Chapter 14: Communicable and Infectious Disease Risks Nursing School Test Banks

Stanhope: Public Health Nursing, 8th Edition

Chapter 14: Communicable and Infectious Disease Risks

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which part of the immunological system suffers the greatest damage as a result of HIV infection?
a. Dendrite cells
b. CD4+ T-lymphocytes
c. Macrophages
d. Monocytes
ANS: B
The count drops when the virus is most plentiful in the body.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 318 OBJ: 1

2. HIV transmission can occur through:
a. Exposure to blood
b. Insect bites
c. Sharing of school supplies
d. Toilets
ANS: A
HIV can be transmitted through exposure to blood.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 318 OBJ: 1

3. In comparison with HIV infection in adults, HIV infection in infants and children:
a. Has the same signs and symptoms
b. Has a shorter incubation period
c. Has a longer survival period
d. Is detected by using the same tests
ANS: B
HIV infection in infants and children has a shorter incubation period.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 320 OBJ: 1

4. The nurse counsels a client to have the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) test in order to:
a. Indicate the presence of the antibody to HIV.
b. Reveal whether or not the client has AIDS.
c. Isolate the HIV virus.
d. Confirm HIV after having a positive Western blot.
ANS: A
The EIA is used to indicate the presence of the antibody to HIV.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 320 OBJ: 1

5. An example of HIV transmission is:
a. Having contact with a HIV-positive individual who is coughing
b. An infant receiving breast milk from a HIV-positive mother
c. Receiving a mosquito bite while in Africa
d. Being near a HIV-positive individual who is sneezing
ANS: B
HIV can be transmitted through breast milk.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 318-319 OBJ: 1

6. A nurse examining a child in the early stages of HIV infection would expect to see:
a. Failure to thrive and developmental delays
b. Kaposis sarcoma and developmental delays
c. Toxoplasmosis and oral candidiasis
d. Fatigue and shortness of breath
ANS: A
Early symptoms of pediatric HIV infection include failure to thrive and developmental delays.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 320 OBJ: 1

7. When working with a client who is HIV positive, the nurse serves as an educator, teaching about the modes of transmission, and serves as a(n):
a. Advocate, lobbying for AIDS research
b. Counselor, discussing implications of future sexual activity
c. Role model, providing supportive care
d. Policy maker, addressing laws governing privacy rights of HIV-positive persons
ANS: C
Nurses must be role models because many HIV-positive patients are stigmatized.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 319 OBJ: 1

8. A public health nurse is reviewing Healthy People 2020 to determine where to prioritize programming for the county health department. Based on Healthy People 2020, the nurse decides to implement programming to:
a. Reduce the rate of HIV transmission among adults and adolescents.
b. Eliminate STDs from developed countries.
c. Reduce deaths from gonorrhea.
d. Increase awareness about HIV in lesbian females.
ANS: A
One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives is reducing the number of cases of HIV infection among adults and adolescents.

DIF: COG: Evaluating REF: 318 OBJ: 1

9. The most common reportable infectious disease in the United States is:
a. Gonorrhea
b. Syphilis
c. Herpes
d. Chlamydia
ANS: D
The most common reportable infectious disease in the United States is Chlamydia.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 321 OBJ: 2

10. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common complication of:
a. Gonorrhea
b. Syphilis
c. Chancroid
d. Herpes
ANS: A
PID is a common complication of gonorrhea.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 321|324 OBJ: 2

11. A person has syphilis with signs and symptoms of rash, sore throat, and muscle and joint pain. This person is experiencing which stage of syphilis?
a. Congenital
b. Primary
c. Secondary
d. Tertiary
ANS: C
A person with signs and symptoms of a rash, sore throat, and muscle/joint pain is experiencing the secondary stage of syphilis.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 324 OBJ: 2

12. An example of a bacterial STD is:
a. Trichomonas
b. HIV
c. Syphilis
d. Genital warts
ANS: C
Trichomonas, HIV, and genital warts are caused by viruses.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 321 OBJ: 2

13. The most chronic bloodborne infection in the United States is:
a. Hepatitis A
b. Hepatitis B
c. Hepatitis C
d. HIV
ANS: C
The most chronic bloodborne infection in the United States is hepatitis C.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 328 OBJ: 3

14. The case rate of tuberculosis (TB) is highest among which ethnicity in the United States?
a. African American
b. Native American
c. Hispanic
d. Asian
ANS: D
TB is most often found in Asian Americans, at 25.6 new TB cases per 100,000 people.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 328 OBJ: 3

15. Which type of hepatitis would likely be found where sanitation is inadequate?
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
ANS: A
Hepatitis A would likely be found where sanitation is inadequate.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 326 OBJ: 3

16. Which group should receive an injection of prophylactic immune globulin for possible exposure to hepatitis A?
a. Persons who have had direct contact with blood
b. Those who ate at the same restaurant as the person with hepatitis A
c. All health care workers
d. All those who had household or sexual contact with persons with hepatitis A
ANS: D
Those who have been in close contact with persons who develop hepatitis A should receive immune globulin.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 327 OBJ: 4

17. A nurse is uncomfortable discussing such topics as sexual behavior and sexual orientation when counseling clients. By avoiding this topic with clients:
a. Potential risks and risky behaviors will not be identified.
b. Transmission of sexually transmitted diseases will decrease.
c. Clients will be reluctant to return to care providers.
d. The nurse will be violating the laws in most states.
ANS: A
It is important that nurses be able to discuss these topics to help prevent and control STDs. Without discussion of these topics, it is possible that clients will not be aware that they have an STD and may transmit it to others.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 329-330 OBJ: 5

18. Screening blood products and donor organs and tissue for hepatitis C infection is:
a. Primary prevention
b. Secondary prevention
c. Tertiary prevention
d. Health promotion
ANS: A
Primary prevention refers to those interventions aimed at preventing the occurrence of disease, injury, or disability.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 328 OBJ: 5

19. Teaching a client with gonorrhea how to prevent reinfection and further spread is an example of _____ prevention.
a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Tertiary
d. Primary health care
ANS: B
Secondary prevention focuses on early detection and prompt treatment of disease, injury, or disability.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 333 OBJ: 5

20. The nurse teaches the family of an AIDS client about managing symptomatic illness by preventing deteriorating conditions, such as diarrhea, skin breakdown, and inadequate nutrition. This nursing intervention is an example of _____ prevention.
a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Tertiary
d. Primary health care
ANS: C
Tertiary prevention includes those interventions aimed at disability limitation and rehabilitation from disease, injury, or disability.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 334 OBJ: 5

21. A community health nurse visits a homeless shelter that has several clients with tuberculosis who are taking antimicrobial drugs. Supervised drug administration may be done on a daily basis with persons with poor adherence because:
a. This type of client does not care about his or her health.
b. Homeless people have no access to medications.
c. Poor adherence can result in drug resistance.
d. The antimicrobials are so powerful, clients must be observed for reactions.
ANS: C
Poor adherence has lead to antibiotic resistant strains.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 334 OBJ: 5

22. What information would be appropriate for a nurse to share when educating IV drug users about sharing equipment?
a. Tell the clients to throw away their equipment after one use.
b. Educate the clients on using full-strength bleach on their drug paraphernalia for 30 seconds.
c. Report illegal activities to the authorities and confiscate the needles and syringes.
d. Give out needles and syringes to whoever wants them.
ANS: B
Using bleach on the needles and syringes is a way to decrease cross contamination.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 331-332 OBJ: 6

23. A nurse utilizes the provisions created by the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resource Emergency Act when performing which intervention?
a. Increasing AIDS awareness in the community
b. Determining available health care services for HIV-infected individuals
c. Preventing the transmission of AIDS to children from their mothers
d. Allowing persons in the final stages of HIV to die with dignity
ANS: B
This act provides services including emergency services, services for early intervention and care, and drug reimbursement programs for HIV-infected individuals.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 317 OBJ: 6

24. A nurse is working in a public health center. A patient who has been newly diagnosed as HIV positive comes for counseling. By law, what must the nurse do?
a. Give antiviral medications to the patient.
b. Ask the person to name all of his or her sexual contacts.
c. Refer the patient to the social worker as someone possibly needing case management.
d. Report the HIV-infected person to the state health department.
ANS: D
It is mandatory to report HIV cases in all states. The information is then sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Some states report HIV infections either by name or by code.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 319 OBJ: 6

25. A nurse is assisting an employer who has hired an individual who has been recently diagnosed with HIV. Which intervention would be most appropriate for the nurse to implement?
a. Educate about how to reduce the risk of breaching the employees confidentiality.
b. Explain how to inform co-workers about avoiding HIV transmission.
c. Facilitate obtaining medical insurance coverage for the HIV-infected employee.
d. Describe the early signs and symptoms of HIV infection.
ANS: A
Nurses frequently work in the education role, and employers may need assistance in dealing with HIV-infected employees.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 321 OBJ: 6

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. The nurse is counseling a female who has recently tested positive for HIV. The nurse educates her that she is responsible to (select all that apply):
a. Have regular medical evaluations and follow-ups.
b. Donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm.
c. Inform health care providers about the HIV infection.
d. Consider the risk of perinatal transmission.
ANS: A, C, D
A person who is infected with HIV should have regular medical evaluations and follow-up appointments; not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm; inform health care providers about the HIV infection; and consider the risk of perinatal transmission and follow-up with contraceptive use.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 333 OBJ: 6

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