Chapter 13: Drugs for Hypertension Nursing School Test Banks

Workman: Understanding Pharmacology

Chapter 13: Drugs for Hypertension

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A patients blood pressure is consistently around 138/88 mm Hg. What does this reading represent?
a. Normal blood pressure
b. Prehypertension
c. Stage 1 hypertension
d. Stage 2 hypertension
ANS: B
There are four classifications of hypertension (see Table 13-1 in the text). This patients blood pressure is consistently within the range for pre-hypertension.

PTS: 0 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 224 TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

2. When hypertension is not treated, which health problem can result?
a. Kidney damage
b. Prostate enlargement
c. Diabetes mellitus
d. Seizures
ANS: A
Health problems that can result from untreated hypertension include arteriosclerosis, heart attack, stroke, enlarged heart, kidney damage, and blindness. High blood pressure can affect the ability of the kidneys to remove waste from the blood by hardening, thickening, and narrowing the arteries to the kidneys. About 25% of patients who are on kidney dialysis have kidney failure that was caused by hypertension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 224 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

3. What is the difference between primary hypertension and secondary hypertension?
a. Secondary hypertension is not as severe as primary hypertension.
b. Primary hypertension usually occurs at an earlier age than secondary hypertension.
c. Secondary hypertension is caused by another health problem, whereas primary hypertension does not have a known cause.
d. Primary hypertension can be treated with antihypertensive drugs, whereas secondary hypertension does not respond to drug therapy.
ANS: C
Although there are many factors that contribute to the development of primary hypertension (e.g., obesity, smoking, stress, unhealthy diet), it has no single cause. (Many people with hypertension risk factors do not always develop hypertension.) On the other hand, secondary hypertension results from either another health problem or from the drug treatment of another health problem.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 225 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

4. The nurse is teaching a patient about antihypertensive therapy. Which statement by the patient indicates the need for more teaching?
a. Now that my blood pressure is normal, I wont need to take my medication anymore.
b. When I take my blood pressure at home, I always try to take it at just about the same time every day.
c. I check the labels on cans and other food packages to be sure they do not have too much sodium.
d. I hope that by continuing to lose weight, I might not have to take medications to manage my high blood pressure.
ANS: A
Antihypertensive drugs do not cure high blood pressure, they only control it. The patient must continue to take the drug to keep blood pressure at target levels unless the factors that are increasing the blood pressure are changed or eliminated. For example, sometimes blood pressure becomes normal again when the person is no longer overweight. In addition, if another drug is causing the hypertension, like corticosteroids, and the patient no longer needs to take that drug, blood pressure can become normal again.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. Which drug action is most likely to lower blood pressure?
a. Increasing the effectiveness of heart pumping
b. Relaxing (dilating) blood vessel smooth muscle
c. Increasing the excretion of urine from the body
d. Retaining the bodys concentration of potassium
ANS: B
The most common physiologic change that increases blood pressure is narrowing or constricting of the small arteries. Drugs that cause blood vessels to relax or dilate are most effective at lowering blood pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 228 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

6. Which action or precaution is most important for the nurse to perform before giving any type of drug for hypertension?
a. Check the patients blood pressure.
b. Ensure that the patient is in a sitting position.
c. Check the patients pulse for regularity.
d. Have the patient drink a full glass of water.
ANS: A
Drugs that lower blood pressure can make a normal pressure too low and can make a low blood pressure worse. Checking the patients blood pressure before giving a drug ensures that the patient is not hypotensive at the time he or she receives the drug. Some drugs can change the bodys electrolyte concentration so much that an irregular heart rate can occur; however, all antihypertensive drugs can lower blood pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

7. The nurse is checking a patients blood pressure before administering an antihypertensive, and gets a reading of 88/52 mm Hg. What is the nurses best action?
a. Give the patient a cup of coffee and retake the blood pressure in 30 minutes.
b. Document the finding as the only action and administer the drug as usual.
c. Raise the side rails and apply oxygen by mask or nasal cannula.
d. Hold the dose and notify the prescriber.
ANS: D
This patients blood pressure is quite low. If the patient is receiving this drug because he or she has hypertension, another dose of the drug right now could make the patients blood pressure dangerously low. Sometimes a patient may be prescribed an antihypertensive drug for another reason. The nurse must check with the prescriber before administering this antihypertensive drug dose.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

8. The nurse gives the first dose of an antihypertensive drug to a patient. Which instruction does the nurse give to the patient next?
a. Stay in bed and call for help if you need to get up for any reason.
b. Urinate in a container so that we can keep track of your urine output.
c. If you develop a headache, we can give you some acetaminophen (Tylenol).
d. You may get up but only if you need to use the bathroom.
ANS: A
After taking the first dose of an antihypertensive drug, a patient may develop dizziness, light-headedness, or orthostatic hypotension. The patient should be given the call light and instructed to call for help getting up out of bed. The patient should also be instructed to change positions slowly.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. A patient prescribed a thiazide diuretic for hypertension reports having cramps and feeling like the heart is skipping beats. What side effect of this drug does the nurse suspect?
a. Dizziness
b. Orthostatic hypotension
c. Hypokalemia
d. Dysrhythmia
ANS: C
A side effect of both thiazide and loop diuretics is loss of potassium resulting in hypokalemia (low blood potassium). Signs of hypokalemia include cramps, sudden decrease in urination, and irregular heartbeats.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

10. A patient taking a thiazide diuretic has the following blood laboratory values for kidney function. Which value does the nurse report to the prescriber immediately?
a. Sodium 124 mEq/L
b. Potassium 3.6 mEq/L
c. Creatinine 0.9 mg/dL
d. Blood urea nitrogen 16 mg/dL
ANS: A
Normal blood levels of sodium range between 135 and 145 mEq/L. The value listed here, 124 mEq/L, is low (hyponatremia) and can weaken the skeletal muscles, increasing the risk for falls. Most likely, the diuretic therapy caused the kidneys to excrete too much sodium.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

11. A patient asks the nurse how atenolol (Tenormin) will help reduce hypertension. What is the nurses best response?
a. It will help your body rid itself of excess fluids and decrease the work your heart must do to pump blood.
b. It will help decrease built-up water and salt in your blood and tissues.
c. It will block vasoconstriction as well as salt and water retention.
d. It will decrease your heart rate and how hard your heart pumps.
ANS: D
Atenolol is a beta blocker that blocks the action of epinephrine on the heart. This results in a decreased heart rate and force of contraction, which leads to decreased blood pressure. As a result the heart does not work as hard and requires less oxygen.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. A patient taking metoprolol (Lopressor) for hypertension reports all of the following side effects. For which side effect does the nurse notify the prescriber?
a. Increased urination during the daytime
b. Heart rate of 68 per minute
c. Chest pain during exercise
d. Decreased sexual ability
ANS: C
Chest pain is never considered normal. Chest pain should be reported to the prescriber any time a patient experiences it because this is one symptom of many serious cardiac problems.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

13. Which precaution is most important for the nurse to teach a patient who has been prescribed a beta blocker for hypertension?
a. Avoid alcoholic beverages while taking this drug.
b. Weigh yourself daily at the same time every morning.
c. Wear gloves and other warm clothing during cold weather.
d. Do not suddenly stop taking this drug without notifying your prescriber.
ANS: D
Beta blocker therapy increases the number of beta adrenergic receptors in the heart and blood vessels. If these drugs are suddenly stopped, there are more beta receptors present and the patients own adrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine) can bind to these receptors and cause dangerously high blood pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. A 38-year-old patient has been prescribed nadolol (Corgard) 80 mg daily for hypertension. The patient tells the nurse that he has stopped taking the drug. What is the nurses best action at this time?
a. Instruct the patient to begin taking the drug immediately.
b. Ask the patient if he is experiencing side effects of the drug.
c. Document this finding in detail.
d. Immediately notify the prescriber.
ANS: B
It is important to address the reason that the patient has stopped taking the drug at this time. Fairly common side effects of beta blockers include decreased sexual ability, dizziness, drowsiness, trouble sleeping, tiredness, and weakness. All of the other actions are important and appropriate, but do not focus on the patients concerns with regard to why he stopped taking the drug.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

15. A patient has a dose of labetolol (Normodyne) ordered twice a day and is due to have an exercise stress test this morning. What is the nurses best action at this time?
a. Give the dose as ordered.
b. Hold the dose and notify the prescriber.
c. Give half the dose now and half after the procedure.
d. Ask the patient about chest pain, dizziness, and light-headedness.
ANS: B
Labetolol is a beta blocker which decreases heart rate, force of heart contraction, and blood pressure. Its actions can affect the results of the test, causing inaccurate results.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

16. A patient who has been prescribed enalopril (Vasotec) has developed a persistent nonproductive cough. What is the nurses best action?
a. Ask the prescriber to order something for the patients cough.
b. Suggest that the family bring the patient some cough drops.
c. Offer the patient sips of water and ice chips.
d. Hold the dose and notify the prescriber.
ANS: D
Development of a dry, persistent cough is a side effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor drugs such as enalopril. The cough indicates that the patient is having a reaction to the drug. The drug needs to be discontinued and the patient should be started on another drug to control hypertension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

17. A patient who has been taking lisinopril (Zestril) develops swollen lips and reports that the tongue feels thick. What is the nurses best action?
a. Document the report and reassure the patient that this is a common drug side effect.
b. Check the patients pulse for rhythm and take the patients blood pressure.
c. Ask the patient whether this has ever happened before.
d. Hold the lisinopril dose and notify the prescriber.
ANS: D
About 15% of patients taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor develop allergies to the drug with the first symptom of angioedema (swelling) of the face, lips, tongue, and neck. The swelling can become severe enough to block the patients airway. Although this reaction is not usually as immediately life-threatening as anaphylaxis, another dose of the drug would worsen the problem.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

18. An older patient has been prescribed an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Which precaution is most important for the nurse to teach the patient about this drug?
a. Avoid caffeinated drinks that may increase your blood pressure.
b. Take this drug at night so that you wont be aware of nausea.
c. Change positions slowly when rising up from a sitting position.
d. Weigh yourself daily upon first arising in the morning.
ANS: C
Older adults are at greater risk for postural (orthostatic) hypotension when taking ACE inhibitors because of the cardiovascular changes associated with aging. Quickly changing a lying or sitting position to standing can lower blood pressure so rapidly that the patient can get dizzy or faint, leading to a fall.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. A patient has been prescribed losartan (Cozaar). Which substance, drug, or activity does the nurse teach the patient to avoid?
a. Oral contraceptives
b. Salt substitutes
c. Caffeine
d. Running
ANS: B
Salt substitutes are mostly composed of potassium. Losartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker, and this class of drugs causes the kidneys to retain potassium. Taking in more potassium along with this drug could lead to high blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia), which has severe effects on heart contractility.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. How does the drug diltiazem (Cardizem) lower blood pressure?
a. Prevents angiotensin from binding to its receptors
b. Blocks nerve stimulation of blood vessels
c. Increases water and sodium loss
d. Widens small arteries
ANS: D
Constricted blood vessels increase peripheral resistance and raise blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers work in several ways to lower blood pressure. The main way is by preventing calcium from entering smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, especially small arteries. With less calcium entering these smooth muscle cells, they are more relaxed, dilating (widening) the blood vessels.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 234 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

21. An older adult man who takes verapamil (Calan) reports that his breasts have enlarged. What is the nurses best action?
a. Ask the patient whether he has had any difficulty getting or maintaining an erection.
b. Document the response and reassure the patient that this is a common side effect.
c. Instruct the patient to use an elastic wrap to bind his breasts during the day.
d. Hold the drug dose and notify the prescriber.
ANS: B
Breast enlargement is a common side effect of verapamil in men. The cause of the enlargement is not completely known, but it does not represent cancer or any health problem. Unless the patient is very distressed by the presence of the breast enlargement, it is not necessary to stop the drug.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

22. A patient who is taking nicardipine (Cardene) develops skin lesions, itching, fever, and achy joints. What is the nurses best first action?
a. Hold the drug and notify the prescriber.
b. Document the finding as expected with this drug.
c. Administer a dose of oral diphenhydramine (Benadryl).
d. Apply a thin coat of hydrocortisone ointment to the lesions.
ANS: A
An adverse effect of calcium channel blocker drugs is Stevens-Johnson syndrome (erythema multiforme), a skin disorder from an allergic reaction. It causes damage to blood vessels of the skin. Symptoms include many different types of skin lesions, itching, fever, joint aching, and generally feeling ill.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

23. The nurse is teaching a patient who has just been prescribed prazosin (Minipres) for hypertension. The nurse immediately notifies the prescriber and questions the order upon discovering that the patient is also taking which drug?
a. aspirin
b. atenolol (Tenormin)
c. chlorothiazide (Diuril)
d. sildenafil (Viagra)
ANS: D
Sildenafil is a drug for erectile dysfunction and works by dilating blood vessels. When taken with an alpha blocker, sildenafil can cause a very rapid drop in blood pressure to the extent that the patient may fall or pass out.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

24. A patient with hypertension is prescribed terazosin (Hytrin). How does the nurse administer the first dose of this drug to the patient?
a. In the morning to avoid waking the patient at night
b. With meals to avoid GI problems
c. With a full glass of water
d. At bedtime
ANS: D
Orthostatic hypotension is a common side effect of the first dose of an alpha blocker drug. The nurse should give the first dose at bedtime and caution the patient not to get up without assistance.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

25. A patient with hypertension and type 2 diabetes is taking carvedilol (Coreg). What special precaution does the nurse take when giving this drug?
a. Assesses blood pressure in both arms
b. Monitors strict intake and output
c. Checks blood sugar levels regularly
d. Watches for sacral swelling
ANS: C
Carvedilol is an alpha-beta blocker drug. These drugs can cause elevated blood glucose levels, so the nurse should monitor blood glucose levels regularly in patients with diabetes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

26. The nurse is teaching a patient how to administer clonidine (Catapres) using the transdermal patch system. The nurse tells the patient to change the patches how often?
a. Daily
b. Every 3 days
c. Every 7 days
d. Every 14 days
ANS: C
The nature of the clonidine patch delivers a low dose of the drug continually from the patch for 7 days. After 7 days, minimal drug is left in the patch and the patient will no longer receive a therapeutic dose. To ensure a continual therapeutic dose, the patch is removed after 7 days and a fresh one applied.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

27. Which antihypertensive drug is considered safe for use during pregnancy or breastfeeding?
a. clonidine (Catapres)
b. methyldopa (Aldomet)
c. labetalol (Normodyne)
d. carvedilol (Coreg)
ANS: B
Many drugs are not considered safe for use during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Methyldopa, a centrally acting adrenergic drug, has been used safely during both pregnancy and breastfeeding to treat hypertension. Hydralazine (Apresoline), a direct vasodilator, has also been used safely during both pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, small amounts of hydralazine pass into breast milk, putting infants at minimal risk for side effects.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)
REF: p. 243 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

28. Which drug acts directly on the peripheral arteries, causing them to dilate and leading to decreased blood pressure?
a. minoxidil (Lonitin)
b. propranolol (Inderal)
c. captopril (Capoten)
d. diltiazem (Cardizem)
ANS: A
Minoxidil is a direct vasodilator that acts on peripheral arteries, causing them to dilate (widen) and leading to decreased blood pressure. Propranolol is a beta blocker, captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and diltiazem is a calcium channel blocker.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)
REF: p. 244 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

29. Which class of antihypertensive drugs has a higher incidence of side effects?
a. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
b. Calcium channel blockers
c. Alpha-beta blockers
d. Direct vasodilators
ANS: D
Direct vasodilators and centrally acting drugs have higher incidences of side effects.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)
REF: p. 244 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which statements are true about blood pressure? (Select all that apply.)
a. Blood pressure decreases when a person is resting.
b. Blood pressure increases when a person is active.
c. Low blood pressure is called hypotension.
d. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure against artery walls when the heart relaxes.
e. As people get older they are more likely to develop high blood pressure.
ANS: A, B, C, E
Systolic blood pressure is the pressure of blood against the artery walls when the heart contracts. Diastolic blood pressure represents pressure against artery walls when the heart relaxes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 224 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

2. Which conditions or drugs can cause secondary hypertension? (Select all that apply.)
a. Adrenal gland tumors
b. Estrogen in birth control pills
c. Adenocarcinoma
d. Cortisol
e. Kidney infection
ANS: A, B, D, E
Secondary hypertension is the result of other health problems or drugs. Table 13-2 in the text lists the health problems and drugs that can cause secondary hypertension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 226 TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

3. The nurse is teaching a patient with hypertension about the use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. What does the nurse include in the teaching plan? (Select all that apply.)
a. OTC cold remedies can be safely taken and will not affect your blood pressure.
b. Avoid cold remedies that contain phenylephrine or pseudoephedrine because they can increase your blood pressure.
c. OTC nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause secondary hypertension.
d. Avoid taking OTC histamine blockers for reflux or upset stomach.
e. Be sure to contact your prescriber before taking any OTC preparations.
ANS: B, C, E
Drugs that can cause secondary hypertension include NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Other drugs that can cause high blood pressure include OTC allergy and cold remedies that contain phenylephrine or pseudoephedrine. These drugs should be avoided in patients with hypertension. A patient should always consult with the prescriber before taking an OTC drug because of the possibility of drug interactions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying (Application) or higher
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment

4. The nurse is preparing a teaching plan for a patient taking antihypertensive drugs for hypertension. Which symptoms does the nurse include when teaching about the symptoms of hypotension? (Select all that apply.)
a. Increased blood glucose
b. Dizziness
c. GI upset
d. Fainting
e. Light-headedness
ANS: B, D, E
Antihypertensive drugs work to decrease blood pressure and can result in hypotension (low blood pressure). Symptoms of low blood pressure include dizziness, fainting, light-headedness, and orthostatic hypotension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 227 TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. Which lifestyle changes does the nurse include when teaching a patient who has been prescribed antihypertensive drugs about how to manage hypertension? (Select all that apply.)
a. Establish a regular exercise program.
b. Seek a smoking cessation program.
c. Attain a more challenging career.
d. Consult with a dietitian about a weight loss diet.
e. Choose low-fat, low-salt foods when eating out.
ANS: A, B, D, E
Teach patients about lifestyle changes that will help to manage hypertension. Some important changes include weight loss, exercise, stress reduction, smoking cessation, and a low-salt, low-fat diet. Seeking a more challenging career would likely increase stress.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 227 TOP: Nursing Process Step: Planning
MSC: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. What are the actions of alpha-beta blocker drugs? (Select all that apply.)
a. Decrease myocardial contractility
b. Work on the central nervous system
c. Slow the heart rate
d. Increase arterial relaxation
e. Decrease venous vasoconstriction
ANS: A, C, D
Alpha-beta blockers combine the effects of alpha and beta blockers. They increase arterial relaxation and dilation, decrease the heart rate, and decrease the force of heart contraction. This results in decreased workload on the heart and decreased blood pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)
REF: p. 241 TOP: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: Client Needs Category: N/A

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