Chapter 10: Developmental Theories Nursing School Test Banks

Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A nurse who wants to apply a theory that relates to moral development should read more about:

a.

Kohlberg

b.

Gould

c.

Freud

d.

Erikson

ANS: a

a. Kohlberg developed a theory on moral development.

b. Gould developed a theory on psychosocial development.

c. Freud developed a theory on psychosexual development.

d. Erikson developed a theory on psychosocial development.

REF: Text Reference: p. 166

2. The nurse using Eriksons theory to assess a 20-year-old clients developmental status expects to find which of the following behaviors?

a.

Coping with physical and social losses

b.

Enjoyment of a sense of freedom and participation in the community

c.

Applying themselves to learning productive skills

d.

Overcoming a sense of guilt or frustration.

ANS: b

b. According to Erikson, the young adult is in the intimacy versus isolation stage of development. This is the time in which the young adult can become fully participative in the community, enjoying adult freedom and responsibility.

a. Coping with physical and social losses is found in Eriksons integrity versus despair stage (old age) of development.

c. Applying themselves to learning productive skills is consistent behavior found in Eriksons industry versus inferiority stage (age 6 to 11 years) of development.

d. According to Erikson, overcoming a sense of guilt or frustration is in the initiative versus guilt stage (age 3 to 6 years) of development.

REF: Text Reference: p. 161

3. The nurse recognizes that Freuds theory approaches development by looking at:

a.

Cognitive development

b.

Moral reasoning

c.

Logical maturity

d.

Psychosexual aspects

ANS: d

d. Freuds theory of personality development approaches development by looking at psychosexual aspects.

a. Piagets theory approaches development by looking at cognitive development.

b. Kohlbergs theory approaches development by looking at moral reasoning.

c. Goulds theory approaches development by looking at logical maturity.

REF: Text Reference: p. 159

4. The nurse working in a pediatric clinic uses Piagets theory for assessment of her clients developmental status. According to Piaget, a preschool child (3 to 5 years old) who comes to the clinic is expected by the nurse to exhibit which of the following behaviors?

a.

Exploration of the environment

b.

Thinking with the use of symbols and images

c.

Cooperation and sharing

d.

Organization of thoughts and far-reaching problem solving

ANS: b

b. According to Piaget, the preoperational child (age 2 to 7 years) is learning to think with the use of symbols and mental images.

a. According to Piaget, the child explores the environment in the sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years) of cognitive development.

c. Cooperation and sharing are seen in Piagets concrete operations (age 7 to 11 years) stage of cognitive development.

d. Organization of thoughts and far-reaching problem solving are noted in Piagets formal operations (age 11 years to adulthood) stage of cognitive development.

REF: Text Reference: p. 164, Text Reference: p.165

5. Since working in the assisted living facility, the nurse has done a lot of reading on the developmental changes associated with the older adult client. A common behavioral task or critical event for the older adult client is:

a.

Selecting a mate

b.

Rearing children

c.

Finding a congenial social group

d.

Adjusting to decreasing physical strength

ANS: d

d. A common behavioral task of the older adult client is adjusting to decreasing physical strength.

a. Selecting a mate is a developmental task commonly seen in the early adult.

b. Rearing children is a developmental task of the middle-early adult.

c. Finding a congenial social group is a developmental task of the middle-early adult.

REF: Text Reference: p. 163

6. The nurse working in an adult medical clinic wishes to learn more about a developmental theory that focuses on the adult years. The nurse investigates different possibilities and selects the theory proposed by:

a.

Gould

b.

Piaget

c.

Freud

d.

Chess and Thomas

ANS: a

a. Goulds theory of psychosocial development specifically focuses on the adult years.

b. Piagets theory focused on cognitive development throughout the life span.

c. Freuds psychosexual theory focused on personality development throughout the life span.

d. Chess and Thomas theory focused on development from childhood to early adulthood.

REF: Text Reference: p. 162

7. Knowledge of the principles of growth and development is important for the nurse to have to better understand the behaviors and responses of clients from different age groups. The nurse recognizes that which one of the following statements about growth and development is correct?

a.

Development ends with adolescence

b.

Growth refers to qualitative events.

c.

Developmental tasks are age-related achievements.

d.

Cognitive theories focus on emotional development.

ANS: c

c. Developmental tasks are age-related achievements is a correct statement about growth and development.

a. Human growth and development are orderly, predictable processes beginning with conception and continuing until death.

b. Growth refers to quantitative events. Development refers to qualitative events.

d. Cognitive theories focus on reasoning and thinking processes.

REF: Text Reference: p. 156, Text Reference: p.157

8. In Kohlbergs Moral Development theory, an individual who reaches Level II, Conventional Thought, is expected to exhibit:

a.

Absolute obedience to authority

b.

Reasoning based on personal gain

c.

Personal internalization of others expectations

d.

Self-chosen ethical principles, universality, and impartiality

ANS: c

c. At Level II, Conventional Thought, the person sees moral reasoning based on his or her own personal internalization of societal and others expectations.

a. In Stage 1, the childs response to a moral dilemma is in terms of absolute obedience to authority and rules.

b. At Level I, Preconventional Thought, the person reflects on moral reasoning based on personal gain.

d. In Stage 6, according to Kohlberg, a person has self-chosen ethical principles, universality, and impartiality.

REF: Text Reference: p. 166

9. According to Piaget, the infant is in the first period of development, which is characterized by:

a.

Sensorimotor intelligence

b.

Concrete operations

c.

Identity versus role confusion

d.

Preoperational thought

ANS: a

a. According to Piaget, the infant is in the first period of development, which is characterized by sensorimotor intelligence.

b. According to Piaget, children aged 7- to 11 years are in the concrete operations period of development, which is characterized by having the ability to perform mental operations.

c. Identity versus role confusion is a developmental stage (puberty) according to Erikson.

d. According to Piaget, children aged 2- to 7 years are in the preoperational period of development, which is characterized by the child learning to think with the use of symbols and mental images.

REF: Text Reference: p. 164

10. The nurse in a pediatric health care setting is using Piaget as a developmental model for assessment of the clients. Piagets stage of cognitive development in which the child understands the concept of ice becoming water is seen in:

a.

Sensorimotor

b.

Preoperational

c.

Concrete operations

d.

Formal operations

ANS: c

c. During Piagets concrete operations stage of cognitive development, the child is able to understand that objects or quantities remain the same despite a change in their physical appearance, such as when ice becomes water.

a. During Piagets sensorimotor stage of cognitive development, the child is exploring the environment, but is unable to understand the concept of ice becoming water.

b. During Piagets preoperational stage of cognitive development, the child is learning to think with the use of symbols and mental images but is not able to understand the concept of ice becoming water.

d. According to Piagets formal operations stage of cognitive development, the individuals thinking moves to abstract and theoretical subjects.

REF: Text Reference: p. 165

11. The nurse in a pediatric health care setting is using Kohlbergs developmental theory for assessment of the clients. The child is evaluated as having reached Level I, the Preconventional Level. He or she:

a.

Makes sure not to be late for school

b.

Cleans the blackboards after school for the teacher

c.

Runs for school council to change policies

d.

Stays away from gangs at school that harass other children

ANS: a

a. According to Kohlbergs developmental theory of moral development, at Level I, the Preconventional Level, the childs reasoning is based on personal gain. The moral reason for acting relates to the consequences the person believes will occur. The child who makes sure not to be late for school may do so out of fear of punishment.

b. Cleaning the blackboards after school for the teacher is an example of Kohlbergs Stage 3, Good BoyNice Girl Orientation. The child desires to win the teachers approval.

c. Running for school council to change policies is an example of Kohlbergs Stage 5 Social Contract Orientation.

d. Staying away from school gangs that harass other children is an example of Kohlbergs Stage 4, Society-Maintaining Orientation.

REF: Text Reference: p. 166

12. In applying Goulds developmental theory, the nurse anticipates that a client will have a greater concern for ones health within the following theme and age group:

a.

First theme (20s)

b.

Second theme (early 30s)

c.

Fourth theme (40s)

d.

Fifth theme (50s)

ANS: d

d. During the fifth theme (50s), Gould finds a realization of mortality with a concern for ones state of health.

a. During the first theme (20s), Gould finds individuals wanting to get away from their parents.

b. During the second theme (30s), Gould finds young adults working to accept who they are and to accept their growing children as being unique and separate.

c. During the fourth theme (40s), Gould finds resignation and the belief that possibilities are limited.

REF: Text Reference: p. 163

13. The nurse is working with the parents of a newborn. The mother will require surgery and the follow-up treatment will interfere with bonding. In applying Freuds theory, the nurse recognizes that the stage of development that is affected is the:

a.

Oral stage

b.

Anal stage

c.

Phallic stage

d.

Latent stage

ANS: a

a. According to Freud, disruption in the physical or emotional availability of the parent for the newborn (e.g., undergoing surgery) will affect the oral stage of development.

b. According to Freud, the anal stage is 12 to 18 months to 3 years. when the child is undergoing toilet-training.

c. According to Freud, the phallic stage is from ages 3 to 6 years, when the child becomes interested in the genital organs.

d. According to Freud, the latent stage is from ages 6 to 12 years, when the child represses sexual urges and channels them into productive activities that are socially acceptable.

REF: Text Reference: p. 159

14. The nurse interacts primarily with middle adult clients in the physicians office. Eriksons developmental theory is applied by the nurse to determine the stages of the clients that are seen. It is expected by the nurse, in accordance with Eriksons theory, that a middle adult client will be involved in the process of:

a.

Developing a sense of identity

b.

Searching for meaning in life

c.

Enhancing ones capability to love others

d.

Expanding personal and social involvement

ANS: d

d. In accordance with Eriksons theory, the middle adult client is involved in the process of expanding personal and social involvement. Middle-aged adults should be able to see beyond their needs and accomplishments to the needs of society.

a. Developing a sense of identity is in accordance with Eriksons identity versus role confusion (puberty) stage of development.

b. Searching for meaning in life is in accordance with Eriksons integrity versus despair (old age) stage of development.

c. Enhancing ones capability to love others is in accordance with Eriksons intimacy versus isolation (young adult) stage of development.

REF: Text Reference: p. 161

Copyright 2005 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

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