Chapter 10: Anti-Infectives: Antiviral Drugs Nursing School Test Banks

Workman: Understanding Pharmacology

Chapter 10: Anti-Infectives: Antiviral Drugs

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. How are viral infections different from bacterial infections?
a. Bacterial infections can be spread from one person to another, whereas viral infections cannot be spread directly.
b. Bacterial infections can be cured by treatment with some anti-infective drugs, whereas viral infections are not cured by anti-infective therapy.
c. Viruses only cause disease in a person who is immunocompromised, whereas bacteria can cause disease even among immunocompetent people.
d. Viruses are the less mature form of a bacterium, so there is essentially no difference between viral infections and bacterial infections.
ANS: B
Viral infections are not cured but are self-limiting, meaning that in a person with a healthy immune system, the illness only lasts for a limited time. If the persons immune system is working properly, the body fights off the infection by itself. If the persons immune system is weak or if the body has other health problems, the person may die of the effects of the disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 168 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

2. What is the purpose of antiviral drug therapy?
a. To make the patient immune to infection by viruses
b. To reduce infection by killing the virus causing disease
c. To reduce illness duration by controlling viral reproduction
d. To prevent opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients
ANS: C
Antiviral drugs are only virustatic and reduce the number of viruses by preventing them from reproducing and growing. They are not virucidal and cannot kill the virus. By keeping the number of viruses low, antiviral drugs allow the bodys natural defenses to destroy, eliminate, or inactivate them.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)
REF: p. 168 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

3. What is the most important precaution the nurse must teach a patient who is prescribed any antiviral drug?
a. Take the drug exactly as prescribed and for as long as prescribed.
b. Never take any antibacterial drugs while you are on antiviral therapy.
c. Drink at least 3 L of water daily for the entire time you are taking this drug.
d. Avoid unnecessary exposure to this drug by stopping it when you have no symptoms for 24 hours.
ANS: A
For effective antiviral therapy the patient must take the drug long enough to ensure suppression of viral reproduction. If the patient stops taking the drug as soon as he or she feels better, symptoms of infection may recur and resistant viruses may develop.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. A patient is prescribed intravenous (IV) acyclovir (Zovirax). Which question is most important for the nurse to ask before giving the first dose of this drug?
a. Do you have a hearing problem or any trouble with your ears?
b. Do you take medications for seizures?
c. Are you allergic to sulfa drugs?
d. Have you ever had asthma?
ANS: B
Acyclovir reduces the effectiveness of phenytoin, a drug that is used to prevent seizures. The prescriber may need to adjust the phenytoin dosage while the patient is on antiviral therapy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

5. What is the most important precaution for the nurse to teach a patient who is prescribed oral valacyclovir (Valtrex)?
a. Avoid coffee and other caffeinated beverages.
b. Wear long sleeves and a hat when going outdoors.
c. Take this drug 1 hour before or 4 hours after eating a full meal.
d. Drink at least 3 L of water daily for the entire time you are taking this drug.
ANS: D
Valacyclovir consists of a type of chemical that can easily turn into crystals. Crystals that form and clump in the kidneys can cause kidney failure or kidney stones. Drinking at least 3 L of fluids daily while taking this drug can prevent crystallization in the kidneys.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. A patient who has been prescribed amantadine (Symmetrel) has all of the following health problems. For which problem does the nurse contact the prescriber before giving the first dose?
a. Asthma
b. Influenza
c. Glaucoma
d. Diabetes mellitus
ANS: C
Amantadine has central nervous system side effects and can worsen glaucoma. Although the drug may still be given to a person who has glaucoma, more frequent checking of intraocular pressure or adjustment in glaucoma drugs may be needed.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

7. A 2-year-old patient with respiratory syncytial virus is prescribed aerosolized ribavirin (Virazole). Which visitor does the nurse ensure is not in the patients room during the aerosol treatments?
a. 10-year-old brother
b. 81-year-old grandmother
c. 32-year-old pregnant mother
d. 36-year-old father who has diabetes
ANS: C
A major adverse effect of ribavirin is that it is a teratogen, an agent that can cause birth defects. Ribavirin is pregnancy category X. It should not be given to pregnant or breastfeeding women, and it should not be handled or inhaled by anyone who is pregnant.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

8. A patient who is taking interferon is also prescribed ribavirin (Virazole). Which laboratory blood test result for this patient does the nurse report immediately to the prescriber?
a. Red blood cells (RBCs) 2.2 million/mm3
b. White blood cells (WBCs) 6000/mm3
c. Sodium 134 mEq/L
d. International normalized ratio (INR) 1.6
ANS: A
One of the many serious adverse effects of ribavirin is suppression of bone marrow cell division, leading to fewer RBCs and anemia. This patients RBC level is only about half of normal.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

9. Which precaution about zanamivir (Relenza) therapy does the nurse teach a patient who also uses a bronchodilator for asthma control?
a. Drink at least 3 L of water daily while using this drug.
b. Use the bronchodilator 15 minutes before taking the zanamivir.
c. Avoid taking the zanamivir within 2 hours of using the bronchodilator.
d. Take your pulse daily while on this drug because when taken with a bronchodilator heart rhythm problems are common.
ANS: B
Zanamivir is an inhalation drug. When a patient also takes a bronchodilator for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or any other airway problem, the manufacturer recommends using the bronchodilator at least 5 minutes before zanamivir to ensure a wider airway and improved inhalation of the antiviral drug.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. How are retroviruses different from common viruses?
a. Retroviruses respond to antibacterial drugs but common viruses do not.
b. Retroviruses have a greater efficiency of infection than common viruses.
c. Common viral infections can be cured while retroviral infections can only be controlled.
d. Common viruses can infect anyone whereas retroviruses can only cause infection in an immunosuppressed host.
ANS: B
A retrovirus is a special virus that always uses RNA as its genetic material, and carries with it the enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease, which allow a much higher efficiency of cellular infection than common viruses. This means that disease may result even when low levels of retroviruses enter the body.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 175 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

11. Which statement about human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is true?
a. Everyone with AIDS has HIV infection but not everyone with HIV infection has AIDS.
b. Everyone with HIV infection eventually dies of it because the disease cannot be cured.
c. With successful antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients become HIV-antibody negative.
d. When HIV disease becomes AIDS, the infection is in the blood and treatment must be given intravenously.
ANS: A
People infected with HIV develop antibodies to the virus and become HIV positive. Not everyone who is HIV positive will progress with the disease and develop AIDS, the most severe form of the disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)
REF: p. 175 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

12. A patient prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is flying to a wedding and will be gone 1 day. The patient asks about skipping prescribed drug doses that day in order to avoid having to show them all at the airport. What is the nurses best response?
a. Yes, just one day off your drugs will not make any difference.
b. Yes, as long as you avoid direct contact with anyone who is ill.
c. No, even one day off the drugs can help the virus become drug resistant.
d. No, even one day off the drugs increases the chance that you can spread the disease.
ANS: C
An important issue with HAART is the development of drug-resistant mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus organism. When resistance develops, viral replication is no longer suppressed by the drugs. Several factors contribute to the development of drug resistance to HAART, with the most important being missed doses of drugs. When doses are missed, the blood concentrations become lower than what is needed to inhibit viral replication, allowing the virus to replicate and produce new viruses that are resistant to the drugs being used.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. A patient is prescribed to begin highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). What is the most important question the nurse asks this patient before beginning therapy?
a. Do you have any symptoms now of active infection?
b. Is there any possibility that you are pregnant?
c. Are you currently sexually active?
d. What other drugs do you take?
ANS: D
Before giving an antiretroviral drug, always obtain a list of all other drugs the patient also takes, because antiretroviral drugs interact with many other drugs. Check with the pharmacist for possible interactions and the need to consult the prescriber about dosage or changing the patients other drugs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

14. A patient taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for a year has the following blood laboratory test values. Which value does the nurse report to the prescriber immediately?
a. White blood cell count 3500 cells/mm3
b. Lactate dehydrogenase 990 IU/L
c. Sodium 132 mEq/L
d. Hematocrit 32%
ANS: B
All of these blood values are abnormal; however, only the lactate dehydrogenase level is very high (four times normal). This value indicates liver impairment. Nearly all antiretroviral drugs can cause liver impairment. This value must be reported immediately so that liver function can be explored and any needed changes in drug therapy made before irreversible liver damage occurs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

15. A patient has human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and is taking a cocktail consisting of protease inhibitors, nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and nonnucleoside analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. Which statement made by the patient indicates that more teaching about the drug therapy is needed?
a. Using three drugs at the same time enhances suppression of viral replication.
b. There is no problem using these drugs during the last trimester of my pregnancy.
c. Because this drug combination kills HIV, I do not need to worry about transmitting the virus.
d. If the virus becomes resistant to this cocktail, another combination of drugs may be required to reduce my viral load.
ANS: C
Protease inhibitors suppress viral replication and release. They do not kill the virus, and currently no therapy for HIV infection kills the virus. The patient needs to understand that even on antiretroviral therapy, the disease can be spread through exchange of body fluids and precautions still must be taken.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. Which test results indicate to the nurse that a patients antiretroviral therapy is effective?
a. White blood cell count 5000 cells/mm3
b. Blood urea nitrogen level 15 mg/dL
c. Blood positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies
d. CD4+ to CD8+ ratio increased
ANS: D
HIV selectively infects and causes the destruction of CD4 cells (T-helper cells). An increase in ratio of this population of cells compared with CD8+ cells in a patient with HIV disease indicates the drug regimen is effective in suppressing viral replication.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

17. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient taking highly active antiretroviral therapy informs the nurse she is now pregnant. What advice regarding drug therapy does the nurse give this patient?
a. Stop taking these drugs for your entire pregnancy.
b. Stop taking these drugs for the first trimester and start again for the second and third trimesters.
c. Continue to take these drugs throughout your pregnancy exactly as they have been prescribed.
d. It will be necessary to double your dosages of these drugs to ensure your unborn baby is adequately protected.
ANS: C
Antiretroviral drugs for HAART are recommended to be taken by pregnant women who are known to be HIV positive because the virus can cross the placenta and infect the fetus. These drugs, when taken as prescribed, can reduce the chances of fetal infection from about 30% to about 8%. Dosages are based on the womans viral load, not on weight or pregnancy status.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. A child is prescribed emtricitabine (Emtriva) 120 mg orally. The drug on hand is emtricitabine suspension 10 mg/mL. How many mL does the nurse prepare?
a. 2
b. 6
c. 12
d. 20
ANS: C
Want 120 mg in X mL/Have 10 mg in 1 mL. 120/10 = 12 mL = 120 mg.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

19. A patient who is taking zidovudine (Retrovir) reports diarrhea. Which dietary change does the nurse suggest for this patient?
a. Avoid fatty and fried foods.
b. Increase your intake of fiber.
c. Take an antacid 30 minutes before each meal.
d. Restrict your intake of fluids to 1 L per day.
ANS: A
Fatty foods tend to reduce intestinal absorption and make drug-induced diarrhea worse. Although fiber can prevent some types of diarrhea, it is of no benefit for diarrhea associated with antiviral drug therapy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. A patient who has been taking lamivudine (Epivir) for 6 months reports reduced sensation in the fingers and toes. What is the nurses best action?
a. Document the report as the only action.
b. Hold the dose and notify the prescriber.
c. Remind the patient to continue the drug as usual and take a multiple vitamin daily.
d. Reassure the patient that this is an expected drug side effect and to use injury precautions.
ANS: D
Peripheral neuropathy with loss of sensation in the extremities is a common and expected side effect of therapy. Drug therapy is not stopped for this effect. The patient needs to implement precautions to prevent injury from not having full sensation for touch, temperature, and pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

21. Which health problem must the nurse be specifically alert for in pregnant women who are prescribed any nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)?
a. Headache
b. Lactic acidosis
c. Diabetes mellitus
d. Nausea and vomiting
ANS: B
NRTIs increase the risk for lactic acidosis in pregnant women. This problem is not a common occurrence for other patients. Lactic acidosis is the buildup of lactic acid in muscle and other tissues when not enough oxygen is present to allow metabolism to occur normally. Signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis are muscle aches, tiredness and difficulty remaining awake, abdominal pain, hypotension, and a slow, irregular heartbeat.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 179 TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

22. A patient who has been taking efavirenz (Sustiva) reports a sore throat, fever, and blisters. What is the nurses best action?
a. Hold the dose and notify the prescriber.
b. Document the report as the only action.
c. Remind the patient that these are symptoms of opportunistic infection.
d. Reassure the patient that these are common and expected side effects of the drug.
ANS: A
Efavirenz is a nonnucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). A sore throat, fever, different types of rashes, blisters, or multiple bruises are all signs of serious adverse effects of drugs from this class. The drug should be stopped and the prescriber contacted.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

23. Which food, drink, or herbal supplement does the nurse warn a patient who is prescribed nevirapine (Viramune) to avoid?
a. Caffeinated beverages
b. Grapefruit juice
c. St. Johns wort
d. Dairy products
ANS: C
Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The effectiveness of drugs from this class is greatly reduced by the herbal supplement St. Johns wort.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

24. How do protease inhibitor (PI) drugs prevent viral replication?
a. They are counterfeit bases that prevent reverse transcriptase from synthesizing the DNA needed for viral replication.
b. They inactivate the enzyme that allows the viral genetic material to be integrated into the human hosts cellular DNA.
c. They prevent the production of proteins needed for viral particles to leave the cell and infect other cells.
d. They prevent initial infection by blocking the receptor the virus uses to enter target cells.
ANS: C
Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication and release of viral particles. Human immunodeficiency virus produces its proteins, including those needed to move viral particles out of the host cell, in one long (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) strand. For the proteins to be active, this large protein must be broken down into separate smaller proteins through the action of the viral enzyme HIV protease. Protease inhibitors, when taken into an HIV-infected cell, make the protease enzyme work on the drug rather than on the initial large protein. Thus active proteins are not produced and viral particles cannot leave the cell to infect other cells.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 181 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

25. A patient who has been taking indinavir (Crixivan) for a year has just been told that the organism is now resistant to this drug. The patient expresses worry to the nurse that this means the disease will now progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death will soon follow. What is the nurses best response?
a. Your health care provider can change this drug to the intravenous form, which prevents viral replication even in HIV that has developed drug resistance.
b. Although the HIV is now resistant to this drug, other antiretroviral drugs are likely to be effective in controlling your disease.
c. The HIV easily becomes drug resistant. That is why the drug combinations are switched so often.
d. That is a possibility because these drugs do not kill the virus. It is best to be prepared.
ANS: B
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can develop drug resistance relatively quickly, especially to protease inhibitors. This does not mean that the organism is resistant to all antiretroviral drugs and that the disease will then progress to AIDS. By changing the combination of drugs frequently, even an organism that has developed resistance to one antiretroviral drug can still have its replication suppressed and the disease can be controlled. Simply telling the patient that HIV easily becomes drug resistant may be a true statement, but it does not address the patients concerns about the diseases progression.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

26. A pediatric patient is prescribed nelfinavir (Viracept) 450 mg orally. The available drug is 50 mg/scoop. How many level scoops does the nurse measure into the patients pudding to administer the correct dose?
a. 9
b. 6
c. 3
d. 2
ANS: A
Want 450 mg in X scoops/Have 50 mg in 1 scoop. 450/50 = 9 scoops.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

27. Which precaution is most important for the nurse to teach an older patient who is prescribed atazanavir (Reyataz)?
a. Be sure to take this drug at least 1 hour before or 4 hours after taking an antacid.
b. Weigh yourself daily and notify your prescriber if you gain more than 2 pounds in 1 week.
c. Check your pulse for a full minute daily and notify your prescriber if it becomes irregular or slow.
d. Check your calves daily for swelling or redness. If these symptoms appear, go to the emergency department immediately.
ANS: C
Atazanavir can impair electrical conduction in the heart and lead to heart block, especially in older adults or people who have an abnormally slow heart rate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

28. Which precaution is most important for the nurse to teach a patient who is prescribed enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)?
a. After the drug is mixed, store it away from light.
b. Use sterile technique to draw up and inject the drug.
c. Do not take this drug if there is any possibility that you are pregnant.
d. Mix the drug with tap water, then rinse the drugs original container and add that fluid to the drug mixture.
ANS: B
Enfuvirtide is given twice daily by subcutaneous injection. The patient self-injects this drug at home and must use sterile technique. Injection site infections are common.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

29. A 40-year-old patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) asks the nurse why the new drug maraviroc (Selzentry) is not being prescribed for her. What is the nurses best response?
a. This drug is very expensive and your insurance may not cover it.
b. This drug can cause birth defects and should not be prescribed for anyone who is pregnant or might become pregnant.
c. This drug is very toxic to the heart and lungs. It is prescribed only for patients who are young and have no other health problems.
d. This drug is not effective against all HIV subtypes and the HIV causing your infection does not have the target for this drug.
ANS: D
Maraviroc prevents cellular infection by blocking the CCR5 receptor on CD4+ T-cells. Because this drug is not effective against all HIV subtypes, the patient must first be tested to ensure that his or her HIV infection is likely to respond to this therapy. When the HIV subtype does not use the CCR5 receptor, the drug is not prescribed for that patient.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

30. Which precaution is most important for the nurse to teach older adults who are prescribed maraviroc (Selzentry)?
a. If an injection site infection occurs, do not reuse that site until the skin has healed completely.
b. Take the drug with food or milk to reduce the likelihood of GI side effects.
c. Change positions slowly when moving from a sitting to a standing position.
d. Store the drug at room temperature.
ANS: C
Orthostatic hypotension is more likely to develop in older adults taking maraviroc, increasing the risk for falls. Patients need to change positions slowly and use handrails when going up or down steps.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

31. A patient prescribed raltegravir (Isentress) reports all of the following problems or changes since starting this drug. Which problem or change does the nurse report to the prescriber?
a. Abdominal cramps and bloating
b. Muscle aches and weakness
c. Urinating more at night
d. Loss of taste for sweets
ANS: B
This drug can cause the adverse reaction of rhabdomyolysis, which is destruction of skeletal muscle. The symptoms of this problem are muscle aches and weakness. When a patient develops this problem, the drug should be stopped.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which patient outcomes are major goals of antiretroviral therapy? (Select all that apply.)
a. Prevention of opportunistic infections
b. Conversion to an HIV-negative antibody status
c. Reduction of the number of viral particles in the patients blood
d. Increase in CD4+ cells
e. Decrease in CD8+ cells
f. Prevention of disease spread
ANS: A, C, D, F
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) retrovirus selectively infects the helper/inducer T cells, known as CD4+ cells, which coordinate the patients immune response. When these cells are destroyed, the person has little protection from opportunistic infection. Successful antiretroviral therapy reduces the number of viral particles in the blood and increases the CD4+ cell numbers in the blood. These actions reduce the risk for opportunistic infection and reduce the likelihood of HIV disease spread by the patient. Antiretroviral therapy does not affect the number of CD8+ cells and does not change the patients antibody status.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 177 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

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