Chapter 13: Health Promotion of the Preschooler and Family Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 13: Health Promotion of the Preschooler and Family

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which should the nurse expect of a healthy 3-year-old child?
a. Jump rope.
b. Ride a two-wheel bicycle.
c. Skip on alternate feet.
d. Balance on one foot for a few seconds.
ANS: D
Three-year-olds are able to accomplish this gross motor skill. Jumping rope, riding a two-wheel bicycle, and skipping on alternate feet are gross motor skills of 5-year-olds.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 408
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. In terms of fine motor development, which should the 3-year-old child be expected to do?
a. Lace shoes and tie shoelaces with a bow.
b. Use scissors to cut pictures, and print a few numbers.
c. Draw a person with seven parts and correctly identify the parts.
d. Draw a circle and name what has been drawn.
ANS: D
Three-year-olds are able to accomplish this fine motor skill. Being able to lace shoes and tie shoelaces with a bow, use scissors to cut pictures, and print a few numbers, or draw a person with seven parts and correctly identify the parts are fine motor skills of 4- or 5-year-olds.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 408
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. A nurse is assessing a preschool-age child and notes the child exhibits magical thinking. According to Piaget, which describes magical thinking?
a. Events have cause and effect.
b. God is like an imaginary friend.
c. Thoughts are all-powerful.
d. If the skin is broken, the childs insides will come out.
ANS: C
Because of their egocentrism and transductive reasoning, preschoolers believe that thoughts are all-powerful. Cause-and-effect implies logical thought, not magical thinking. Thinking God is like an imaginary friend is an example of concrete thinking in a preschoolers spiritual development. Thinking that if the skin is broken, the childs insides will come out is an example of concrete thinking in development of body image.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 409
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. A nurse, instructing parents of a hospitalized preschool child, explains that which is descriptive of the preschoolers understanding of time?
a. Has no understanding of time
b. Associates time with events
c. Can tell time on a clock
d. Uses terms like yesterday appropriately
ANS: B
In a preschoolers understanding, time has a relation with events such as Well go outside after lunch. Preschoolers develop an abstract sense of time at age 3 years. Children can tell time on a clock at age 7 years. Children do not fully understand use of time-oriented words until age 6 years.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 409
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. The nurse is caring for a hospitalized 4-year-old boy. His parents tell the nurse that they will be back to visit at 6 PM. When the child asks the nurse when his parents are coming, the nurses best response is
a. They will be here soon.
b. They will come after dinner.
c. Let me show you on the clock when 6 PM is.
d. I will tell you every time I see you how much longer it will be.
ANS: B
A 4-year-old child understands time in relation to events such as meals. Children perceive soon as a very short time. The nurse may lose the childs trust if his parents do not return in the time he perceives as soon. Children cannot read or use a clock for practical purposes until age 7 years. I will tell you every time I see you how much longer it will be assumes the child understands the concepts of hours and minutes, which are not developed until age 5 or 6 years.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 409
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. A 4-year-old child is hospitalized with a serious bacterial infection. The child tells the nurse that he is sick because he was bad. Which is the nurses best interpretation of this comment?
a. Sign of stress
b. Common at this age
c. Suggestive of maladaptation
d. Suggestive of excessive discipline at home
ANS: B
Preschoolers cannot understand the cause and effect of illness. Their egocentrism makes them think they are directly responsible for events, making them feel guilty for things outside their control. Children of this age show stress by regressing developmentally or acting out. Maladaptation is unlikely. Telling the nurse that he is sick because he was bad does not imply excessive discipline at home.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 409
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. A 4-year-old child tells the nurse that she does not want another blood sample drawn because I need all my insides, and I dont want anyone taking them out. Which is the nurses best interpretation of this?
a. Child is being overly dramatic.
b. Child has a disturbed body image.
c. Preschoolers have poorly defined body boundaries.
d. Preschoolers normally have a good understanding of their bodies.
ANS: C
Preschoolers have little understanding of body boundaries, which leads to fears of mutilation. The child is not capable of being dramatic at 4 years of age. She truly has fear. Body image is just developing in the school-age child. Preschoolers do not have good understanding of their bodies.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 410
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. Which play is most typical of the preschool period?
a. Solitary
b. Parallel
c. Associative
d. Team
ANS: C
Associative play is group play in similar or identical activities but without rigid organization or rules. Solitary play is that of infants. Parallel play is that of toddlers. School-age children play in teams.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 411
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. Imaginary playmates are beneficial to the preschool child because they:
a. take the place of social interactions.
b. take the place of pets and other toys.
c. become friends in times of loneliness.
d. accomplish what the child has already successfully accomplished.
ANS: C
One purpose of an imaginary friend is to be a friend in time of loneliness. Imaginary friends do not take the place of social interaction, but may encourage conversation. Imaginary friends do not take the place of pets or toys. Imaginary friends accomplish what the child is still attempting.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 412
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. Which characteristic best describes the language of a 3-year-old child?
a. Asks meanings of words
b. Follows directional commands
c. Describes an object according to its composition
d. Talks incessantly regardless of whether anyone is listening
ANS: D
Because of the dramatic vocabulary increase at this age, 3-year-olds are known to talk incessantly regardless of whether anyone is listening. A 4- to 5-year-old asks lots of questions and can follow simple directional commands. A 6-year-old can describe an object according to its composition.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 410
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. By which age should the nurse expect that most children could obey prepositional phrases such as under, on top of, beside, and behind?
a. 18 months
b. 24 months
c. 3 years
d. 4 years
ANS: D
At 4 years, children can understand directional phrases. Children at 18 months, 24 months, and 3 years are too young.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 410
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. Which is a useful skill that the nurse should expect a 5-year-old child to be able to master?
a. Tie shoelaces.
b. Use knife to cut meat.
c. Hammer a nail.
d. Make change out of a quarter.
ANS: A
Tying shoelaces is a fine motor task of 5-year-olds. Using a knife to cut meat is a fine motor task of a 7-year-old. Hammering a nail and making change out of a quarter are fine motor and cognitive tasks of an 8- to 9-year-old.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 414
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. The nurse is guiding parents in selecting a daycare facility for their child. Which is especially important to consider when making the selection?
a. Structured learning environment
b. Socioeconomic status of children
c. Cultural similarities of children
d. Teachers knowledgeable about development
ANS: D
A teacher knowledgeable about development will structure activities for learning. A structured learning environment is not necessary at this age. Socioeconomic status is not the most important factor in selecting a preschool. Preschool is about expanding experiences with others, so cultural similarities are not necessary.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 412
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. Parents tell the nurse that they found their 3-year-old daughter and a male cousin of the same age inspecting each other closely as they used the bathroom. Which is the most appropriate recommendation the nurse should make?
a. Punish children so this behavior stops.
b. Neither condone nor condemn the curiosity.
c. Allow children unrestricted permission to satisfy this curiosity.
d. Get counseling for this unusual and dangerous behavior.
ANS: B
Three-year-olds become aware of anatomic differences and are concerned about how the other works. Such exploration should not be condoned or condemned. Children should not be punished for this normal exploration. Encouraging the children to ask questions of the parents and redirecting their activity are more appropriate than giving permission. Exploration is age-appropriate and not dangerous behavior.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 410
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. The parent of a 4-year-old boy tells the nurse that the child believes that monsters and boogeymen are in his bedroom at night. The nurses best suggestion for coping with this problem is to:
a. let the child sleep with his parents.
b. keep a night-light on in the childs bedroom.
c. help the child understand that these fears are illogical.
d. tell the child frequently that monsters and boogeymen do not exist.
ANS: B
A night-light shows a child that imaginary creatures do not lurk in the darkness. Letting the child sleep with parents will not get rid of the fears. A 4-year-old child is in the preconceptual age and cannot understand logical thought.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 418
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. Preschoolers fears can best be dealt with by which intervention?
a. Actively involving them in finding practical methods to deal with the frightening experience
b. Forcing them to confront the frightening object or experience in the presence of their parents
c. Using logical persuasion to explain away their fears and help them recognize how unrealistic the fears are
d. Ridiculing their fears so that they understand that there is no need to be afraid
ANS: A
Actively involving them in finding practical methods to deal with the frightening experience is the best way to deal with fears. Forcing a child to confront fears may make the child more afraid. Preconceptual thought prevents logical understanding. Ridiculing fears does not make them go away.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 416
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. Which accurately describes the speech of the preschool child?
a. Dysfluency in speech patterns is normal.
b. Sentence structure and grammatic usage are limited.
c. By age 5 years, child can be expected to have a vocabulary of about 1000 words.
d. Rate of vocabulary acquisition keeps pace with the degree of comprehension of speech.
ANS: A
Dysfluency includes stuttering and stammering, a normal characteristic of language development. Children speak in sentences of three or four words at age 3 to 4 years and eight words by age 5 years. At 5 years, children have a vocabulary of 2100 words. Children often gain vocabulary beyond degree of comprehension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 417
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. A nurse is teaching parents about language development for preschool children. Which dysfunctional speech pattern is a normal characteristic the parents might expect?
a. Lisp
b. Stammering
c. Echolalia
d. Repetition without meaning
ANS: B
Stammering and stuttering are normal dysfluency patterns in preschool-age children. Lisps are not a normal characteristic of language development. Echolalia and repetition are traits of toddlers language.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 417
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. During the preschool period, injury prevention efforts should emphasize:
a. constant vigilance and protection.
b. punishment for unsafe behaviors.
c. education for safety and potential hazards.
d. limitation of physical activities.
ANS: C
Education for safety and potential hazards is appropriate for preschoolers because they can begin to understand dangers. Constant vigilance and protection is not practical at this age because preschoolers are becoming more independent. Punishment may make children scared of trying new things. Limitation of physical activities is not appropriate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 419-420
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment

20. Parents are concerned that their child is showing aggressive behaviors. Which suggestion should the nurse make to the parents?
a. Supervise television viewing.
b. Ignore the behavior.
c. Punish the child for the behavior.
d. Accept the behavior if the child is male.
ANS: A
Television is also a significant source for modeling at this impressionable age. Research indicates there is a direct correlation between media exposure, both violent and educational media, and preschoolers exhibiting physical and relational aggression (Ostrov, Gentile, and Crick, 2006). Therefore, parents should be encouraged to supervise television viewing. The behavior should not be ignored because it can escalate to hyperaggression. The child should not be punished because it may reinforce the behavior if the child is seeking attention. For example, children who are ignored by a parent until they hit a sibling or the parent learn that this act garners attention. The behavior should not be accepted from a male child; this is using a double standard and aggression should not be equated with masculinity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 416-417
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

21. Which snack should the nurse recommend parents offer to their slightly overweight preschool child?
a. Carbonated beverage
b. 10% fruit juice
c. Low fat chocolate milk
d. Whole milk
ANS: C
Milk and dairy products are excellent sources of calcium and vitamin D (fortified). Low-fat milk may be substituted, so the quantity of milk may remain the same while limiting fat intake overall. Parents should be educated regarding non-nutritious fruit drinks, which usually contain less than 10% fruit juice yet are often advertised as healthy and nutritious; sugar content is dramatically increased and often precludes an adequate intake of milk by the child. In young children, intake of carbonated beverages that are acidic or that contain high amounts of sugar is also known to contribute to dental caries. Low fat milk should be substituted for whole milk if the child is slightly overweight.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 417
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. In terms of language and cognitive development, a 4-year-old child would be expected to have which traits? (Select all that apply.)
a. Think in abstract terms.
b. Follow directional commands.
c. Understand conservation of matter.
d. Use sentences of eight words.
e. Tell exaggerated stories.
f. Comprehend another persons perspective.
ANS: B, E
Children ages 3 to 4 years can give and follow simple commands and tell exaggerated stories. Children cannot think abstractly at age 4 years. Conservation of matter is a developmental task of the school-age child. Five-year-old children use sentences with eight words with all parts of speech. A 4-year-old child cannot comprehend anothers perspective.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 413
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. Which toys should a nurse provide to promote imaginative play for a 3-year-old hospitalized child? (Select all that apply.)
a. Plastic telephone
b. Hand puppets
c. Jigsaw puzzle (100 pieces)
d. Farm animals and equipment
e. Jump rope
ANS: A, B, D
To promote imaginative play for a 3-year-old child, the nurse should provide: dress-up clothes, dolls, housekeeping toys, dollhouses, play-store toys, telephones, farm animals and equipment, village sets, trains, trucks, cars, planes, hand puppets, or medical kits. A 100-piece jigsaw puzzle and a jump rope would be appropriate for a young, school-age child but not a 3-year-old child.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 411
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

COMPLETION

1. The recommendation for calcium for children 1 to 3 years of age is _____ milligrams. (Record your answer in a whole number.)

ANS:
500
While limiting fat consumption, it is important to ensure diets contain adequate nutrients such as calcium. The recommendation for daily calcium intake for children 1 to 3 years of age is 500 mg, and the recommendation for children 4 to 8 years of age is 800 mg.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 417
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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