Chapter 09: Nutrition Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 09: Nutrition
Linton: Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What two mechanisms does the regulation of the gastrointestinal system require?
a. Neural control and cardiovascular control
b. Secretion of hormones and kidney filtration
c. Neural control and secretions of hormones
d. Cardiovascular control and kidney filtration
ANS: C
The gastrointestinal system is regulated by neural control and hormonal secretion.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Regulators of Gastrointestinal Activity KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

2. The mouth and stomach are two areas of the gastrointestinal system in which the digestion of food occurs. What is the third area of the gastrointestinal system in which digestion of food occurs?
a. Large intestine
b. Small intestine
c. Pancreas
d. Pharynx
ANS: B
Digestion of food occurs in three areas of the gastrointestinal system: (1) the mouth, (2) the stomach, and (3) the small intestine.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Digestive Process KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

3. What is formed after food is masticated, swallowed, and mixed with gastric secretions in the stomach?
a. Bolus
b. Chyme
c. Protein
d. Lipid
ANS: B
In the stomach, the bolus is mixed with gastric secretions, and the mass is converted into a semiliquid substance called chyme.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Digestive Process KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

4. The stomach is normally emptied in 1 to 4 hours, depending on the amount and kind of food eaten. Which foods, when eaten separately, leave the stomach most rapidly?
a. Carbohydrates
b. Fats
c. Lipids
d. Proteins
ANS: A
When eaten alone, carbohydrates leave the stomach most rapidly.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Digestive Process KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

5. What is the name of the sphincter that prevents the backflow of the food mass from the duodenum into the stomach?
a. Pyloric
b. Cardiac
c. Esophageal
d. Mitral
ANS: A
The pyloric sphincter at the exit of the stomach prevents the backflow of the food mass from the duodenum into the stomach.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Digestive Process KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

6. Into what do the villi absorb the nutrients from the small intestine?
a. Large intestine
b. Blood and liver
c. Gallbladder and liver
d. Lymph and kidneys
ANS: B
The villi absorb the nutrients into the blood and lymph vessels that support them, and then the blood takes the nutrients to the liver.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Mechanisms of Absorption KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

7. Which carrier protein is responsible for absorption of vitamin B12?
a. Pepsin
b. Intrinsic factor
c. Hydrochloric acid
d. Gastrin
ANS: B
Active transport requires the input of energy for the movement of particles across a membrane against an energy gradient. This movement requires a carrier protein. The best-known carrier protein is the intrinsic factor, which is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Mechanisms of Absorption KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

8. Where does the digestion of carbohydrates begin?
a. Mouth
b. Pharynx
c. Stomach
d. Small intestine
ANS: A
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth, where the enzyme amylase is released.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Methods of Absorption: Carbohydrates KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

9. Where does most digestion of protein begin?
a. Mouth
b. Stomach
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine
ANS: C
Digestion of protein does not begin until it reaches the stomach; however, most digestion of protein occurs in the duodenum, not in the stomach.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 104 OBJ: 2
TOP: Mechanisms of Absorption: Proteins KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

10. Where is the major portion of fat digested?
a. Mouth
b. Stomach
c. Small intestine
d. Large intestine
ANS: C
Digestion of fat also begins in the stomach; however, the major portion of the digestion of fat takes place in the small intestine.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 105 OBJ: 2
TOP: Mechanisms of Absorption: Fat KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

11. What substance is secreted by the liver and breaks down fat globules into small particles?
a. Bile
b. Pepsin
c. Gastrin
d. Hydrochloric acid
ANS: A
Bile secreted by the liver breaks down the larger fat globules into small particles.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 105 OBJ: 2
TOP: Mechanisms of Absorption: Fat KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

12. What is the main sugar in the blood and the primary source of energy for the body?
a. Glycerol
b. Glucose
c. Fatty acids
d. Glycogen
ANS: B
Carbohydrates are converted primarily to glucose for immediate use by the bodys cells.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 106 OBJ: 3
TOP: Classification and Food Sources of Carbohydrates KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

13. What are carbohydrates primarily converted to in the body?
a. Glucose
b. Amino acids
c. Adipose tissue
d. Fatty acids
ANS: A
Carbohydrates are converted primarily to glucose for immediate use by the bodys cells.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 107 OBJ: 2
TOP: Carbohydrate Metabolism KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

14. What are starches, glycogen, and fibers considered?
a. Simple sugars
b. Monosaccharides
c. Disaccharides and fatty acids
d. Polysaccharides
ANS: D
Examples of polysaccharides include starch, fibers, and glycogen.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 106-107 OBJ: 5
TOP: Classification of Carbohydrates KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

15. Which substance contains lactose?
a. Sucrose
b. Malt products
c. Milk
d. Honey
ANS: C
Lactose, a disaccharide, is found in milk.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 106 OBJ: 5
TOP: Classification of Carbohydrates KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

16. What is the range for normal fasting blood glucose level?
a. 20 to 50 mg/100 mL
b. 70 to 100 mg/100 mL
c. 200 to 250 mg/100 mL
d. 30 to 60 mg/100 mL
ANS: B
Normal blood glucose levels are 70 to 100 mg/100 mL under fasting conditions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 107 OBJ: 3
TOP: Carbohydrate Metabolism KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

17. A nurse is aware that after a meal, the blood sugar level may rise. How long should it take for the blood sugar level to return to the normal range?
a. 30 to 60 minutes
b. 60 to 90 minutes
c. 2 to 3 hours
d. 4 to 6 hours
ANS: C
After a meal, blood glucose levels may rise to 130 mg/100 mL but return to normal within 2 to 3 hours.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 107 OBJ: 3
TOP: Carbohydrate Metabolism KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

18. Growth hormone, epinephrine, and glucagon are hormones involved in the regulation of blood glucose levels. What other hormones are included in the regulation of blood glucose levels?
a. Insulin and the parathyroid hormone
b. Insulin and glucocorticoids
c. Glucocorticoids and thyroxine
d. Estrogen and progesterone
ANS: B
A number of hormones are involved in the regulation of blood glucose levels. They include insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, glucocorticoids, and growth hormone.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 107 OBJ: 3
TOP: Carbohydrate Metabolism KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

19. An adolescent patient reports she is following a severe fad diet that only allows 80 g of carbohydrate a day. What should the nurse warn that continuing this diet can result in when providing education?
a. Alkalosis
b. Hyperglycemia
c. Ketosis
d. Hypernatremia
ANS: C
Diets with only 50 to 100 g of carbohydrates per day are likely to lead to ketosis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 108 OBJ: 3
TOP: Recommended Dietary Allowance KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

20. Into what system are most of the lipids taken into the body absorbed from the intestinal mucosa?
a. Lymphatic system
b. Circulatory system
c. Gastrointestinal system
d. Hepatic system
ANS: A
Most dietary lipids are absorbed into the lymphatic system through the intestinal mucosa.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 109 OBJ: 3
TOP: Lipids KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

21. Lipoproteins carry cholesterol in the bloodstream. For this reason, primary caregivers are interested in monitoring lipid-density profiles. Which laboratory results are of primary interest to the primary caregivers in relationship to the patients risk for cardiovascular disease?
a. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and hematocrit (Hct)
b. VLDLs and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
c. Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and hemoglobin (Hgb)
d. LDLs and HDLs
ANS: D
Of particular interest in cardiovascular disease are the HDLs and the LDLs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 109 OBJ: 5
TOP: Lipid Transport and Storage KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

22. Which foods have the least amount of fat?
a. Vegetables, cottonseed oil, and safflower oil
b. Fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains
c. Milk, cheese, and ice cream
d. Bagels, cream cheese, and ham
ANS: B
Fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains are relatively low in fat.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 111 OBJ: 5
TOP: Food Sources of Fat KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

23. Energy balance is measured by weight gain or weight loss. How is protein balance measured?
a. Nitrogen
b. Weight
c. Muscle development
d. Carbon
ANS: A
The body cannot store protein, so it needs to be eaten in the diet each day. Nitrogen in the urine is a good indicator of protein levels in the body. If protein intake is inadequate, nitrogen will be conserved by the kidneys, causing the urine nitrogen level to be low.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 111 OBJ: 5
TOP: Protein Deficiency KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

24. What is the function of protein in the body?
a. Provides the main source of energy
b. Serves as a catalyst for fat catabolism
c. Slows the rate of digestion and absorption of nutrients
d. Furnishes amino acids to build and repair tissue
ANS: D
Functions of proteins include serving as building blocks (amino acids) to build and repair body tissue. Carbohydrates and fats are the major sources of energy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 111 OBJ: 3
TOP: Function of Protein KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

25. What are complete proteins found in?
a. Poultry, milk, and eggs
b. Grains, legumes, and seeds
c. Nuts, beans, and corn
d. Breads, beans, and vegetables
ANS: A
Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids and are generally of animal origin. They are found in foods such as meat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, and eggs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 112 OBJ: 5
TOP: Protein Content of Foods KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

26. What is the minimum amount of protein needed for a well-balanced diet?
a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 30%
d. 40%
ANS: A
Protein should make up a minimum of 10% in the adult diet.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 112 OBJ: 7
TOP: Protein in Diet KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

27. A nurse is caring for a patient on a low-fat diet. Which water-soluble vitamin should be included when planning this patients diet?
a. Vitamin A
b. Vitamin B complex
c. Vitamin D
d. Vitamin K
ANS: B
Water-soluble vitamins include the vitamin B complex group and vitamin C.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 113 OBJ: 7
TOP: Water-Soluble Vitamins KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

28. A patient states that he has been taking high doses of all the vitamins both in tablet form and in food to prepare for his Olympic trials. What is the most appropriate response by the nurse?
a. That is a very healthy way to build up energy, store vitamins, and control your weight.
b. You must remember to drink a large glass of water with every meal to utilize those water-soluble vitamins.
c. Large doses of vitamins may make you extremely photosensitive. You should use a strong sunblock when you are out of doors.
d. Some of those vitamins taken in large doses can cause toxicity.
ANS: D
If the amount of fat-soluble vitamins taken is in excess of the amount needed by the body, the extra amount is stored in fat cells of the body. As the stores build up, the excess vitamins can become toxic.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 112-113 OBJ: 7
TOP: Vitamin Toxicity KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

29. Which vitamins level can be regulated by excretion in urine?
a. C
b. A
c. D
d. K
ANS: A
Excess intake of water-soluble vitamins is readily excreted by the body. Water-soluble vitamins include the vitamin B complex group and vitamin C.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 113 OBJ: 7
TOP: Vitamins KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

30. What elements are required for enzyme regulation and maintenance of osmotic pressure?
a. Proteins
b. Minerals
c. Carbohydrates
d. Amino acids
ANS: B
Minerals are another group of micronutrients and are involved in enzyme regulation, maintenance of acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 113 OBJ: 7
TOP: Minerals KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

31. Which cereal would be most effective to increase the fiber in a patients diet?
a. Rice Krispies
b. Corn Flakes
c. Wheaties
d. Bran Flakes
ANS: D
Bran products offer more fiber content than rice, corn, or wheat.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 107 OBJ: 6
TOP: Dietary Fiber KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

32. An older man weighs 125 lb. How much should his daily fluid intake be for adequate hydration?
a. 1684 to 1700 mL/day
b. 1704 to 1988 mL/day
c. 2005 to 2200 mL/day
d. 2368 to 2490 mL/day
ANS: B
Water is the largest component of the body and body tissues and is essential to all life processes. To prevent dehydration in an older adult, 30 to 35 mL/kg are recommended daily.
125 lb = 56.8 kg
56.8 kg 30 mL = 1704 mL
56.8 kg 35 mL = 1988 mL

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 116 OBJ: 9
TOP: Age-Related Changes KEY: Nursing Process Step: Application
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

33. A 13-year-old patient is 5 feet, 6 inches tall, weighs 102 lb, and is constantly worried about getting too fat and is refusing to eat. What condition should the nurse suspect?
a. Bulimia
b. Anorexia nervosa
c. Malabsorption
d. Peptic ulcer
ANS: B
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed starvation. Persons with this disorder believe that they are fat even though they appear quite thin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 124 OBJ: 11
TOP: Eating Disorders KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

34. A nurse observes a young patient who accepts her food tray and appears to eat it enthusiastically, but the patient goes into the bathroom immediately after eating. The nurse suspects that the patient is causing herself to vomit. What do these assessments suggest?
a. Bulimia
b. Anorexia nervosa
c. Hyperemesis
d. Diabetes mellitus
ANS: A
Bulimia is an eating disorder characterized by periods of binge eating followed by purging.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 124 OBJ: 11
TOP: Eating Disorders KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

35. For what complication should a nurse monitor in a patient on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)?
a. Respiratory congestion
b. Hypoglycemia
c. Vomiting
d. Hypotension
ANS: A
Central parenteral nutrition can cause pulmonary congestion if the fluid is not absorbed quickly enough. TPN may also cause hyperglycemia and hypertension but not vomiting.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 126 OBJ: 12
TOP: Nutritional Support KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological Therapies

36. What is usually infused with standard peripheral parenteral nutrition intravenous (IV) therapy?
a. 50% glucose
b. 5% glucose
c. 0.9% sodium chloride
d. Sterile water
ANS: B
Peripheral parenteral nutrition, the standard IV therapy, may be made up of dextrose (5% to 10%).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 126 OBJ: 12
TOP: Nutritional Support KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological Therapies

37. A patient on an enteral feeding suddenly complains of feeling faint and is sweating. The diastolic blood pressure has dropped 20 points. The nurse recognizes this as signs of the dumping syndrome. What is the cause of dumping syndrome?
a. Hypertonic fluid entering the jejunum and pulling large amounts of water from the circulating volume
b. Rich enteral feeding causing bowel irritation with severe cramping
c. Hypertonic solution rapidly entering the stomach causing pyloric spasm
d. Rapid drop in blood glucose as a result of the hypertonic solution pooling in the jejunum
ANS: A
Enteral tube feedings can cause dumping syndrome by pooling feeding in the jejunum, which pulls fluid from the circulating volume and causes hypotension.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 125 OBJ: 12
TOP: Nutritional Support KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological Therapies

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

38. For what are soluble fibers such as pectin used by the body? (Select all that apply.)
a. Stool softeners
b. Absorption blockers
c. Bulk
d. Speeding transit time
e. Source of vitamin D
ANS: A, B
Soluble fibers are used as stool softeners and as absorption blockers for certain products. Unlike insoluble fiber, they do nothing to add bulk or speed transit time.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 107 OBJ: 6
TOP: Soluble Fibers KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

39. What should the nurse point out when outlining the characteristics of fat metabolism? (Select all that apply.)
a. Are soluble in water
b. Use more oxygen than carbohydrates
c. Are stored more compactly in the body
d. Release more energy than carbohydrates
e. Are rich in vitamin A
ANS: B, C, D
Fat metabolism uses more oxygen than the metabolism of carbohydrates, and it also releases more energy. Fats are not water soluble and can be stored compactly.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 110 OBJ: 2
TOP: Fat Metabolism KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

40. Which substances are considered saturated fats? (Select all that apply.)
a. Butter
b. Olive oil
c. Coconut oil
d. Canola oil
e. Palm oil
ANS: A, C, E
Butter, coconut oil, and palm oil are all saturated with hydrogen and should be limited in all diets.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 108 OBJ: 10
TOP: Saturated Fats KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease

41. What are characteristics of vitamins? (Select all that apply.)
a. Are necessary in large doses
b. Have the ability to be manufactured by the body
c. Regulate metabolic functions in the cells
d. Exist in multiple forms and are called vitamers
e. Are classified as macronutrients
ANS: C, D
The characteristics of vitamins are that they are needed in small doses, cannot be manufactured by the body, regulate metabolic functions in the cells, exist in multiple forms (vitamers), and are classified as micronutrients.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 112 OBJ: 7
TOP: Vitamins KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological Therapies

COMPLETION

42. A nurse points out that the cellulose found in celery and lettuce is a source of _____.

ANS:
insoluble fiber
Celery and lettuce are excellent sources of insoluble fiber.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 107 OBJ: 6
TOP: Insoluble Fiber KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

43. Cysteine, proline, isoleucine, valine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, methionine, and histidine are all classified as _____.

ANS:
essential amino acids
The essential amino acids are cysteine, proline, isoleucine, valine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, methionine, and histidine.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 111 OBJ: 3
TOP: Essential Amino Acids KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

44. A nurse calculates the needed kilocalories (kcal) for a 150-lb moderately active person to be _____.

ANS:
2043 kcal
150 pounds 2.2 pounds = 68.1 kg 30 kcal = 2043 kcal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 123 OBJ: 10
TOP: Kilocalorie Calculation KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

OTHER

45. Place the parts of the small intestine in the correct order, beginning with the section that joins the stomach. (Separate the letters with a comma and space: A, B, C.)
A. Jejunum
B. Duodenum
C. Ileum

ANS:
B, A, C
The small intestine is divided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: p. 104 OBJ: 1
TOP: Digestive Process KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: N/A

Leave a Reply