Chapter 11: Nutrition in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 11: Nutrition in Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. At birth, the reflexes an infant has are
a. rooting, biting, and swallowing.
b. sucking, munching, and swallowing.
c. rooting, sucking, and swallowing.
d. grasping, sucking, and gagging.
ANS: C
At birth the rooting, sucking, and swallowing reflexes are present along with the tonic neck reflex.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 203|207 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Foods for infants should be prepared without added
a. sugar and salt.
b. salt and herbs.
c. wheat and sugar.
d. milk and wheat.
ANS: A
Foods for infants are prepared without added sugar and salt. Foods should not be overseasoned to let tastes develop gradually.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 206 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. The phase that shows the most erratic growth is
a. infancy.
b. childhood.
c. adolescence.
d. adulthood.
ANS: B
During childhood, physical growth and appetite occur in spurts. The generally slow and irregular growth rate continues in the early school years, and body changes occur gradually.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 207|209
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. During a checkup at the clinic, a childs growth is evaluated by using
a. fitness testing.
b. clinical observation.
c. food records.
d. growth charts.
ANS: D
Growth charts are an assessment tool for measuring normal growth patterns in infants, children, and adolescents. These charts are based on large numbers of well-nourished children representing the national population.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 196
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment|Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. A good source of energy for children is
a. chicken.
b. cereal with added sugar.
c. whole wheat toast.
d. a vitamin supplement.
ANS: C
The main energy source for children is carbohydrates, preferably complex carbohydrates. Carbohydrates spare protein so that it is available for building tissue during childhood rather than being broken down for energy needs. Whole wheat toast is a good source of complex carbohydrates. Cereal also provides carbohydrates, but sugar-sweetened cereal provides less complex carbohydrates.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 198
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. In the growing years, most calories are needed for
a. tissue growth.
b. physical activities.
c. specific dynamic effect.
d. basal metabolic needs.
ANS: D
Basal metabolism accounts for 50% of total daily caloric intake during childhood.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 196 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. An example of a food that provides building material for tissue growth is
a. bread.
b. cheese.
c. broccoli.
d. an orange.
ANS: B
Protein is the fundamental tissue-building substance of the body. Cheese is a food high in protein.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 198 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. An 8-month-old infant who receives approximately 0.4 L of fluid per day is meeting
a. 200% of fluid needs per day.
b. 100% of fluid needs per day.
c. 75% of fluid needs per day.
d. 50% of fluid needs per day.
ANS: C
Approximate daily fluid needs during growth years for infants 7 to 12 months is 0.8 L/day.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 198
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. Compared with adults, infants and young children have more body fluid
a. outside the cells.
b. inside the cells.
c. in the bloodstream.
d. in intestinal secretions.
ANS: A
A larger proportion of an infants and childs total body water is outside the cells and more easily available for loss, potentially resulting in dehydration.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 198 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. A good source of calcium for the growing child is
a. milk.
b. juice drink.
c. dinner roll.
d. hot dog.
ANS: A
Milk is a good source of calcium. Calcium is an important nutrient for the growing child to assist with bone and tooth development.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 201
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. An adequate source of iron for a breast-fed infant at 8 months of age is
a. cows milk.
b. goats milk.
c. enriched rice cereal.
d. applesauce.
ANS: C
The iron content of breast milk is highly absorbable and fully meets the needs of an infant for the first 6 months of life. At that point, the infants nutritional needs for iron exceed what is provided exclusively by breast milk, and the addition of pureed meats and enriched cereals after approximately 6 months of age helps supply additional iron.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 201 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. Hypervitaminosis of vitamins A or D is most likely to occur because of
a. excessive milk intake.
b. overexposure to the sun.
c. overuse of vitamin supplements.
d. inadequate intake of vegetables and fruits.
ANS: C
The overuse of vitamin supplements can lead to hypervitaminosis of vitamins A or D. Excess intake may occur over prolonged periods as a result of ignorance, carelessness, or misunderstanding.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 201 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. The feeding process is an important part of the following developmental factors:
a. bonding relationship with parent
b. self-identity for the infant
c. autonomy for the infant and parent
d. infant self-actualization
ANS: A
The feeding process is an important part of the bonding relationship between parent and child. The feeding process influences positive growth.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 203 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. A low birth weight infant weighs less than
a. 1500 grams.
b. 2500 grams.
c. 3000 grams.
d. 3500 grams.
ANS: B
A low birth weight infant weighs less than 2500 grams while a very low birth weight infant weighs less than 1500 grams.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 201 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. The most suitable first solid food for an infant 7 months of age would be
a. yogurt.
b. pureed bananas.
c. pureed squash.
d. infant rice cereal.
ANS: D
Ironfortified infant cereal made from rice, barley, or oats (these are offered one at a time) are usually the most suitable first solid food for infants.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 205
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. The ideal first food for newborns is
a. infant formula.
b. cows milk.
c. breast milk.
d. rice cereal.
ANS: C
The ideal first food for newborns is breast milk because its nutrients are uniquely adapted to meet the growth needs of the infant in forms that are easily digested, absorbed, and used.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 203 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. The first milk secreted by a new mother is called
a. lactation.
b. colostomy.
c. colostrum.
d. prolactin.
ANS: C
Colostrum is a thin, yellow fluid first secreted by the mammary gland a few days after childbirth, preceding the mature breast milk.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 203 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. The approximate recommended age for adding solid food to an infants diet is _____ months.
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 12
ANS: B
The recommended practice is to introduce solid foods at approximately 6 months of age. Younger infants are not ready to swallow and digest solid foods and they do not yet need other nutrients besides those provided by breast milk or infant formula.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 205 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. Babies should not be put to sleep with a bottle of formula because
a. infants should not hold their own bottles.
b. this could lead to early tooth decay.
c. infants should not suck while asleep.
d. susceptibility to diarrhea is increased.
ANS: B
In addition to other concerns, babies should not be put to sleep with a bottle of formula because it can lead to early tooth decay as bacteria ferment nutrients in the formula to produce acid, which damages tooth enamel.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 204 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. A type of feeding not recommended for infants during the early months is
a. breast milk.
b. amino acid-based formula.
c. soy-based formula.
d. cows milk.
ANS: D
Cows milk is not recommended for infants during the first year of life because its concentration may cause gastrointestinal bleeding and it provides too heavy a load of solutes for the infants renal system.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 205 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

21. Young children should be offered
a. large portions so they can decide how much to eat.
b. small portions so they can ask for more if hungry.
c. larger portions of food as they grow older.
d. the same amount of food each day.
ANS: B
In feeding young children, a variety of foods should be offered and served in small portions. Children can ask for seconds if they are still hungry.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 208-209 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

22. Failure to thrive may be caused by
a. early sitting and crawling.
b. sleeping with a bottle.
c. overuse of vitamin supplements.
d. overdilution of formula.
ANS: D
Diluting formula provides fluid without adequate nutrients.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 209|211 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

23. Food intake may decrease after the first year of life and caloric need is not as great because
a. the child is using baby fat stores.
b. muscle development is occurring.
c. the child is still relatively inactive.
d. the growth rate slows down.
ANS: D
During the first year of life growth is rapid, especially during the first 6 months. After the first year the growth rate tends to slow down, and food intake decreases.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 206 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

24. During the school-age years, the rate of growth
a. increases rapidly.
b. is slow and irregular.
c. increases slowly.
d. is similar to that during the preschool years.
ANS: B
The rate of growth during the school-age years is slow and irregular, with body changes occurring gradually.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 209 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

25. The final major growth spurt of childhood occurs
a. at the end of the school-age period.
b. with the onset of puberty.
c. at the end of adolescence.
d. during young adulthood.
ANS: B
The final growth spurt of childhood occurs with the onset of puberty. This rapid growth is evident in increasing body size and development of sex characteristics in response to hormonal influences.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 213 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

26. Eating disorders are common in adolescent girls because
a. their appetites are low.
b. adolescents are busy and may miss meals.
c. society and peers value thinness.
d. they tend to be overzealous in following low-fat eating patterns.
ANS: C
Eating disorders are common is young girls and in boys because of social, family, and personal pressures concerning figure control, which are strong influences on them to fit in and be accepted.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 214
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment|Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

27. The ideal first food for infants is
a. human milk.
b. cows milk.
c. soy-based formula.
d. amino acid-based formula.
ANS: A
Human milk is the ideal first food for infants and is recommended by physicians and dietitians. Cows milk is not recommended and should never be fed to an infant during the first year of life. Unmodified cows milk can cause gastrointestinal bleeding and provides too heavy a load of solutes for the infants renal system. Appropriate infant formula can be used if the mother chooses not to breast-feed or if some condition prevents breast-feeding.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 203 TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

28. Older infants can finger-feed themselves with a refined pincer grasp at
a. 6 to 8 months.
b. 7 to 9 months.
c. 10 to 12 months.
d. 12 to 18 months.
ANS: C
At 10 to 12 months, infants can finger feed themselves with a refined pincer grasp.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 205-207 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

29. Parents who use natural foods should be advised to
a. add honey to water if the infant is constipated.
b. avoid giving honey to a child younger than 1 year.
c. add honey to infant foods as a good source of energy.
d. use only unprocessed honey.
ANS: B
Honey should not be given to an infant younger than 1 year because botulism spores have been reported in honey and the immune capacity of the young infant cannot resist this infection.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 206
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

30. Effective strategies for weight management in children include
a. regular physical activity.
b. counting calorie intake.
c. eliminating snacks.
d. eliminating fried foods.
ANS: A
Regular physical activity is a key strategy in maintaining a healthy weight in children along with varied and healthy food choices.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 211-212
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

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