Chapter 09: Maternal and Fetal Nutrition Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 09: Maternal and Fetal Nutrition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A 22-year-old woman pregnant with a single fetus has a preconception body mass index (BMI) of 24. When she was seen in the clinic at 14 weeks of gestation, she had gained 1.8 kg (4 lb) since conception. How would the nurse interpret this?

a.

This weight gain indicates possible gestational hypertension.

b.

This weight gain indicates that the womans infant is at risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

c.

This weight gain cannot be evaluated until the woman has been observed for several more weeks.

d.

The womans weight gain is appropriate for this stage of pregnancy.

ANS: D

The statement The womans weight gain is appropriate for this stage of pregnancy is accurate. This womans BMI is within the normal range. During the first trimester, the average total weight gain is only 1 to 2.5 kg. Although weight gain does indicate possible gestational hypertension, it does not apply to this patient. The desirable weight gain during pregnancy varies among women. The primary factor to consider in making a weight gain recommendation is the appropriateness of the prepregnancy weight for the womans height. A commonly used method of evaluating the appropriateness of weight for height is the BMI. Although weight gain does indicate risk for IUGR, this does not apply to this patient. Weight gain should occur at a steady rate throughout the pregnancy. The optimal rate of weight gain also depends on the stage of the pregnancy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 231

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Which meal would provide the most absorbable iron?

a.

Toasted cheese sandwich, celery sticks, tomato slices, and a grape drink

b.

Oatmeal, whole wheat toast, jelly, and low-fat milk

c.

Black bean soup, wheat crackers, orange sections, and prunes

d.

Red beans and rice, cornbread, mixed greens, and decaffeinated tea

ANS: C

Food sources that are rich in iron include liver, meats, whole grain or enriched breads and cereals, deep green leafy vegetables, legumes, and dried fruits. In addition, the vitamin C in orange sections aids absorption. Dairy products and tea are not sources of iron.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 236

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

3. Which nutrients recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is higher during lactation than during pregnancy?

a.

Energy (kcal)

c.

Vitamin A

b.

Iron

d.

Folic acid

ANS: A

Needs for energy, protein, calcium, iodine, zinc, the B vitamins, and vitamin C remain greater than nonpregnant needs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 239

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. A pregnant womans diet consists almost entirely of whole grain breads and cereals, fruits, and vegetables. The nurse would be most concerned about this womans intake of:

a.

Calcium.

c.

Vitamin B12.

b.

Protein.

d.

Folic acid.

ANS: C

This diet is consistent with that followed by a strict vegetarian (vegan). Vegans consume only plant products. Because vitamin B12 is found in foods of animal origin, this diet is deficient in vitamin B12.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 246

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

5. A pregnant woman experiencing nausea and vomiting should:

a.

Drink a glass of water with a fat-free carbohydrate before getting out of bed in the morning.

b.

Eat small, frequent meals (every 2 to 3 hours).

c.

Increase her intake of high-fat foods to keep the stomach full and coated.

d.

Limit fluid intake throughout the day.

ANS: B

Eating small, frequent meals is the correct suggestion for a woman experiencing nausea and vomiting. A pregnant woman experiencing nausea and vomiting should avoid consuming fluids early in the day or when nauseated, but should compensate by drinking fluids at other times. A pregnant woman experiencing nausea and vomiting should reduce her intake of fried and other fatty foods.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 245

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

6. A pregnant woman reports that she is still playing tennis at 32 weeks of gestation. The nurse would be most concerned that during and after tennis matches this woman consumes:

a.

Several glasses of fluid.

b.

Extra protein sources such as peanut butter.

c.

Salty foods to replace lost sodium.

d.

Easily digested sources of carbohydrate.

ANS: A

If no medical or obstetric problems contraindicate physical activity, pregnant women should get 30 minutes of moderate physical exercise daily. Liberal amounts of fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise because dehydration can trigger premature labor. The womans calorie intake should be sufficient to meet the increased needs of pregnancy and the demands of exercise.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 239

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

7. Which statement made by a lactating woman would lead the nurse to believe that the woman might have lactose intolerance?

a.

I always have heartburn after I drink milk.

b.

If I drink more than a cup of milk, I usually have abdominal cramps and bloating.

c.

Drinking milk usually makes me break out in hives.

d.

Sometimes I notice that I have bad breath after I drink a cup of milk.

ANS: B

Abdominal cramps and bloating are consistent with lactose intolerance. One problem that can interfere with milk consumption is lactose intolerance, which is the inability to digest milk sugar because of a lack of the enzyme lactose in the small intestine. Milk consumption may cause abdominal cramping, bloating, and diarrhea people who are lactose intolerant, although many affected individuals can tolerate small amounts of milk without symptoms.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 237

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

8. A pregnant womans diet history indicates that she likes the following list of foods. The nurse would encourage this woman to consume more of which food to increase her calcium intake?

a.

Fresh apricots

c.

Spaghetti with meat sauce

b.

Canned clams

d.

Canned sardines

ANS: D

Sardines are rich in calcium. Fresh apricots, canned clams, and spaghetti with meat sauce are not high in calcium.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 229

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

9. A 27-year-old pregnant woman had a preconceptual body mass index (BMI) of 18.0. The nurse knows that this womans total recommended weight gain during pregnancy should be at least:

a.

20 kg (44 lb).

c.

12.5 kg (27.5 lb).

b.

16 kg (35 lb).

d.

10 kg (22 lb).

ANS: C

This woman has a normal BMI and should gain 11.5 to 16 kg during pregnancy. A weight gain of 20 kg would be unhealthy for most women. A weight gain 35 lb is the high end of the range of weight this woman should gain in her pregnancy. A weight gain of 22 lb would be appropriate for an obese woman.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 231

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. A woman in week 34 of pregnancy reports that she is very uncomfortable because of heartburn. The nurse would suggest that the woman:

a.

Substitute other calcium sources for milk in her diet.

b.

Lie down after each meal.

c.

Reduce the amount of fiber she consumes.

d.

Eat five small meals daily.

ANS: D

Eating small, frequent meals may help with heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. Substituting other calcium sources for milk, lying down after eating, and reducing fiber intake are inappropriate dietary suggestions for all pregnant women and do not alleviate heartburn.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 246

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. A woman has come to the clinic for preconception counseling because she wants to start trying to get pregnant in 3 months. She can expect the following advice:

a.

Discontinue all contraception now.

b.

Lose weight so that you can gain more during pregnancy.

c.

You may take any medications you have been taking regularly.

d.

Make sure that you include adequate folic acid in your diet.

ANS: D

A healthy diet before conception is the best way to ensure that adequate nutrients are available for the developing fetus. A womans folate or folic acid intake is of particular concern in the periconception period. Neural tube defects are more common in infants of women with a poor folic acid intake. Depending on the type of contraception used, discontinuing all contraception may not be appropriate advice. Losing weight is not appropriate advice. Depending on the type of medication the woman is taking, continuing its use may not be appropriate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 227

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. To prevent gastrointestinal upset, clients should be instructed to take iron supplements:

a.

On a full stomach.

c.

After eating a meal.

b.

At bedtime.

d.

With milk.

ANS: B

Clients should be instructed to take iron supplements at bedtime. Iron supplements are best absorbed if they are taken when the stomach is empty. Bran, tea, coffee, milk, and eggs may reduce absorption. Iron can be taken at bedtime if abdominal discomfort occurs when it is taken between meals.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 237

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

13. Women with an inadequate weight gain during pregnancy are at higher risk of giving birth to an infant with:

a.

Spina bifida.

c.

Diabetes mellitus.

b.

Intrauterine growth restriction.

d.

Down syndrome.

ANS: B

Both normal-weight and underweight women with inadequate weight gain have an increased risk of giving birth to an infant with intrauterine growth restriction. Spina bifida, diabetes mellitus, and Down syndrome are not associated with inadequate maternal weight gain.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 231

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. After you complete your nutritional counseling for a pregnant woman, you ask her to repeat your instructions so you can assess her understanding of the instructions given. Which statement indicates that she understands the role of protein in her pregnancy?

a.

Protein will help my baby grow.

b.

Eating protein will prevent me from becoming anemic.

c.

Eating protein will make my baby have strong teeth after he is born.

d.

Eating protein will prevent me from being diabetic.

ANS: A

Protein is the nutritional element basic to growth. An adequate protein intake is essential to meeting the increasing demands of pregnancy. These demands arise from the rapid growth of the fetus; the enlargement of the uterus, mammary glands, and placenta; the increase in the maternal blood volume; and the formation of amniotic fluid. Iron intake prevents anemia. Calcium intake is needed for fetal bone and tooth development. Glycemic control is needed in diabetics; protein is one nutritional factor to consider, but this is not the primary role of protein intake.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 232

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. Pregnant adolescents are at high risk for _____ because of lower body mass indices (BMIs) and fad dieting.

a.

Obesity

c.

Low-birth-weight babies

b.

Diabetes

d.

High-birth-weight babies

ANS: C

Adolescents tend to have lower BMIs because they are still developing and may follow unsafe nutritional practices. In addition, the fetus and still-growing mother appear to compete for nutrients. These factors, along with inadequate weight gain, lend themselves to a higher incidence of low-birth-weight babies. Obesity, diabetes, and high-birth-weight babies are conditions associated with higher BMIs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 329

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment, Diagnosis

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. Maternal nutritional status is an especially significant factor of the many factors that influence the outcome of pregnancy because:

a.

It is very difficult to adjust because of peoples ingrained eating habits.

b.

It is an important preventive measure for a variety of problems.

c.

Women love obsessing about their weight and diets.

d.

A womans preconception weight becomes irrelevant.

ANS: B

Nutritional status draws so much attention not only for its effect on a healthy pregnancy and birth but also because significant changes are within relatively easy reach.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 248

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

17. Which statement regarding acronyms in nutrition is accurate?

a.

Dietary reference intakes (DRIs) consist of recommended dietary allowances (RDAs), adequate intakes (AIs), and upper limits (ULs).

b.

RDAs are the same as ULs except with better data.

c.

AIs offer guidelines for avoiding excessive amounts of nutrients.

d.

They all refer to green leafy vegetables, whole grains, and fruit.

ANS: A

DRIs consist of RDAs, AIs, and ULs. AIs are similar to RDAs except that they deal with nutrients about which data are insufficient for certainty (RDA status). ULs are guidelines for avoiding excesses of nutrients for which excess is toxic. Green leafy vegetables, whole grains, and fruit are important, but they are not the whole nutritional story.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 228

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

18. With regard to protein in the diet of pregnant women, nurses should be aware that:

a.

Many protein-rich foods are also good sources of calcium, iron, and B vitamins.

b.

Many women need to increase their protein intake during pregnancy.

c.

As with carbohydrates and fat, no specific recommendations exist for the amount of protein in the diet.

d.

High-protein supplements can be used without risk by women on macrobiotic diets.

ANS: A

Good protein sources such as meat, milk, eggs, and cheese have a lot of calcium and iron. Most women already eat a high-protein diet and do not need to increase their intake. Protein is sufficiently important that specific servings of meat and dairy are recommended. High-protein supplements are not recommended because they have been associated with an increased incidence of preterm births.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 234

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

19. Which nutritional recommendation about fluids is accurate?

a.

A womans daily intake should be eight to ten glasses (2.3 L) of water, milk, or juice.

b.

Coffee should be limited to no more than two cups, but tea and cocoa can be consumed without worry.

c.

Of the artificial sweeteners, only aspartame has not been associated with any maternity health concerns.

d.

Water with fluoride is especially encouraged because it reduces the childs risk of tooth decay.

ANS: A

Eight to ten glasses is the standard for fluids; however, they should be the right fluids. All beverages containing caffeine, including tea, cocoa, and some soft drinks, should be avoided or drunk only in limited amounts. Artificial sweeteners, including aspartame, have no ill effects on the normal mother or fetus; however, mothers with phenylketonuria should avoid aspartame. No evidence indicates that prenatal fluoride consumption reduces childhood tooth decay.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 235

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

20. Which minerals and vitamins usually are recommended to supplement a pregnant womans diet?

a.

Fat-soluble vitamins A and D

c.

Iron and folate

b.

Water-soluble vitamins C and B6

d.

Calcium and zinc

ANS: C

Iron generally should be supplemented, and folic acid supplements often are needed because folate is so important. Fat-soluble vitamins should be supplemented as a medical prescription, as vitamin D might be for lactose-intolerant women. Water-soluble vitamin C sometimes is consumed in excess naturally; vitamin B6 is prescribed only if the woman has a very poor diet. Zinc sometimes is supplemented. Most women obtain enough calcium through their regular diet.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 235

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

21. Which vitamins or minerals can lead to congenital malformations of the fetus if taken in excess by the mother?

a.

Zinc

c.

Folic acid

b.

Vitamin D

d.

Vitamin A

ANS: D

Zinc, vitamin D, and folic acid are vital to good maternal and fetal health and are highly unlikely to be consumed in excess. Vitamin A taken in excess causes a number of problems. An analog of vitamin A appears in prescribed acne medications, which must not be taken during pregnancy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 238

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

22. With regard to nutritional needs during lactation, a maternity nurse should be aware that:

a.

The mothers intake of vitamin C, zinc, and protein now can be lower than during pregnancy.

b.

Caffeine consumed by the mother accumulates in the infant, who may be unusually active and wakeful.

c.

Critical iron and folic acid levels must be maintained.

d.

Lactating women can go back to their prepregnant calorie intake.

ANS: B

A lactating woman needs to avoid consuming too much caffeine. Vitamin C, zinc, and protein levels need to be moderately higher during lactation than during pregnancy. The recommendations for iron and folic acid are lower during lactation. Lactating women should consume about 500 kcal more than their prepregnancy intake, at least 1800 kcal daily overall.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 240

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

23. While taking a diet history, the nurse might be told that the expectant mother has cravings for ice chips, cornstarch, and baking soda. This represents a nutritional problem known as:

a.

Preeclampsia.

c.

Pica.

b.

Pyrosis.

d.

Purging.

ANS: C

The consumption of foods low in nutritional value or of nonfood substances (e.g., dirt, laundry starch) is called pica.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 239

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24. When counseling a client about getting enough iron in her diet, the maternity nurse should tell her that:

a.

Milk, coffee, and tea aid iron absorption if consumed at the same time as iron.

b.

Iron absorption is inhibited by a diet rich in vitamin C.

c.

Iron supplements are permissible for children in small doses.

d.

Constipation is common with iron supplements.

ANS: D

Constipation can be a problem. Milk, coffee, and tea inhibit iron absorption when consumed at the same time as iron. Vitamin C promotes iron absorption. Children who ingest iron can get very sick and even die.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 245

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

25. The labor and delivery nurse is preparing a bariatric patient for an elective cesarean birth. Which piece of specialized equipment is unnecessary when providing care for this pregnant woman.

a.

Extra long surgical instruments

b.

Wide surgical table

c.

Temporal thermometer

d.

Increased diameter blood pressure cuff

ANS: C

Obstetricians today are seeing more morbidly obese pregnant women weighing 400, 500, and 600 pounds. To manage their conditions and to meet their logistical needs, a new medical subspecialty bariatric obstetrics has arisen. Extra-wide blood pressure cuffs, scales that can accommodate up to 880 pounds, and extra-wide surgical tables designed to hold the weight of these women are used. Special techniques for ultrasound examination and longer surgical instruments for cesarean birth are also required. A temporal thermometer can be used for a pregnant patient of any size.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 233

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

26. To help a woman reduce the severity of nausea caused by morning sickness, the nurse might suggest that she:

a.

Try a tart food or drink such as lemonade or salty foods such as potato chips.

b.

Drink plenty of fluids early in the day.

c.

Brush her teeth immediately after eating.

d.

Never snack before bedtime.

ANS: A

Some women can tolerate tart or salty foods when they are nauseous. The woman should avoid drinking too much when nausea is most likely, but she should make up the fluid levels later in the day when she feels better. The woman should avoid brushing her teeth immediately after eating. A small snack of cereal and milk or yogurt before bedtime may help the stomach in the morning.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 245

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

27. Three servings of milk, yogurt, or cheese plus two servings of meat, poultry, or fish adequately supply the recommended amount of protein for a pregnant woman. Many patients are concerned about the increased levels of mercury in fish and may be afraid to include this source of nutrients in their diet. Sound advice by the nurse to assist the client in determining which fish is safe to consume would include:

a.

Canned white tuna is a preferred choice.

b.

Avoid shark, swordfish, and mackerel.

c.

Fish caught in local waterways are the safest.

d.

Salmon and shrimp contain high levels of mercury.

ANS: B

As a precaution, the pregnant patient should avoid eating all of these and the less common tilefish. High levels of mercury can harm the developing nervous system of the fetus. It is essential for the nurse to assist the client in understanding the differences between numerous sources of this product. A pregnant client can 12 ounces a week of canned light tuna; however, canned white, albacore, or tuna steaks contain higher levels of mercury and should be limited to no more than 6 ounces per week. It is a common misconception that fish caught in local waterways are the safest. Pregnant women and mothers of young children should check with local advisories about the safety of fish caught by families and friends in nearby bodies of water. If no information is available, these fish sources should be avoided, limited to less than 6 ounces, or the only fish consumed that week. Commercially caught fish that are low in mercury include salmon, shrimp, pollock, or catfish.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 235

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

28. Nutrition is one of the most significant factors influencing the outcome of a pregnancy. It is an alterable and important preventive measure for various potential problems, such as low birth weight and prematurity. While completing the physical assessment of the pregnant client, the nurse can evaluate the clients nutritional status by observing a number of physical signs. Which sign would indicate that the client has unmet nutritional needs?

a.

Normal heart rate, rhythm, and blood pressure

b.

Bright, clear, shiny eyes

c.

Alert, responsive, and good endurance

d.

Edema, tender calves, and tingling

ANS: D

The physiologic changes of pregnancy may complicate the interpretation of physical findings. Lower extremity edema often occurs when caloric and protein deficiencies are present; however, it may also be a common physical finding during the third trimester. It is essential that the nurse complete a thorough health history and physical assessment and request further laboratory testing if indicated. A malnourished pregnant patient may display rapid heart rate, abnormal rhythm, enlarged heart, and elevated blood pressure. A patient receiving adequate nutrition has bright, shiny eyes with no sores and moist, pink membranes. Pale or red membranes, dryness, infection, dull appearance of the cornea, or blue sclerae all are signs of poor nutrition. This client is well nourished. Cachexia, listlessness, and tiring easily would be indications of poor nutritional status.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 243

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

29. Which pregnant woman should restrict her weight gain during pregnancy?

a.

Woman pregnant with twins

b.

Woman in early adolescence

c.

Woman shorter than 62 inches or 157 cm

d.

Woman who was 20 pounds overweight before pregnancy

ANS: D

A weight gain of 5 to 9 kg will provide sufficient nutrients for the fetus. Overweight and obese women should be advised to lose weight before conception to achieve the best pregnancy outcomes. A higher weight gain in twin gestations may help prevent low birth weights. Adolescents need to gain weight toward the higher acceptable range, which provides for their own growth as well as for fetal growth. In the past, women of short stature were advised to restrict their weight gain; however, evidence to support these guidelines has not been found.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 231

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

30. The major source of nutrients in the diet of a pregnant woman should be composed of:

a.

Simple sugars

c.

Fiber

b.

Fats

d.

Complex carbohydrates

ANS: D

Complex carbohydrates supply the pregnant woman with vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The most common simple carbohydrate is table sugar, which is a source of energy but does not provide any nutrients. Fats provide 9 kcal in each gram, in contrast to carbohydrates and proteins, which provide only 4 kcal in each gram. Fiber is supplied primarily by complex carbohydrates.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 245

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

31. A pregnant womans diet may not meet her need for folates. A good source of this nutrient is:

a.

Chicken

c.

Potatoes

b.

Cheese

d.

Green leafy vegetables

ANS: D

Sources of folates include green leafy vegetables, whole grains, fruits, liver, dried peas, and beans. Chicken and cheese are excellent sources of protein but are poor in folates. Potatoes contain carbohydrates and vitamins and minerals but are poor in folates.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 230

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

32. When providing care to the prenatal patient, the nurse understands that pica is defined as:

a.

Intolerance of milk products

c.

Ingestion of nonfood substances

b.

Iron deficiency anemia

d.

Episodes of anorexia and vomiting

ANS: C

The practice of eating substances not normally thought of as food is called pica. Clay or dirt and solid laundry starch are the substances most commonly ingested. Intolerance of milk products is referred to as lactose intolerance. Pica may produce iron deficiency anemia if proper nutrition is decreased. Pica is not related to anorexia and vomiting.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 239

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

33. The most important reason for evaluating the pattern of weight gain in pregnancy is to:

a.

Prevent excessive adipose tissue deposits

b.

Identify potential nutritional problems or complications of pregnancy

c.

Assess the need to limit caloric intake in obese women

d.

Determine cultural influences on the womans diet

ANS: B

Maternal and fetal risks in pregnancy are increased when the mother is significantly overweight. Excessive adipose tissue may occur with excess weight gain; however, this is not the reason for monitoring the weight gain pattern. It is important to monitor the pattern of weight gain to identify complications. The pattern of weight gain is not influenced by cultural influences.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 231

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

34. If a patients normal prepregnancy diet contains 45 g of protein daily, how many more grams of protein should she consume per day during pregnancy?

a.

5

c.

25

b.

10

d.

30

ANS: C

The recommended intake of protein for the pregnant woman is 70 g. Intakes of 5, 10, or 15 g would be inadequate to meet protein needs during pregnancy. A protein intake of 30 g is more than is necessary and would add extra calories.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 234

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

35. A pregnant patient would like to know a good food source of calcium other than dairy products. Your best answer is:

a.

Legumes

c.

Lean meat

b.

Yellow vegetables

d.

Whole grains

ANS: A

Although dairy products contain the greatest amount of calcium, it also is found in legumes, nuts, dried fruits, and some dark green leafy vegetables. Yellow vegetables are rich in vitamin A. Lean meats are rich in protein and phosphorus. Whole grains are rich in zinc and magnesium.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 237

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

36. To determine the cultural influence on a patients diet, the nurse should first:

a.

Evaluate the patients weight gain during pregnancy

b.

Assess the socioeconomic status of the patient

c.

Discuss the four food groups with the patient

d.

Identify the food preferences and methods of food preparation common to that culture

ANS: D

Understanding the patients food preferences and how she prepares food will assist the nurse in determining whether the patients culture is adversely affecting her nutritional intake. Evaluation of a patients weight gain during pregnancy should be included for all patients, not just for patients who are culturally different. The socioeconomic status of the patient may alter the nutritional intake but not the cultural influence. Teaching the food groups to the patient should come after assessing food preferences.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 246

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

37. Identify a goal of a patient with the following nursing diagnosis: Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements related to diet choices inadequate to meet nutrient requirements of pregnancy.

a.

Gain a total of 30 lb.

b.

Take daily supplements consistently.

c.

Decrease intake of snack foods.

d.

Increase intake of complex carbohydrates.

ANS: A

A weight gain of 30 lb is one indication that the patient has gained a sufficient amount for the nutritional needs of pregnancy. A daily supplement is not the best goal for this patient. It does not meet the basic need of proper nutrition during pregnancy. Decreasing snack foods may be a problem and should be assessed; however, assessing weight gain is the best method of monitoring nutritional intake for this pregnant patient. Increasing the intake of complex carbohydrates is important for this patient, but monitoring the weight gain should be the end goal.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 244

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

38. In teaching the pregnant adolescent about nutrition, the nurse should:

a.

Emphasize the need to eliminate common teen snack foods because they are too high in fat and sodium.

b.

Determine the weight gain needed to meet adolescent growth and add 35 lb.

c.

Suggest that she not eat at fast-food restaurants to avoid foods of poor nutritional value.

d.

Realize that most adolescents are unwilling to make dietary changes during pregnancy.

ANS: B

Adolescents should gain in the upper range of the recommended weight gain. They also need to gain weight that would be expected for their own normal growth. Changes in the diet should be kept at a minimum. Snack foods can be included in moderation, and other foods can be added to make up for the lost nutrients. Eliminating fast foods would make the adolescent appear different to her peers. The patient should be taught to choose foods that add needed nutrients. Adolescents are willing to make changes; however, they still have the need to be similar to their peers.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 239

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

39. Most women with uncomplicated pregnancies can use the nurse as their primary source for nutritional information. The nurse or midwife should refer a client to a registered dietitian for in-depth nutritional counseling in the following situations (Select all that apply).

a.

Preexisting or gestational illness such as diabetes

b.

Ethnic or cultural food patterns

c.

Obesity

d.

Vegetarian diet

e.

Allergy to tree nuts

ANS: A, B, C, D

The nurse should be especially aware that conditions such as diabetes can require in-depth dietary planning and evaluation. To prevent issues with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia and an increased risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality, this patient would benefit from a referral to a dietitian. Consultation with a dietitian may ensure that cultural food beliefs are congruent with modern knowledge of fetal development and that adjustments can be made to ensure that all nutritional needs are met. The obese pregnant patient may be under the misapprehension that because of her excess weight little or no weight gain is necessary. According to the Institute of Medicine, a client with a body mass index in the obese range should gain at least 7 kg to ensure a healthy outcome. This patient may require in-depth counseling on optimal food choices. The vegetarian client needs to have her dietary intake carefully assessed to ensure that the optimal combination of amino acids and protein intake is achieved. Very strict vegetarians (vegans) who consume only plant products may also require vitamin B and mineral supplementation. A patient with a food allergy would not alter that component of her diet during pregnancy; therefore, no additional consultation is necessary.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 239

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

COMPLETION

40. A newly pregnant patient visits her providers office for the first prenatal appointment. To estimate accurate weight gain throughout the pregnancy, the nurse will be evaluating the appropriateness of weight for height using the body mass index (BMI). The patient weighs 51 kg and is 1.57 m tall.

The BMI is:

___________________

ANS:

20.7

BMI = weight divided by height squared. BMI = 51 kg/(1.57m)2, or 20.7. Prepregnant BMI can be classified into the following categories: <18.5, underweight or low; 18.5-24.9, normal; 25-29.9 overweight or high; and >30, obese

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 231

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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