Chapter 12: Inflammation and Wound Healing Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 12: Inflammation and Wound Healing

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse assesses a patients surgical wound on the first postoperative day and notes redness and warmth around the incision. Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?

a.

Obtain wound cultures.

b.

Document the assessment.

c.

Notify the health care provider.

d.

Assess the wound every 2 hours.

ANS: B

The incisional redness and warmth are indicators of the normal initial (inflammatory) stage of wound healing by primary intention. The nurse should document the wound appearance and continue to monitor the wound. Notification of the health care provider, assessment every 2 hours, and obtaining wound cultures are not indicated because the healing is progressing normally.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 177-178

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. A patient with an open leg wound has a white blood cell (WBC) count of 13, 500/L and a band count of 11%. What action should the nurse take first?

a.

Obtain wound cultures.

b.

Start antibiotic therapy.

c.

Redress the wound with wet-to-dry dressings.

d.

Continue to monitor the wound for purulent drainage.

ANS: A

The increase in WBC count with the increased bands (shift to the left) indicates that the patient probably has a bacterial infection, and the nurse should obtain wound cultures. Antibiotic therapy and/or dressing changes may be started, but cultures should be done first. The nurse will continue to monitor the wound, but additional actions are needed as well.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 173

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. A patient with a systemic bacterial infection feels cold and has a shaking chill. Which assessment finding will the nurse expect next?

a.

Skin flushing

b.

Muscle cramps

c.

Rising body temperature

d.

Decreasing blood pressure

ANS: C

The patients complaints of feeling cold and shivering indicate that the hypothalamic set point for temperature has been increased and the temperature is increasing. Because associated peripheral vasoconstriction and sympathetic nervous system stimulation will occur, skin flushing and hypotension are not expected. Muscle cramps are not expected with chills and shivering or with a rising temperature.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 174-175

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. A young adult patient who is receiving antibiotics for an infected leg wound has a temperature of 101.8 F (38.7 C). Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?

a.

Apply a cooling blanket.

b.

Notify the health care provider.

c.

Give the prescribed PRN aspirin (Ascriptin) 650 mg.

d.

Check the patients oral temperature again in 4 hours.

ANS: D

Mild to moderate temperature elevations (less than 103 F) do not harm the young adult patient and may benefit host defense mechanisms. The nurse should continue to monitor the temperature. Antipyretics are not indicated unless the patient is complaining of fever-related symptoms. There is no need to notify the patients health care provider or to use a cooling blanket for a moderate temperature elevation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 176

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. A patients 4 3-cm leg wound has a 0.4 cm black area in the center of the wound surrounded by yellow-green semiliquid material. Which dressing should the nurse apply to the wound?

a.

Dry gauze dressing (Kerlix)

b.

Nonadherent dressing (Xeroform)

c.

Hydrocolloid dressing (DuoDerm)

d.

Transparent film dressing (Tegaderm)

ANS: C

The wound requires debridement of the necrotic areas and absorption of the yellow-green slough. A hydrocolloid dressing such as DuoDerm would accomplish these goals. Transparent film dressings are used for red wounds or approximated surgical incisions. Dry dressings will not debride the necrotic areas. Nonadherent dressings will not absorb wound drainage or debride the wound.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 182 | 179

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. A patient has an open surgical wound on the abdomen that contains deep pink granulation tissue. How would the nurse document this wound?

a.

Red wound

b.

Yellow wound

c.

Full-thickness wound

d.

Stage III pressure ulcer

ANS: A

The description is consistent with a red wound. A stage III pressure ulcer would expose subcutaneous fat. A yellow wound would have creamy colored exudate. A full-thickness wound involves subcutaneous tissue, which is not indicated in the wound description.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (comprehension) REF: 179

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7. A patient with rheumatoid arthritis has been taking corticosteroids for 11 months. Which nursing action is most likely to detect early signs of infection in this patient?

a.

Monitor white blood cell count.

b.

Check the skin for areas of redness.

c.

Check the temperature every 2 hours.

d.

Ask about fatigue or feelings of malaise.

ANS: D

Common clinical manifestations of inflammation and infection are frequently not present when patients receive immunosuppressive medications. The earliest manifestation of an infection may be just not feeling well.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 176

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. The nurse should plan to use a wet-to-dry dressing for which patient?

a.

A patient who has a pressure ulcer with pink granulation tissue

b.

A patient who has a surgical incision with pink, approximated edges

c.

A patient who has a full-thickness burn filled with dry, black material

d.

A patient who has a wound with purulent drainage and dry brown areas

ANS: D

Wet-to-dry dressings are used when there is minimal eschar to be removed. A full-thickness wound filled with eschar will require interventions such as surgical debridement to remove the necrotic tissue. Wet-to-dry dressings are not needed on approximated surgical incisions. Wet-to-dry dressings are not used on uninfected granulating wounds because of the damage to the granulation tissue.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 187 | 183

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

9. A patient from a long-term care facility is admitted to the hospital with a sacral pressure ulcer. The base of the wound is yellow and involves subcutaneous tissue. How should the nurse classify this pressure ulcer?

a.

Stage I

b.

Stage II

c.

Stage III

d.

Stage IV

ANS: C

A stage III pressure ulcer has full-thickness skin damage and extends into the subcutaneous tissue. A stage I pressure ulcer has intact skin with some observable damage such as redness or a boggy feel. Stage II pressure ulcers have partial-thickness skin loss. Stage IV pressure ulcers have full-thickness damage with tissue necrosis, extensive damage, or damage to bone, muscle, or supporting tissues.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (comprehension) REF: 185

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

10. A young male patient who is a paraplegic has a stage II sacral pressure ulcer and is being cared for at home by his mother. To prevent further tissue damage, what instructions are most important for the nurse to teach the mother?

a.

Change the patients bedding frequently.

b.

Use a hydrocolloid dressing over the ulcer.

c.

Record the size and appearance of the ulcer weekly.

d.

Change the patients position at least every 2 hours.

ANS: D

The most important intervention is to avoid prolonged pressure on bony prominences by frequent repositioning. The other interventions may also be included in family teaching, but the most important instruction is to change the patients position at least every 2 hours.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 184

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. The nurse will perform which action when doing a wet-to-dry dressing change on a patients stage III sacral pressure ulcer?

a.

Soak the old dressings with sterile saline 30 minutes before removing them.

b.

Pour sterile saline onto the new dry dressings after the wound has been packed.

c.

Apply antimicrobial ointment before repacking the wound with moist dressings.

d.

Administer the ordered PRN hydrocodone (Lortab) 30 minutes before the dressing change.

ANS: D

Mechanical debridement with wet-to-dry dressings is painful, and patients should receive pain medications before the dressing change begins. The new dressings are moistened with saline before being applied to the wound. Soaking the old dressings before removing them will eliminate the wound debridement that is the purpose of this type of dressing. Application of antimicrobial ointments is not indicated for a wet-to-dry dressing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 183

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

12. A new nurse performs a dressing change on a stage II left heel pressure ulcer. Which action by the new nurse indicates a need for further teaching about pressure ulcer care?

a.

The new nurse uses a hydrocolloid dressing (DuoDerm) to cover the ulcer.

b.

The new nurse inserts a sterile cotton-tipped applicator into the pressure ulcer.

c.

The new nurse irrigates the pressure ulcer with sterile saline using a 30-mL syringe.

d.

The new nurse cleans the ulcer with a sterile dressing soaked in half-strength peroxide.

ANS: D

Pressure ulcers should not be cleaned with solutions that are cytotoxic, such as hydrogen peroxide. The other actions by the new nurse are appropriate.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 187

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

13. A patient arrives in the emergency department with a swollen ankle after an injury incurred while playing soccer. Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?

a.

Elevate the ankle above heart level.

b.

Apply a warm moist pack to the ankle.

c.

Assess the ankles range of motion (ROM).

d.

Assess whether the patient can bear weight on the affected ankle.

ANS: A

Soft tissue injuries are treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Elevation of the ankle will decrease tissue swelling. Moving the ankle through the ROM will increase swelling and risk further injury. Cold packs should be applied the first 24 hours to reduce swelling. The nurse should not ask the patient to move or bear weight on the swollen ankle because immobilization of the inflamed or injured area promotes healing by decreasing metabolic needs of the tissues.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 177

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. When admitting a patient with stage III pressure ulcers on both heels, which information obtained by the nurse will have the most impact on wound healing?

a.

The patient takes insulin daily.

b.

The patient states that the ulcers are very painful.

c.

The patient has had the heel ulcers for the last 6 months.

d.

The patient has several old incisions that have formed keloids.

ANS: A

Chronic insulin use indicates diabetes, which can interfere with wound healing. The persistence of the ulcers over the last 6 months is a concern, but changes in care may be effective in promoting healing. Keloids are not disabling or painful, although the cosmetic effects may be distressing for some patients. Actions to reduce the patients pain will be implemented, but pain does not directly affect wound healing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 181

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

15. After receiving a change-of-shift report, which patient should the nurse assess first?

a.

The patient who has multiple black wounds on the feet and ankles

b.

The newly admitted patient with a stage IV pressure ulcer on the coccyx

c.

The patient who has been receiving chemotherapy and has a temperature of 102 F

d.

The patient who needs to be medicated with multiple analgesics before a scheduled dressing change

ANS: C

Chemotherapy is an immunosuppressant. Even a low fever in an immunosuppressed patient is a sign of serious infection and should be treated immediately with cultures and rapid initiation of antibiotic therapy. The nurse should assess the other patients as soon as possible after assessing and implementing appropriate care for the immunosuppressed patient.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (analysis) REF: 176

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

16. The nurse could delegate care of which patient to a licensed practical/vocational nurse (LPN/LVN)?

a.

The patient who has increased tenderness and swelling around a leg wound

b.

The patient who was just admitted after suturing of a full-thickness arm wound

c.

The patient who needs teaching about home care for a draining abdominal wound

d.

The patient who requires a hydrocolloid dressing change for a stage III sacral ulcer

ANS: D

LPN/LVN education and scope of practice include sterile dressing changes for stable patients. Initial wound assessments, patient teaching, and evaluation for possible poor wound healing or infection should be done by the registered nurse (RN).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 183

OBJ: Special Questions: Delegation TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

17. The nurse is caring for a patient with diabetes who had abdominal surgery 3 days ago. Which finding is most important for the nurse to report to the health care provider?

a.

Blood glucose 136 mg/dL

b.

Oral temperature 101 F (38.3 C)

c.

Patient complaint of increased incisional pain

d.

Separation of the proximal wound edges by 1 cm

ANS: D

Wound separation 3 days postoperatively indicates possible wound dehiscence and should be immediately reported to the health care provider. The other findings will also be reported but do not require intervention as rapidly.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 180

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18. A patient who has diabetes is admitted for an exploratory laparotomy for abdominal pain. When planning interventions to promote wound healing, what is the nurses highest priority?

a.

Maintaining the patients blood glucose within a normal range

b.

Ensuring that the patient has an adequate dietary protein intake

c.

Giving antipyretics to keep the temperature less than 102 F (38.9 C)

d.

Redressing the surgical incision with a dry, sterile dressing twice daily

ANS: A

Elevated blood glucose will have an impact on multiple factors involved in wound healing. Ensuring adequate nutrition also is important for the postoperative patient, but a higher priority is blood glucose control. A temperature of 102 F will not impact adversely on wound healing, although the nurse may administer antipyretics if the patient is uncomfortable. Application of a dry, sterile dressing daily may be ordered, but frequent dressing changes for a wound healing by primary intention is not necessary to promote wound healing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 181

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. Which finding is most important for the nurse to communicate to the health care provider when caring for a patient who is receiving negative pressure wound therapy?

a.

Low serum albumin level

b.

Serosanguineous drainage

c.

Deep red and moist wound bed

d.

Cobblestone appearance of wound

ANS: A

With negative pressure therapy, serum protein levels may decrease, which will adversely affect wound healing. The other findings are expected with wound healing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 182

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

20. After the home health nurse teaches a patients family member about how to care for a sacral pressure ulcer, which finding indicates that additional teaching is needed?

a.

The family member uses a lift sheet to reposition the patient.

b.

The family member uses clean tap water to clean the wound.

c.

The family member places contaminated dressings in a plastic grocery bag.

d.

The family member dries the wound using a hair dryer set on a low setting.

ANS: D

Pressure ulcers need to be kept moist to facilitate wound healing. The other actions indicate a good understanding of pressure ulcer care.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 187-188

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

SHORT ANSWER

1. A patients temperature has been 101 F (38.3 C) for several days. The patients normal caloric intake to meet nutritional needs is 2000 calories per day. Knowing that the metabolic rate increases 7% for each Fahrenheit degree above 100 in body temperature, how many total calories should the patient receive each day?

ANS:

2140 calories

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 176

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

OTHER

1. A patient who has an infected abdominal wound develops a temperature of 104 F (40 C). All the following interventions are included in the patients plan of care. In which order should the nurse perform the following actions?(Put a comma and a space between each answer choice [A, B, C, D]).

a. Administer IV antibiotics.

b. Sponge patient with cool water.

c. Perform wet-to-dry dressing change.

d. Administer acetaminophen (Tylenol).

ANS:

A, D, B, C

The first action should be to administer the antibiotic because treating the infection that has caused the fever is the most important aspect of fever management. The next priority is to lower the high fever, so the nurse should administer acetaminophen to lower the temperature set point. A cool sponge bath should be done after the acetaminophen is given to lower the temperature further. The wet-to-dry dressing change will not have an immediate impact on the infection or fever and should be done last.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (analysis) REF: 184 | 187-188

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

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