Chapter 13: Infusion Therapy Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 13: Infusion Therapy

Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.A nurse is caring for a client who has just had a central venous access line inserted. Which action should the nurse take next?

a. Begin the prescribed infusion via the new access.
b. Ensure an x-ray is completed to confirm placement.
c. Check medication calculations with a second RN.
d. Make sure the solution is appropriate for a central line.

ANS: B

A central venous access device, once placed, needs an x-ray confirmation of proper placement before it is used. The bedside nurse would be responsible for beginning the infusion once placement has been verified. Any IV solution can be given through a central line.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:193

KEY:Vascular access device

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

2.A nurse assesses a client who has a radial artery catheter. Which assessment should the nurse complete first?

a. Amount of pressure in fluid container
b. Date of catheter tubing change
c. Percent of heparin in infusion container
d. Presence of an ulnar pulse

ANS: D

An intra-arterial catheter may cause arterial occlusion, which can lead to absent or decreased perfusion to the extremity. Assessment of an ulnar pulse is one way to assess circulation to the arm in which the catheter is located. The nurse would note that there is enough pressure in the fluid container to keep the system flushed, and would check to see whether the catheter tubing needs to be changed. However, these are not assessments of greatest concern. Because of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, heparin is not used in most institutions for an arterial catheter.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:212

KEY:Vascular access device

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

3.A nurse teaches a client who is being discharged home with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). Which statement should the nurse include in this clients teaching?

a. Avoid carrying your grandchild with the arm that has the central catheter.
b. Be sure to place the arm with the central catheter in a sling during the day.
c. Flush the peripherally inserted central catheter line with normal saline daily.
d. You can use the arm with the central catheter for most activities of daily living.

ANS: A

A properly placed PICC (in the antecubital fossa or the basilic vein) allows the client considerable freedom of movement. Clients can participate in most activities of daily living; however, heavy lifting can dislodge the catheter or occlude the lumen. Although it is important to keep the insertion site and tubing dry, the client can shower. The device is flushed with heparin.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:194

KEY: Vascular access device MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT:Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4.A nurse is caring for a client who is having a subclavian central venous catheter inserted. The client begins to report chest pain and difficulty breathing. After administering oxygen, which action should the nurse take next?

a. Administer a sublingual nitroglycerin tablet.
b. Prepare to assist with chest tube insertion.
c. Place a sterile dressing over the IV site.
d. Re-position the client into the Trendelenburg position.

ANS: B

An insertion-related complication of central venous catheters is a pneumothorax. Signs and symptoms of a pneumothorax include chest pain and dyspnea. Treatment includes removing the catheter, administering oxygen, and placing a chest tube. Pain is caused by the pneumothorax, which must be taken care of with a chest tube insertion. Use of a sterile dressing and placement of the client in a Trendelenburg position are not indicated for the primary problem of a pneumothorax.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:194

KEY:Vascular access device| medical emergencies

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

5.A nurse is caring for a client who is receiving an epidural infusion for pain management. Which assessment finding requires immediate intervention from the nurse?

a. Redness at the catheter insertion site
b. Report of headache and stiff neck
c. Temperature of 100.1 F (37.8 C)
d. Pain rating of 8 on a scale of 0 to 10

ANS: B

Complications of epidural therapy include infection, bleeding, leakage of cerebrospinal fluid, occlusion of the catheter lumen, and catheter migration. Headache, neck stiffness, and a temperature higher than 101 F are signs of meningitis and should be reported to the provider immediately. The other findings are important but do not require immediate intervention.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:212

KEY:Vascular access device| medication safety| epidural

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

6.A nurse assesses a client who had an intraosseous catheter placed in the left leg. Which assessment finding is of greatest concern?

a. The catheter has been in place for 20 hours.
b. The client has poor vascular access in the upper extremities.
c. The catheter is placed in the proximal tibia.
d. The clients left lower extremity is cool to the touch.

ANS: D

Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased tissue perfusion in a confined anatomic space causes decreased blood flow to the area. A cool extremity can signal the possibility of this syndrome. All other findings are important; however, the possible development of compartment syndrome requires immediate intervention because the client could require amputation of the limb if the nurse does not correctly assess this perfusion problem.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:211

KEY:Vascular access device

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

7.A nurse is assessing clients who have intravenous therapy prescribed. Which assessment finding for a client with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) requires immediate attention?

a. The initial site dressing is 3 days old.
b. The PICC was inserted 4 weeks ago.
c. A securement device is absent.
d. Upper extremity swelling is noted.

ANS: D

Upper extremity swelling could indicate infiltration, and the PICC will need to be removed. The initial dressing over the PICC site should be changed within 24 hours. This does not require immediate attention, but the swelling does. The dwell time for PICCs can be months or even years. Securement devices are being used more often now to secure the catheter in place and prevent complications such as phlebitis and infiltration. The IV should have one, but this does not take priority over the client whose arm is swollen.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:193

KEY:Vascular access device| medication safety

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

8.A nurse assesses a clients peripheral IV site, and notices edema and tenderness above the site. Which action should the nurse take next?

a. Apply cold compresses to the IV site.
b. Elevate the extremity on a pillow.
c. Flush the catheter with normal saline.
d. Stop the infusion of intravenous fluids.

ANS: D

Infiltration occurs when the needle dislodges partially or completely from the vein. Signs of infiltration include edema and tenderness above the site. The nurse should stop the infusion and remove the catheter. Cold compresses and elevation of the extremity can be done after the catheter is discontinued to increase client comfort. Alternatively, warm compresses may be prescribed per institutional policy and may help speed circulation to the area.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:206

KEY:Vascular access device| medication safety

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

9.While assessing a clients peripheral IV site, the nurse observes a streak of red along the vein path and palpates a 4-cm venous cord. How should the nurse document this finding?

a. Grade 3 phlebitis at IV site
b. Infection at IV site
c. Thrombosed area at IV site
d. Infiltration at IV site

ANS: A

The presence of a red streak and palpable cord indicates grade 3 phlebitis. No information in the description indicates that infection, thrombosis, or infiltration is present.

DIF:Understanding/ComprehensionREF:209

KEY:Vascular access device

MSC:Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

10.A nurse responds to an IV pump alarm related to increased pressure. Which action should the nurse take first?

a. Check for kinking of the catheter.
b. Flush the catheter with a thrombolytic enzyme.
c. Get a new infusion pump.
d. Remove the IV catheter.

ANS: A

Fluid flow through the infusion system requires that pressure on the external side be greater than pressure at the catheter tip. Fluid flow can be slowed for many reasons. A common reason, and one that is easy to correct, is a kinked catheter. If this is not the cause of the pressure alarm, the nurse may have to ascertain whether a clot has formed inside the catheter lumen, or if the pump is no longer functional. Removal of the IV catheter and placement of a new IV catheter should be completed when no other option has resolved the problem.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:202

KEY:Medication safety| vascular access device

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

11.A nurse prepares to insert a peripheral venous catheter in an older adult client. Which action should the nurse take to protect the clients skin during this procedure?

a. Lower the extremity below the level of the heart.
b. Apply warm compresses to the extremity.
c. Tap the skin lightly and avoid slapping.
d. Place a washcloth between the skin and tourniquet.

ANS: D

To protect the clients skin, the nurse should place a washcloth or the clients gown between the skin and tourniquet. The other interventions are methods to distend the vein but will not protect the clients skin.

DIF:Understanding/ComprehensionREF:209

KEY:Vascular access device| older adult

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

12.A nurse delegates care to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Which statement should the nurse include when delegating hygiene for a client who has a vascular access device?

a. Provide a bed bath instead of letting the client take a shower.
b. Use sterile technique when changing the dressing.
c. Disconnect the intravenous fluid tubing prior to the clients bath.
d. Use a plastic bag to cover the extremity with the device.

ANS: D

The nurse should ask the UAP to cover the extremity with the vascular access device with a plastic bag or wrap to keep the dressing and site dry. The client may take a shower with a vascular device. The nurse should disconnect IV fluid tubing prior to the bath and change the dressing using sterile technique if necessary. These options are not appropriate to delegate to the UAP.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:201

KEY:Vascular access device| delegation| unlicensed assistive personnel

MSC:Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

13.A nurse teaches a client who is prescribed a central vascular access device. Which statement should the nurse include in this clients teaching?

a. You will need to wear a sling on your arm while the device is in place.
b. There is no risk of infection because sterile technique will be used during insertion.
c. Ask all providers to vigorously clean the connections prior to accessing the device.
d. You will not be able to take a bath with this vascular access device.

ANS: C

Clients should be actively engaged in the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections and taught to remind all providers to perform hand hygiene and vigorously clean connections prior to accessing the device. The other statements are incorrect.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:204

KEY: Vascular access device| Speak Up campaign| patient safety| infection control

MSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT:Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14.A nurse is caring for a client with a peripheral vascular access device who is experiencing pain, redness, and swelling at the site. After removing the device, which action should the nurse take to relieve pain?

a. Administer topical lidocaine to the site.
b. Place warm compresses on the site.
c. Administer prescribed oral pain medication.
d. Massage the site with scented oils.

ANS: B

At the first sign of phlebitis, the catheter should be removed and warm compresses used to relieve pain. The other options are not appropriate for this type of pain.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:205

KEY:Vascular access device| nonpharmacologic pain management

MSC:Integrated Process: Caring

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

15.A nurse assesses a client who was started on intraperitoneal therapy 5 days ago. The client reports abdominal pain and feeling warm. For which complication of this therapy should the nurse assess this client?

a. Allergic reaction
b. Bowel obstruction
c. Catheter lumen occlusion
d. Infection

ANS: D

Fever, abdominal pain, abdominal rigidity, and rebound tenderness may be present in the client who has peritonitis related to intraperitoneal therapy. Peritonitis is preventable by using strict aseptic technique in handling all equipment and infusion supplies. An allergic reaction would occur earlier in the course of treatment. Bowel obstruction and catheter lumen occlusion can occur but would present clinically in different ways.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:206

KEY:Vascular access device| infection

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

16.A medical-surgical nurse is concerned about the incidence of complications related to IV therapy, including bloodstream infection. Which intervention should the nurse suggest to the management team to make the biggest impact on decreasing complications?

a. Initiate a dedicated team to insert access devices.
b. Require additional education for all nurses.
c. Limit the use of peripheral venous access devices.
d. Perform quality control testing on skin preparation products.

ANS: A

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends having a dedicated IV team to reduce complications, save money, and improve client satisfaction and outcomes. In-service education would always be helpful, but it would not have the same outcomes as an IV team. Limiting IV starts to the most experienced nurses does not allow newer nurses to gain this expertise. The quality of skin preparation products is only one aspect of IV insertion that could contribute to infection.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:187

KEY: Vascular access device| infection| quality improvement| core measure

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

17.A nurse prepares to flush a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line with 50 units of heparin. The pharmacy supplies a multi-dose vial of heparin with a concentration of 100 units/mL. Which of the syringes shown below should the nurse use to draw up and administer the heparin?

a.
b.
c.
d.

ANS: D

Always use a 10-mL syringe when flushing PICC lines because a smaller syringe creates higher pressure, which could rupture the lumen of the PICC.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:194

KEY:Medication safety| vascular access device

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

18.A home care nurse prepares to administer intravenous medication to a client. The nurse assesses the site and reviews the clients chart prior to administering the medication:

Client: Thomas Jackson

DOB: 5/3/1936

Gender: Male

January 23 (Today): Right upper extremity PICC is intact, patent, and has a good blood return. Site clean and free from manifestations of infiltration, irritation, and infection. Sue Franks, RN

January 20: Purulent drainage from sacral wound. Wound cleansed and dressing changed. Dr. Smith notified and updated on client status. New orders received for intravenous antibiotics. Sue Franks, RN

January 13: Client alert and oriented. Sacral wound dressing changed. Sue Franks, RN

January 6: Right upper extremity PICC inserted. No complications. Discharged with home health care. Dr. Smith

Based on the information provided, which action should the nurse take?

a. Notify the health care provider.
b. Administer the prescribed medication.
c. Discontinue the PICC.
d. Switch the medication to the oral route.

ANS: B

A PICC that is functioning well without inflammation or infection may remain in place for months or even years. Because the line shows no signs of complications, it is permissible to administer the IV antibiotic. There is no need to call the physician to have the IV route changed to an oral route.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:194

KEY:Medication safety| vascular access device

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1.A registered nurse (RN) delegates client care to an experienced licensed practical nurse (LPN). Which standards should guide the RN when delegating aspects of IV therapy to the LPN? (Select all that apply.)

a. State Nurse Practice Act
b. The facilitys Policies and Procedures manual
c. The LPNs level of education and experience
d. The Joint Commissions goals and criterion
e. Client needs and prescribed orders

ANS: A, B

The state Nurse Practice Act will have the information the RN needs, and in some states, LPNs are able to perform specific aspects of IV therapy. However, in a client care situation, it may be difficult and time-consuming to find it and read what LPNs are permitted to do, so another good solution would be for the nurse to check facility policy and follow it.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:188

KEYelegation| competencies

MSC:Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

2.A nurse assesses a client who has a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). For which complications should the nurse assess? (Select all that apply.)

a. Phlebitis
b. Pneumothorax
c. Thrombophlebitis
d. Excessive bleeding
e. Extravasation

ANS: A, C

Although the complication rate with PICCs is fairly low, the most common complications are phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Pneumothorax, excessive bleeding, and extravasation are not common complications.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:194

KEY:Vascular access device

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

3.A nurse prepares to administer a blood transfusion to a client, and checks the blood label with a second registered nurse using the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) universal bar-coding system to ensure the right blood for the right client. Which components must be present on the blood label in bar code and in eye-readable format? (Select all that apply.)

a. Unique facility identifier
b. Lot number related to the donor
c. Name of the client receiving blood
d. ABO group and Rh type of the donor
e. Blood type of the client receiving blood

ANS: A, B, D

The ISBT universal bar-coding system includes four components: (1) the unique facility identifier, (2) the lot number relating to the donor, (3) the product code, and (4) the ABO group and Rh type of the donor.

DIF:Remembering/KnowledgeREF:188

KEY:Blood transfusion| safety

MSC:Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

4.A nurse assists with the insertion of a central vascular access device. Which actions should the nurse ensure are completed to prevent a catheter-related bloodstream infection? (Select all that apply.)

a. Include a review for the need of the device each day in the clients plan of care.
b. Remind the provider to perform hand hygiene prior to starting the procedure.
c. Cleanse the preferred site with alcohol and let it dry completely before insertion.
d. Ask everyone in the room to wear a surgical mask during the procedure.
e. Plan to complete a sterile dressing change on the device every day.

ANS: A, B, D

The central vascular access device bundle to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections includes using a checklist during insertion, performing hand hygiene before inserting the catheter and anytime someone touches the catheter, using chlorhexidine to disinfect the skin at the site of insertion, using preferred sites, and reviewing the need for the catheter every day. The practitioner who inserts the device should wear sterile gloves, gown and mask, and anyone in the room should wear a mask. A sterile dressing change should be completed per organizational policy, usually every 7 days and as needed.

DIF:Remembering/KnowledgeREF:204

KEY:Vascular access device| infection control| infection

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

SHORT ANSWER

1.A client is prescribed 1000 mL of normal saline to infuse over 24 hours. At what rate should the nurse set the pump (mL/hr) to deliver this infusion? (Record your answer using a whole number.) ____ mL/hr

ANS:

42

1000 mL 24 hours = 41.6 mL/hr.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 193 KEY: Medication safety

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

2.A client is prescribed 250 mL of normal saline to infuse over 4 hours via gravity. The facility supplies gravity tubing with a drip factor of 15 drops/mL. At what rate (drops/min) should the nurse set the infusion to deliver? (Record your answer using a whole number.)

_____ drops/min

ANS:

16 drops/min

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 193 KEY: Medication safety

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

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