Chapter 10: The Role of the Nurse in Drug Research Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 10: The Role of the Nurse in Drug Research
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse is obtaining consent from a subject newly recruited for a clinical drug trial that will last for 6 months. All subjects will be given gift certificates for participating. One subject says, Well, I guess if the drug doesnt work, Ill just have to put up with the symptoms for 6 months. What will the nurse tell the subject?
a. Participation for the duration of the study is required.
b. Participation may end at any time without penalty.
c. Withdrawal from the study may end at any time, but the gift certificate will not be given.
d. You can request placement in the treatment group.
ANS: B
All participants have the right to autonomy, which is the right to self-determination. Patients have the right to refuse to participate or to withdraw from a study at any time without penalty. Patients generally are not allowed to choose participation in either the treatment or the control group.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 106
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Management of Client Care

2. The nurse is assisting with a clinical drug trial in which the side effects of two effective drugs are being compared. A patient who would benefit from either drug has elected to withdraw from the study, and the nurse assists with the paperwork to facilitate this. This is an example of
a. autonomy.
b. beneficence.
c. justice.
d. veracity.
ANS: A
All participants have the right to autonomy, which is the right to self-determination. Patients have the right to refuse to participate or to withdraw from a study at any time without penalty even if the health care provider disagrees with that choice.

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3. During a clinical drug trial for a new medication, researchers note a previously unknown serious adverse effect occurring in more than 50% of subjects. The study is discontinued. Which ethical principle is being exercised?
a. Beneficence
b. Justice
c. Respect for persons
d. Veracity
ANS: A
Beneficence is the duty to do good and to not harm others. Once a serious adverse effect is noted in a majority of subjects, researchers have an ethical obligation to stop the study.

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4. In a 5-year experimental clinical trial to investigate a new cancer treatment, researchers in the second year note overwhelming improvement in almost all of the subjects in the treatment group. The lead researcher elects to continue the study. Which ethical principle is being violated?
a. Beneficence
b. Justice
c. Respect for persons
d. Veracity
ANS: B
The principle of justice requires that all people be treated fairly, including equal access to health care for all. Once a benefit is demonstrated, it should be available to all participants.

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5. The nurse is enrolling subjects for a double-blind experimental study. One patient asks the nurse to explain the role of the experimental group. The nurse will explain that subjects in the experimental group in this type of study
a. are selected for participation in that group.
b. have unique baseline characteristics.
c. receive a placebo.
d. receive the treatment being evaluated.
ANS: D
In a double-blind experimental study, subjects in the experimental group receive the treatment or drug under study. They are randomly assigned and not selected. They should have similar baseline characteristics to those in the control group. They do not receive a placebo.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 107
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention: Patient Teaching
MSC: NCLEX: Management of Client Care

6. The nurse is obtaining signatures on consent forms for participation in a clinical drug trial. One patient says, Im not sure I want to do this, but I need the cash. The nurse will take which action?
a. Ask the patient to clarify concerns.
b. Reinforce that cash is given to all subjects equally.
c. Report this statement to the party named on the consent.
d. Review the elements of the study and obtain consent.
ANS: C
If a nurse suspects that a patient is being coerced to participate in the study, the nurse should report this to the party named on the informed consent. When a patient verbalizes participation based on a financial reward, there is an element of coercion.

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TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Management of Client Care

7. Which is characteristic of preclinical in vivo testing?
a. A comparison of experimental and control data in animals
b. A study conducted in a test tube in a laboratory
c. A study that determines the parameters of safe therapeutic doses
d. A study to assess the seriousness of the disease to be treated
ANS: A
Preclinical in vivo testing is performed in animals or other living organisms. In vitro studies occur in test tubes. Safe therapeutic dose studies are part of clinical research. Prior to clinical trials, an assessment is made of the disease and its seriousness.

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8. Many drugs marketed in the 1980s may not be effective in a majority of the population. The nurse understands that this is because these drugs
a. did not pass through the appropriate phases of clinical trials.
b. did not require human subject protections and are invalid.
c. were not tested on women, minorities, or children.
d. were tested on healthy subjects only.
ANS: C
Drug research was historically done only with white males, causing uncertainty as to the validity of the research results.

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9. The nurse is assisting with data collection in a study of drug effects in healthy subjects. The nurse assists with blood and urine collection to determine serum drug levels and the presence of metabolites in the urine. Which phase of a drug study does this represent?
a. Phase I
b. Phase II
c. Phase III
d. Phase IV
ANS: A
Phase I drug trials are performed to assess safety and to identify the pharmacokinetics, such as metabolism and elimination, of drugs in healthy subjects.

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10. The nurse is enrolling subjects for a clinical drug trial in which subjects will be randomly assigned to either a treatment or a placebo group. The pills in both groups will be in identical packaging with identical appearance. This is an example of which type of study?
a. Crossover
b. Double-blind
c. Open-label
d. Single-blind
ANS: B
In a double-blind study, neither the subject nor the health care provider knows which group the subjects are in. Since there is no difference in the appearance or packaging of the pills, the health care providers will not be aware of which subjects receive the experimental drug and which ones receive the placebo.

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11. The nurse is assisting with a clinical drug trial to test the safe dose of an analgesic medication and learns that subjects have been told that the study is about measuring the analgesic effects. Which ethical principle has been violated?
a. Beneficence
b. Justice
c. Respect for persons
d. Veracity
ANS: D
Veracity requires health care professionals to tell the truth.

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12. The nurse is participating in a clinical study of the effects of teaching on drug compliance. The subjects are randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. Health professionals deliver one of two teaching modules to each patient. This is an example of which kind of study?
a. Double-blind
b. Open-label
c. Single-blind
d. Triple-blind
ANS: C
In a single-blind study, only the subjects do not know which group they are assigned to.

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13. A clinical drug trial is concluding a study of pharmacokinetics and safety of a drug in healthy individuals. The nurse will assist enrollment of participants into the next phase of the study and will include which subjects?
a. Healthy subjects
b. Healthy and ill subjects
c. Subjects with the disease the drug will treat
d. Subjects with other diseases
ANS: C
After Phase I studies demonstrating drug safety and pharmacokinetics have been completed, the drug is tested on subjects who have the disease the drug will treat.

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TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Management of Client Care

14. Before marketing a new drug that has been approved for use based on clinical effectiveness and safety, the manufacturer wishes to study the potential new uses for the drug. This is an example of which phase of study?
a. Phase I
b. Phase II
c. Phase III
d. Phase IV
ANS: D
Phase IV studies are performed to examine potential new indications for approved drugs.

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15. The nurse is participating in a clinical drug trial comparing two drugs for migraine headaches. Each group is randomly assigned to either drug A or drug B and then switched to the other drug group before being asked to compare the effects. This is an example of which type of study?
a. Crossover design
b. Double-blind experimental design
c. Matched pair design
d. Quasi-experimental design
ANS: A
A crossover design uses each subject in several different situations. In this case, subjects receive both drugs and then compare the effects.

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16. Which statement about the safety and efficacy of medications in children is accurate?
a. Children cannot give consent, so clinical drug trials are not performed on children.
b. Children can only be subjects in quasi-experimental clinical studies.
c. Data from adult clinical drug trials can be extrapolated to children.
d. Federal law requires that drugs for children be tested on children.
ANS: D
The FDA Modernization Act of 1997 requires that drugs intended for use in children be tested on children.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 108
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: N/A MSC: NCLEX: Management of Client Care

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