to her health care provider?

a.

Nausea with occasional vomiting

c.

Urinary frequency

b.

Fatigue

d.

Vaginal bleeding

ANS: D

Signs and symptoms that must be reported include severe vomiting, fever and chills, burning on urination, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and vaginal bleeding. These symptoms may be signs of potential complications of the pregnancy. Nausea with occasional vomiting, fatigue, and urinary frequency are normal first-trimester complaints. Although they may be worrisome or annoying to the mother, they usually are not indications of pregnancy problems.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 208

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. A pregnant woman at 10 weeks of gestation jogs three or four times per week. She is concerned about the effect of exercise on the fetus. The nurse should inform her:

a.

You dont need to modify your exercising any time during your pregnancy.

b.

Stop exercising because it will harm the fetus.

c.

You may find that you need to modify your exercise to walking later in your pregnancy, around the seventh month.

d.

Jogging is too hard on your joints; switch to walking now.

ANS: C

Typically running should be replaced with walking around the seventh month of pregnancy. The nurse should inform the woman that she may need to reduce her exercise level as the pregnancy progresses. Physical activity promotes a feeling of well-being in pregnant women. It improves circulation, promotes relaxation and rest, and counteracts boredom. Simple measures should be initiated to prevent injuries, such as warm-up and stretching exercises to prepare the joints for more strenuous exercise.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 204

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. The multiple marker test is used to assess the fetus for which condition?

a.

Down syndrome

c.

Congenital cardiac abnormality

b.

Diaphragmatic hernia

d.

Anencephaly

ANS: A

The maternal serum level of alpha-fetoprotein is used to screen for Down syndrome, neural tube defects, and other chromosome anomalies. The multiple marker test would not detect diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cardiac abnormality, or anencephaly. Additional testing, such as ultrasonography and amniocentesis, would be required to diagnose these conditions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 199

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. A woman who is 32 weeks pregnant is informed by the nurse that a danger sign of pregnancy could be:

a.

Constipation.

b.

Alteration in the pattern of fetal movement.

c.

Heart palpitations.

d.

Edema in the ankles and feet at the end of the day.

ANS: B

An alteration in the pattern or amount of fetal movement may indicate fetal jeopardy. Constipation, heart palpitations, and ankle and foot edema are normal discomforts of pregnancy that occur in the second and third trimesters.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 213

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. A woman who is 14 weeks pregnant tells the nurse that she always had a glass of wine with dinner before she became pregnant. She has abstained during her first trimester and would like to know if it is safe for her to have a drink with dinner now. The nurse would tell her:

a.

Since youre in your second trimester, theres no problem with having one drink with dinner.

b.

One drink every night is too much. One drink three times a week should be fine.

c.

Since youre in your second trimester, you can drink as much as you like.

d.

Because no one knows how much or how little alcohol it takes to cause fetal problems, the best course is to abstain throughout your pregnancy.

ANS: D

The statement Because no one knows how much or how little alcohol it takes to cause fetal problems, the best course is to abstain throughout your pregnancy is accurate. A safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not yet been established. Although the consumption of occasional alcoholic beverages may not be harmful to the mother or her developing fetus, complete abstinence is strongly advised.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 208

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. A pregnant woman at 18 weeks of gestation calls the clinic to report that she has been experiencing occasional backaches of mild-to-moderate intensity. The nurse would recommend that she:

a.

Do Kegel exercises.

c.

Use a softer mattress.

b.

Do pelvic rock exercises.

d.

Stay in bed for 24 hours.

ANS: B

Pelvic rock exercises may help stretch and strengthen the abdominal and lower back muscles and relieve low back pain. Kegel exercises increase the tone of the pelvic area, not the back. A softer mattress may not provide the support needed to maintain proper alignment of the spine and may contribute to back pain. Stretching and other exercises to relieve back pain should be performed several times a day.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 211

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. For what reason would breastfeeding be contraindicated?

a.

Hepatitis B

b.

Everted nipples

c.

History of breast cancer 3 years ago

d.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive

ANS: D

Women who are HIV positive are discouraged from breastfeeding. Although hepatitis B antigen has not been shown to be transmitted through breast milk, as an added precaution infants born to HBsAg-positive women should receive the hepatitis B vaccine and immune globulin immediately after birth. Everted nipples are functional for breastfeeding. Newly diagnosed breast cancer would be a contraindication to breastfeeding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 201

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. A woman is 3 months pregnant. At her prenatal visit, she tells the nurse that she doesnt know what is happening; one minute shes happy that she is pregnant, and the next minute she cries for no reason. Which response by the nurse is most appropriate?

a.

Dont worry about it; youll feel better in a month or so.

b.

Have you talked to your husband about how you feel?

c.

Perhaps you really dont want to be pregnant.

d.

Hormonal changes during pregnancy commonly result in mood swings.

ANS: D

The statement Hormonal changes during pregnancy commonly result in mood swings is accurate and the most appropriate response by the nurse. The statement Dont worry about it; youll feel better in a month or so dismisses the clients concerns and is not the most appropriate response. Although women should be encouraged to share their feelings, Have you talked to your husband about how you feel is not the most appropriate response and does not provide the client with a rationale for the psychosocial dynamics of her pregnancy. Perhaps you really dont want to be pregnant is completely inappropriate and deleterious to the psychologic well-being of the woman. Hormonal and metabolic adaptations often cause mood swings in pregnancy. The womans responses are normal. She should be reassured about her feelings.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 187

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

11. The nurse should be aware that the partners main role in pregnancy is to:

a.

Provide financial support.

b.

Protect the pregnant woman from old wives tales.

c.

Support and nurture the pregnant woman.

d.

Make sure the pregnant woman keeps prenatal appointments.

ANS: C

The partners main role in pregnancy is to nurture the pregnant woman and respond to her feelings of vulnerability. In older societies, the man enacted the ritual couvade. Changing cultural and professional attitudes have encouraged fathers participation in the birth experience over the past 30 years.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 189

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

12. During the first trimester, a woman can expect which of the following changes in her sexual desire?

a.

An increase, because of enlarging breasts

b.

A decrease, because of nausea and fatigue

c.

No change

d.

An increase, because of increased levels of female hormones

ANS: B

Maternal physiologic changes such as breast enlargement, nausea, fatigue, abdominal changes, perineal enlargement, leukorrhea, pelvic vasocongestion, and orgasmic responses may affect sexuality and sexual expression. Libido may be depressed in the first trimester but often increases during the second and third trimesters. During pregnancy, the breasts may become enlarged and tender; this tends to interfere with coitus, decreasing the desire to engage in sexual activity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 189

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. Which behavior indicates that a woman is seeking safe passage for herself and her infant?

a.

She keeps all prenatal appointments.

c.

She drives her car slowly.

b.

She eats for two.

d.

She wears only low-heeled shoes.

ANS: A

The goal of prenatal care is to foster a safe birth for the infant and mother. Although eating properly, driving carefully, and using proper body mechanics all are healthy measures that a mother can take, obtaining prenatal care is the optimal method for providing safety for both herself and her baby.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 189

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. A 3-year-old girls mother is 6 months pregnant. What concern is this child likely to verbalize?

a.

How the baby will get out

c.

Whether her mother will die

b.

What the baby will eat

d.

What color eyes the baby has

ANS: B

By age 3 or 4, children like to be told the story of their own beginning and accept its comparison with the present pregnancy. They like to listen to the fetal heartbeat and feel the baby move. Sometimes they worry about how the baby is being fed and what it wears. School-age children take a more clinical interest in their mothers pregnancy and may want to know, How did the baby get in there? and How will it get out? Whether her mother will die does not tend to be the focus of a childs questions about the impending birth of a sibling. The babys eye color does not tend to be the focus of childrens questions about the impending birth of a sibling.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 191

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. In her work with pregnant women of various cultures, a nurse practitioner has observed various practices that seemed strange or unusual. She has learned that cultural rituals and practices during pregnancy seem to have one purpose in common. Which statement best describes that purpose?

a.

To promote family unity

b.

To ward off the evil eye

c.

To appease the gods of fertility

d.

To protect the mother and fetus during pregnancy

ANS: D

The purpose of all cultural practices is to protect the mother and fetus during pregnancy. Although many cultures consider pregnancy normal, certain practices are expected of women of all cultures to ensure a good outcome. Cultural prescriptions tell women what to do, and cultural proscriptions establish taboos. The purposes of these practices are to prevent maternal illness resulting from a pregnancy-induced imbalanced state and to protect the vulnerable fetus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 216

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. What type of cultural concern is the most likely deterrent to many women seeking prenatal care?

a.

Religion

c.

Ignorance

b.

Modesty

d.

Belief that physicians are evil

ANS: B

A concern for modesty is a deterrent to many women seeking prenatal care. For some women, exposing body parts, especially to a man, is considered a major violation of their modesty. Many cultural variations are found in prenatal care. Even if the prenatal care described is familiar to a woman, some practices may conflict with the beliefs and practices of a subculture group to which she belongs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 216

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

17. Which statement about pregnancy is accurate?

a.

A normal pregnancy lasts about 10 lunar months.

b.

A trimester is one third of a year.

c.

The prenatal period extends from fertilization to conception.

d.

The estimated date of confinement (EDC) is how long the mother will have to be bedridden after birth.

ANS: A

A lunar month lasts 28 days, or 4 weeks. Pregnancy spans 9 calendar months but 10 lunar months. A trimester is one third of a normal pregnancy, or about 13 to 14 weeks. The prenatal period covers the full course of pregnancy (prenatal means before birth). The EDC is now called the EDB, or estimated date of birth. It has nothing to do with the duration of bed rest.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 186

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. In understanding and guiding a woman through her acceptance of pregnancy, a maternity nurse should be aware that:

a.

Nonacceptance of the pregnancy very often equates to rejection of the child.

b.

Mood swings most likely are the result of worries about finances and a changed lifestyle as well as profound hormonal changes.

c.

Ambivalent feelings during pregnancy usually are seen only in emotionally immature or very young mothers.

d.

Conflicts such as not wanting to be pregnant or childrearing and career-related decisions need not be addressed during pregnancy because they will resolve themselves naturally after birth.

ANS: B

Mood swings are natural and are likely to affect every woman to some degree. A woman may dislike being pregnant, refuse to accept it, and still love and accept the child. Ambivalent feelings about pregnancy are normal for mature or immature women, younger or older women. Conflicts such as not wanting to be pregnant or childrearing and career-related decisions need to be resolved. The baby ends the pregnancy but not all the issues.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 187

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

19. With regard to a womans reordering of personal relationships during pregnancy, the maternity nurse should understand that:

a.

Because of the special motherhood bond, a womans relationship with her mother is even more important than with the father of the child.

b.

Nurses need not get involved in any sexual issues the couple has during pregnancy, particularly if they have trouble communicating them to each other.

c.

Women usually express two major relationship needs during pregnancy: feeling loved and valued and having the child accepted by the father.

d.

The womans sexual desire is likely to be highest in the first trimester because of the excitement and because intercourse is physically easier.

ANS: C

Love and support help a woman feel better about her pregnancy. The most important person to the pregnant woman is usually the father. Nurses can facilitate communication between partners about sexual matters if, as is common, they are nervous about expressing their worries and feelings. The second trimester is the time when a womans sense of well-being, along with certain physical changes, increases her desire for sex. Desire is decreased in the first and third trimesters.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 188

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

20. What represents a typical progression through the phases of a womans establishing a relationship with the fetus?

a.

Accepts the fetus as distinct from herselfaccepts the biologic fact of pregnancyhas a feeling of caring and responsibility

b.

Fantasizes about the childs gender and personalityviews the child as part of herselfbecomes introspective

c.

Views the child as part of herselfhas feelings of well-beingaccepts the biologic fact of pregnancy

d.

I am pregnant.I am going to have a baby.I am going to be a mother.

ANS: D

The woman first centers on herself as pregnant, then on the baby as an entity separate from herself, and then on her responsibilities as a mother. The expressions, I am pregnant, I am going to have a baby, and I am going to be a mother sum up the progression through the three phases.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 189

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

21. As relates to the fathers acceptance of the pregnancy and preparation for childbirth, the maternity nurse should know that:

a.

The father goes through three phases of acceptance of his own.

b.

The fathers attachment to the fetus cannot be as strong as that of the mother because it does not start until after birth.

c.

In the last 2 months of pregnancy, most expectant fathers suddenly get very protective of their established lifestyle and resist making changes to the home.

d.

Typically men remain ambivalent about fatherhood right up to the birth of their child.

ANS: A

A father typically goes through three phases of development to reach acceptance of fatherhood: the announcement phase, the moratorium phase, and the focusing phase. The father-child attachment can be as strong as the mother-child relationship and can also begin during pregnancy. In the last 2 months of pregnancy, many expectant fathers work hard to improve the environment of the home for the child. Typically the expectant fathers ambivalence ends by the first trimester, and he progresses to adjusting to the reality of the situation and then to focusing on his role.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 189

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

22. With regard to the initial visit with a client who is beginning prenatal care, nurses should be aware that:

a.

The first interview is a relaxed, get-acquainted affair in which nurses gather some general impressions.

b.

If nurses observe handicapping conditions, they should be sensitive and not inquire about them because the client will do that in her own time.

c.

Nurses should be alert to the appearance of potential parenting problems, such as depression or lack of family support.

d.

Because of legal complications, nurses should not ask about illegal drug use; that is left to physicians.

ANS: C

Besides these potential problems, nurses need to be alert to the womans attitude toward health care. The initial interview needs to be planned, purposeful, and focused on specific content. A lot of ground must be covered. Nurses must be sensitive to special problems, but they do need to inquire because discovering individual needs is important. People with chronic or handicapping conditions forget to mention them because they have adapted to them. Getting information on drug use is important and can be done confidentially. Actual testing for drug use requires the clients consent.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 194

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

23. With regard to the initial physical examination of a woman beginning prenatal care, maternity nurses should be cognizant of:

a.

Only women who show physical signs or meet the sociologic profile should be assessed for physical abuse.

b.

The woman should empty her bladder before the pelvic examination is performed.

c.

The distribution, amount, and quality of body hair are of no particular importance.

d.

The size of the uterus is discounted in the initial examination.

ANS: B

An empty bladder facilitates the examination; this is also an opportunity to get a urine sample easily for a number of tests. All women should be assessed for a history of physical abuse, particularly because the likelihood of abuse increases during pregnancy. Noting body hair is important because body hair reflects nutritional status, endocrine function, and hygiene. Particular attention is paid to the size of the uterus because it is an indication of the duration of gestation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 195

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24. With regard to follow-up visits for women receiving prenatal care, nurses should be aware that:

a.

The interview portions become more intensive as the visits become more frequent over the course of the pregnancy.

b.

Monthly visits are scheduled for the first trimester, every 2 weeks for the second trimester, and weekly for the third trimester.

c.

During the abdominal examination, the nurse should be alert for supine hypotension.

d.

For pregnant women, a systolic blood pressure (BP) of 130 and a diastolic BP of 80 is sufficient to be considered hypertensive.

ANS: C

The woman lies on her back during the abdominal examination, possibly compressing the vena cava and aorta, which can cause a decrease in blood pressure and a feeling of faintness. The interview portion of follow-up examinations is less extensive than in the initial prenatal visits, during which so much new information must be gathered. Monthly visits are routinely scheduled for the first and second trimesters; visits increase to every 2 weeks at week 28 and to once a week at week 36. For pregnant women hypertension is defined as a systolic BP of 140 or greater and a diastolic BP of 90 or greater.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 197

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

25. While teaching the expectant mother about personal hygiene during pregnancy, maternity nurses should be aware that:

a.

Tub bathing is permitted even in late pregnancy unless membranes have ruptured.

b.

The perineum should be wiped from back to front.

c.

Bubble bath and bath oils are permissible because they add an extra soothing and cleansing action to the bath.

d.

Expectant mothers should use specially treated soap to cleanse the nipples.

ANS: A

The main danger from taking baths is falling in the tub. The perineum should be wiped from front to back. Bubble baths and bath oils should be avoided because they may irritate the urethra. Soap, alcohol, ointments, and tinctures should not be used to cleanse the nipples because they remove protective oils. Warm water is sufficient.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 200

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

26. The nurse should have knowledge of the purpose of the pinch test. It is used to:

a.

Check the sensitivity of the nipples.

b.

Determine whether the nipple is everted or inverted.

c.

Calculate the adipose buildup in the abdomen.

d.

See whether the fetus has become inactive.

ANS: B

The pinch test is used to determine whether the nipple is everted or inverted. Nipples must be everted to allow breastfeeding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 201

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

27. To provide the patient with accurate information about dental care during pregnancy, maternity nurses should be aware that:

a.

Dental care can be dropped from the priority list because the woman has enough to worry about and is getting a lot of calcium anyway.

b.

Dental surgery, in particular, is contraindicated because of the psychologic stress it engenders.

c.

If dental treatment is necessary, the woman will be most comfortable with it in the second trimester.

d.

Dental care interferes with the expectant mothers need to practice conscious relaxation.

ANS: C

The second trimester is best for dental treatment because that is when the woman will be able to sit most comfortably in the dental chair. Dental care such as brushing with fluoride toothpaste is especially important during pregnancy because nausea during pregnancy may lead to poor oral hygiene. Emergency dental surgery is permissible, but the mother must clearly understand the risks and benefits. Conscious relaxation is useful, and it may even help the woman get through any dental appointments; it is not a reason to avoid them.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 202

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

28. When discussing work and travel during pregnancy with a pregnant patient, nurses should instruct them that:

a.

Women should sit for as long as possible and cross their legs at the knees from time to time for exercise.

b.

Women should avoid seat belts and shoulder restraints in the car because they press on the fetus.

c.

Metal detectors at airport security checkpoints can harm the fetus if the woman passes through them a number of times.

d.

While working or traveling in a car or on a plane, women should arrange to walk around at least every hour or so.

ANS: D

Periodic walking helps prevent thrombophlebitis. Pregnant women should avoid sitting or standing for long periods and crossing the legs at the knees. Pregnant women must wear lap belts and shoulder restraints. The most common injury to the fetus comes from injury to the mother. Metal detectors at airport security checkpoints do not harm fetuses.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 207

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

29. With regard to medications, herbs, shots, and other substances normally encountered by pregnant women, the maternity nurse should be aware that:

a.

Both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs that otherwise are harmless can be made hazardous by metabolic deficiencies of the fetus.

b.

The greatest danger of drug-caused developmental deficits in the fetus is seen in the final trimester.

c.

Killed-virus vaccines (e.g., tetanus) should not be given during pregnancy, but live-virus vaccines (e.g., measles) are permissible.

d.

No convincing evidence exists that secondhand smoke is potentially dangerous to the fetus.

ANS: A

Both prescription and OTC drugs that otherwise are harmless can be made hazardous by metabolic deficiencies of the fetus. This is especially true for new medications and combinations of drugs. The greatest danger of drug-caused developmental defects exists in the interval from fertilization through the first trimester, when a woman may not realize that she is pregnant. Live-virus vaccines should be part of postpartum care; killed-virus vaccines may be administered during pregnancy. Secondhand smoke is associated with fetal growth restriction and increases in infant mortality.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 207

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

30. Which statement about multifetal pregnancy is inaccurate?

a.

The expectant mother often develops anemia because the fetuses have a greater demand for iron.

b.

Twin pregnancies come to term with the same frequency as single pregnancies.

c.

The mother should be counseled to increase her nutritional intake and gain more weight.

d.

Backache and varicose veins often are more pronounced.

ANS: B

Twin pregnancies often end in prematurity. Serious efforts should be made to bring the pregnancy to term. A woman with a multifetal pregnancy often develops anemia, suffers more or worse backache, and needs to gain more weight. Counseling is needed to help her adjust to these conditions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 219

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

31. The phenomenon of someone other than the mother-to-be experiencing pregnancy-like symptoms such as nausea and weight gain applies to the:

a.

Mother of the pregnant woman.

c.

Sister of the pregnant woman.

b.

Couples teenage daughter.

d.

Expectant father.

ANS: D

An expectant fathers experiencing pregnancy-like symptoms is called the couvade syndrome.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 189

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

32. In response to requests by the U.S. Public Health Service for new models of prenatal care, an innovative new approach to prenatal care known as centering pregnancy was developed. Which statement would accurately apply to the centering model of care?

a.

Group sessions begin with the first prenatal visit.

b.

At each visit, blood pressure, weight, and urine dipsticks are obtained by the nurse.

c.

Eight to 12 women are placed in gestational-age cohort groups.

d.

Outcomes are similar to those of traditional prenatal care.

ANS: C

Gestational age cohorts comprise the groups, with approximately 8 to 12 women in each group. This group remains intact throughout the pregnancy. Individual follow-up visits are scheduled as needed. Group sessions begin at 12 to 16 weeks of gestation and end with an early postpartum visit. Before group sessions the client has an individual assessment, physical examination, and history. At the beginning of each group meeting, clients measure their own blood pressure, weight, and urine dips and enter these in their record. Fetal heart rate assessment and fundal height are obtained by the nurse. Results evaluating this approach have been very promising. In a study of adolescent clients, there was a decrease in low-birth-weight infants and an increase in breastfeeding rates.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 193

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

33. While you are assessing the vital signs of a pregnant woman in her third trimester, the patient complains of feeling faint, dizzy, and agitated. Which nursing intervention is appropriate?

a.

Have the patient stand up and retake her blood pressure.

b.

Have the patient sit down and hold her arm in a dependent position.

c.

Have the patient lie supine for 5 minutes and recheck her blood pressure on both arms.

d.

Have the patient turn to her left side and recheck her blood pressure in 5 minutes.

ANS: D

Blood pressure is affected by maternal position during pregnancy. The supine position may cause occlusion of the vena cava and descending aorta. Turning the pregnant woman to a lateral recumbent position alleviates pressure on the blood vessels and quickly corrects supine hypotension. Pressures are significantly higher when the patient is standing. This option causes an increase in systolic and diastolic pressures. The arm should be supported at the same level of the heart. The supine position may cause occlusion of the vena cava and descending aorta, creating hypotension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 195

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

34. Signs and symptoms that a woman should report immediately to her health care provider include (Select all that apply):

a.

Vaginal bleeding.

b.

Rupture of membranes.

c.

Heartburn accompanied by severe headache.

d.

Decreased libido.

e.

Urinary frequency.

ANS: A, B, C

Vaginal bleeding, rupture of membranes, and severe headaches all are signs of potential complications in pregnancy. Clients should be advised to report these signs to the health care provider. Decreased libido and urinary frequency are common discomforts of pregnancy that do not require immediate health care interventions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 208

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning, Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

35. A woman has just moved to the United States from Mexico. She is 3 months pregnant and has arrived for her first prenatal visit. During her assessment interview, you discover that she has not had any immunizations. Which immunizations should she receive at this point in her pregnancy (Select all that apply)?

a.

Tetanus

b.

Diphtheria

c.

Chickenpox

d.

Rubella

e.

Hepatitis B

ANS: A, B, E

Immunization with live or attenuated live viruses is contraindicated during pregnancy because of potential teratogenicity. Vaccines consisting of killed viruses may be used. Immunizations that may be administered during pregnancy include tetanus, diphtheria, recombinant hepatitis B, and rabies vaccines. Live-virus vaccines include those for measles (rubeola and rubella), chickenpox, and mumps.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 208

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MATCHING

All pregnant women should be instructed to recognize and report potential complications for each trimester of pregnancy. Match the sign or symptom with a possible cause.

a.

Severe vomiting in early pregnancy

d.

Decreased fetal movement

b.

Epigastric pain in late pregnancy

e.

Glycosuria

c.

Severe backache and flank pain

36. Fetal jeopardy or intrauterine fetal death

37. Kidney infection or stones

38. Gestational diabetes

39. Hyperemesis gravidarum

40. Hypertension, preeclampsia

36. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

REF: 198 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: It is essential for the nurse to plan education needed by the pregnant woman to recognize and report these potential complications a timely manner. A trusting relationship contributes to a positive outcome for the pregnancy.

37. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

REF: 198 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: It is essential for the nurse to plan education needed by the pregnant woman to recognize and report these potential complications a timely manner. A trusting relationship contributes to a positive outcome for the pregnancy.

38. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

REF: 198 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: It is essential for the nurse to plan education needed by the pregnant woman to recognize and report these potential complications a timely manner. A trusting relationship contributes to a positive outcome for the pregnancy.

39. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

REF: 198 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: It is essential for the nurse to plan education needed by the pregnant woman to recognize and report these potential complications a timely manner. A trusting relationship contributes to a positive outcome for the pregnancy.

40. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension

REF: 198 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: It is essential for the nurse to plan education needed by the pregnant woman to recognize and report these potential complications a timely manner. A trusting relationship contributes to a positive outcome for the pregnancy.

COMPLETION

41. A woman arrives at the clinic for a pregnancy test. The first day of her last menstrual period (LMP) was September 10, 2013. Her expected date of birth (EDB) would be?

___________________

ANS:

June 17, 2014

Using Ngeles rule, June 17, 2014, is the correct EDB. The EDB is calculated by subtracting 3 months from the first day of the LMP and adding 7 days + 1 year to the day of the LMP. Therefore, with an LMP of September 10, 2013:

September 10, 2013 3 months = June 10, 2013 + 7 days = June 17, 2013 + 1 year = June 17, 2014

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 187

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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