Chapter 14: Health Problems of Toddlers and Preschoolers Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 14: Health Problems of Toddlers and Preschoolers

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which is described as the time interval between infection or exposure to disease and appearance of initial symptoms?

a.

Incubation period

b.

Prodromal period

c.

Desquamation period

d.

Period of communicability

ANS: A

The incubation period is the interval between infection or exposure and appearance of symptoms. The prodromal period is the interval between the time when early manifestations of disease appear and the overt clinical syndrome is evident. Desquamation refers to the shedding of skin. The period of communicability is the time or times during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 424

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. Airborne isolation is required for a child who is hospitalized with:

a.

mumps.

b.

chickenpox.

c.

exanthema subitum (roseola).

d.

erythema infectiosum (fifth disease).

ANS: B

Chickenpox is communicable through direct contact, droplet spread, and contaminated objects. Mumps is transmitted from direct contact with saliva of infected person and is most communicable before onset of swelling. The transmission and source of the viral infection exanthema subitum (roseola) is unknown. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) is communicable before onset of symptoms.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 424

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment

3. Acyclovir (Zovirax) is given to children with chickenpox to:

a.

minimize scarring.

b.

decrease the number of lesions.

c.

prevent aplastic anemia.

d.

prevent spread of the disease.

ANS: B

Acyclovir decreases the number of lesions; shortens duration of fever; and decreases itching, lethargy, and anorexia. Treating pruritus and discouraging itching minimizes scarring. Aplastic anemia is not a complication of chickenpox. Strict isolation until vesicles are dried prevents spread of disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 429-430

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. The single parent of a 3-year-old child who has just been diagnosed with chickenpox tells the nurse that she cannot afford to stay home with the child and miss work. The parent asks the nurse if some medication will shorten the course of the illness. Which is the most appropriate nursing intervention?

a.

Reassure the parent that it is not necessary to stay home with the child.

b.

Explain that no medication will shorten the course of the illness.

c.

Explain the advantages of the medication acyclovir (Zovirax) to treat chickenpox.

d.

Explain the advantages of the medication VCZ immune globulin (VariZIG) to treat chickenpox.

ANS: C

Acyclovir is effective in treating the number of lesions; shortening the duration of fever; and decreasing itching, lethargy, and anorexia. It is important the parent stay with the child to monitor fever. Acyclovir lessens the severity of chickenpox. VariZIG is given only to high-risk children.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 429-430

TOP:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

5. Which may be given to high-risk children after exposure to chickenpox to prevent varicella?

a.

Acyclovir (Zovirax)

b.

Varicella globulin

c.

Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (Benadryl)

d.

VCZ immune globulin (VariZIG)

ANS: D

VariZIG is given to high-risk children to prevent the development of chickenpox. Acyclovir decreases the severity, not the development, of chickenpox. Varicella globulin is not effective because it is not the immune globulin. Diphenhydramine may help pruritus but not the actual chickenpox.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 429

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

6. Vitamin A supplementation may be recommended for the young child who has which disease?

a.

Mumps

b.

Rubella

c.

Measles (rubeola)

d.

Erythema infectiosum

ANS: C

Evidence shows vitamin A decreases morbidity and mortality in measles. Mumps is treated with analgesics for pain and antipyretics for fever. Rubella is treated similarly to mumps. Erythema infectiosum is treated similarly to mumps and rubella.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 431

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

7. A nurse is teaching parents about caring for their child with chickenpox. The nurse should let the parents know that the child is considered to be no longer contagious when which occurs?

a.

When fever is absent

b.

When lesions are crusted

c.

24 hours after lesions erupt

d.

8 days after onset of illness

ANS: B

When the lesions are crusted, the chickenpox is no longer contagious. This may be a week after onset of disease. Chickenpox is still contagious when child has fever. Children are contagious after lesions erupt. If lesions are crusted at 8 days, the child is no longer contagious.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 424

TOP:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

8. A nurse is assessing a child and notes Koplik spots. In which of these communicable diseases are Koplik spots present?

a.

Rubella

b.

Measles (rubeola)

c.

Chickenpox (varicella)

d.

Exanthema subitum (roseola)

ANS: B

Koplik spots are small irregular red spots with a minute, bluish white center found on the buccal mucosa 2 days before systemic rash. Rubella occurs with rash on the face, which rapidly spreads downward. Varicella appears with highly pruritic macules, followed by papules and vesicles. Roseola is seen with rose-pink macules on the trunk, spreading to face and extremities.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 426

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

9. Which is a common childhood communicable disease that may cause severe defects in the fetus when it occurs in its congenital form?

a.

Erythema infectiosum

b.

Roseola

c.

Rubeola

d.

Rubella

ANS: D

Rubella causes teratogenic effects on the fetus. There is a low risk of fetal death to those in contact with children affected with fifth disease. Roseola and rubeola are not dangerous to the fetus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 428

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

10. Which is the causative agent of scarlet fever?

a.

Enteroviruses

b.

Corynebacterium organisms

c.

Scarlet fever virus

d.

Group A -hemolytic streptococci (GABHS)

ANS: D

GABHS infection causes scarlet fever. Enteroviruses do not cause the same complications. Corynebacterium organisms cause diphtheria. Scarlet fever is not caused by a virus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 428

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. A parent reports to the nurse that her child has inflamed conjunctivae of both eyes with purulent drainage and crusting of the eyelids, especially on awakening. These manifestations suggest:

a.

viral conjunctivitis.

b.

allergic conjunctivitis.

c.

bacterial conjunctivitis.

d.

conjunctivitis caused by foreign body.

ANS: C

Bacterial conjunctivitis has these symptoms. Viral or allergic conjunctivitis has watery drainage. Foreign body causes tearing and pain, and usually only one eye is affected.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 432

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

12. Which is an important nursing consideration when caring for a child with herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS)?

a.

Apply topical anesthetics before eating.

b.

Drink from a cup, not a straw.

c.

Wait to brush teeth until lesions are sufficiently healed.

d.

Explain to parents how this is sexually transmitted.

ANS: A

Treatment for HGS is aimed at relief of pain. Drinking bland fluids through a straw helps avoid painful lesions. Mouth care is encouraged with a soft toothbrush. HGS is usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 1, which is not associated with sexual transmission.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 433

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

13. A parent has asked the nurse about how her child can be tested for pinworms. The nurse responds by stating that which is the most common test for diagnosing pinworms in a child?

a.

Lower gastrointestinal (GI) series

b.

Three stool specimens, at intervals of 4 days

c.

Observation for presence of worms after child defecates

d.

Laboratory examination of a fecal smear

ANS: D

Laboratory examination of substances containing the worm, its larvae, or ova can identify the organism. Most are identified by examining fecal smears from the stools of persons suspected of harboring the parasite. Fresh specimens are best for revealing parasites or larvae. Lower GI series is not helpful for diagnosing enterobiasis. Stool specimens are not necessary to diagnose pinworms. Worms will not be visible after child defecates.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 433

TOP:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

14. The nurse suspects that a child has ingested some type of poison. Which clinical manifestation would be most suggestive that the poison was a corrosive product?

a.

Tinnitus

b.

Disorientation

c.

Stupor, lethargy, coma

d.

Edema of lips, tongue, pharynx

ANS: D

Edema of lips, tongue, and pharynx indicates a corrosive ingestion. Tinnitus is indicative of aspirin ingestion. Corrosives do not act on the central nervous system (CNS).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 437

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

15. A young boy is found squirting lighter fluid into his mouth. His father calls the emergency department. The nurse taking the call should know that the primary danger is which result?

a.

Hepatic dysfunction

b.

Dehydration secondary to vomiting

c.

Esophageal stricture and shock

d.

Bronchitis and chemical pneumonia

ANS: D

Lighter fluid is a hydrocarbon. The immediate danger is aspiration. Acetaminophen overdose, not hydrocarbons, causes hepatic dysfunction. Dehydration is not the primary danger. Esophageal stricture is a late or chronic issue of hydrocarbon ingestion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 438

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

16. Which is a clinical manifestation of acetaminophen poisoning?

a.

Hyperpyrexia

b.

Hepatic involvement

c.

Severe burning pain in stomach

d.

Drooling and inability to clear secretions

ANS: B

Hepatic involvement is the third stage of acetaminophen poisoning. Hyperpyrexia is a severe elevation in body temperature and is not related to acetaminophen poisoning. Acetaminophen does not cause burning pain in stomach or pose an airway threat.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 438

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

17. Acute salicylate (ASA, aspirin) poisoning results in:

a.

chemical pneumonitis.

b.

hepatic damage.

c.

retractions and grunting.

d.

disorientation and loss of consciousness.

ANS: D

ASA poisoning causes disorientation and loss of consciousness. Chemical pneumonitis is caused by hydrocarbon ingestion. Hepatic damage is caused by acetaminophen overdose. ASA does not cause airway obstruction.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 438

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

18. A young child has just arrived at the emergency department after ingestion of aspirin at home. The practitioner has ordered activated charcoal. The nurse administers charcoal in which way?

a.

Administer through a nasogastric tube because the child will not drink it because of the taste.

b.

Serve in a clear plastic cup so the child can see how much has been drunk.

c.

Give half of the solution, and then give the other half in 1 hour.

d.

Serve in an opaque container with a straw.

ANS: D

Although the activated charcoal can be mixed with a flavorful beverage, it will be black and resemble mud. When it is served in an opaque container, the child does not have any preconceived ideas about its being distasteful. The nasogastric tube should be used only in children without a gag reflex. The ability to see the charcoal solution may affect the childs desire to drink it. The child should be encouraged to drink the solution all at once.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 440

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

19. Which is the most frequent source of acute childhood lead poisoning?

a.

Folk remedies

b.

Unglazed pottery

c.

Lead-based paint

d.

Cigarette butts and ashes

ANS: C

Lead-based paint in houses built before 1978 is the most frequent source of lead poisoning. Some folk remedies and unglazed pottery may contain lead, but they are not the most frequent source. Cigarette butts and ashes do not contain lead.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 441-442

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

20. Chelation therapy for lead poisoning is initiated when a childs blood level is _____ g/dl.

a.

10 to 14

b.

15 to 19

c.

20 to 44

d.

>45

ANS: D

Chelation therapy is initiated if the childs blood level is greater than 45 g/dl. At 10 to 14 g/dl, the family should have lead-poisoning education and follow-up level. At 15 to 19 g/dl, the family should have lead-poisoning education and follow-up level but if it persists, initiate environmental investigation. At 20 to 44 g/dl environmental investigation and lead hazard control are necessary.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 444

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

21. Which describes a child who is abused by the parent(s)?

a.

Unintentionally contributes to the abusing situation

b.

Belongs to a low socioeconomic population

c.

Is healthier than the nonabused siblings

d.

Abuses siblings in the same way as child is abused by the parent(s)

ANS: A

Childs temperament, position in the family, additional physical needs, activity level, or degree of sensitivity to parental needs unintentionally contribute to the abusing situation. Abuse occurs among all socioeconomic levels. Children who are ill or have additional physical needs are more likely to be abused. The abused child may not abuse siblings.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 447

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

22. Which is a common characteristic of those who sexually abuse children?

a.

Pressure victim into secrecy

b.

Are usually unemployed and unmarried

c.

Are unknown to victims and victims families

d.

Have many victims that are each abused once only

ANS: A

Sex offenders may pressure the victim into secrecy regarding the activity as a secret between us that other people may take away if they find out. The offender may be anyone, including family members and persons from any level of society. Sex offenders are usually trusted acquaintances of the victims and victims families. Many victims are abused many times over a long period.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 447

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

23. A 3-month-old infant dies shortly after arrival to the emergency department. The infant has subdural and retinal hemorrhages but no external signs of trauma. The nurse should suspect:

a.

unintentional injury.

b.

shaken-baby syndrome.

c.

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

d.

congenital neurologic problem.

ANS: B

Shaken-baby syndrome causes internal bleeding but may have no external signs. Unintentional injury would not cause these injuries. SIDS and congenital neurologic problems would not appear this way.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 446

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

24. Which is probably the most important criterion on which to base the decision to report suspected child abuse?

a.

Inappropriate parental concern for the degree of injury

b.

Absence of parents for questioning about childs injuries

c.

Inappropriate response of child

d.

Incompatibility between the history and injury observed

ANS: D

Conflicting stories about the accident are the most indicative red flags of abuse. Inappropriate response of caregiver or child may be present, but is subjective. Parents should be questioned at some point during the investigation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 449

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

25. A nurse is admitting a child to the hospital with a diagnosis of giardiasis. Which medication should the nurse expect to be prescribed?

a.

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

b.

Amoxicillin clavulanate (Augmentin)

c.

Clarithromycin (Biaxin)

d.

Prednisone (Orapred)

ANS: A

The drugs of choice for treatment of giardiasis are metronidazole (Flagyl), tinidazole (Tindamax), and nitazoxanide (Alinia). These are classified as antifungals. Amoxicillin and clarithromycin are antibiotics that treat bacterial infections. Prednisone is a steroid and is used as an anti-inflammatory medication.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 435

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

26. A nurse is beginning chelation therapy on a child for lead poisoning. Which intervention should the nurse implement during the time the child is receiving chelation therapy?

a.

Calorie counts

b.

Strict intake and output

c.

Telemetry monitoring

d.

Contact isolation

ANS: B

Because calcium disodium edetate (EDTA) and lead are toxic to the kidneys, a nurse should keep strict records of intake and output to monitor renal functioning. Adequate hydration is essential during therapy because the chelates are excreted via the kidneys. Calorie counts, telemetry, or contact isolation would not be nursing interventions appropriate for a child undergoing chelation therapy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 444

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

27. A child has been admitted to the emergency department with an acetaminophen (Tylenol) poisoning. An antidote is being prescribed by the health care provider. Which antidote should the nurse prepare to administer?

a.

Naloxone (Narcan)

b.

N-acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)

c.

Flumazenil (Romazicon)

d.

Digoxin immune Fab (Digibind)

ANS: B

Antidotes available to treat toxin ingestion include N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen poisoning, naloxone for opioid overdose, flumazenil (Romazicon) for benzodiazepines (diazepam [Valium], midazolam [Versed]) overdose, and digoxin immune Fab (Digibind) for digoxin toxicity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 440

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

28. A clinic nurse is assessing a child with erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). Which figure depicts the rash the nurse should expect to assess?

a.

c.

b.

d.

ANS: A

Erythema infectiosum rash appears in three stages: erythema on face, chiefly on cheeks (slapped face appearance); disappears by 1-4 days. Chicken pox rash begins as macule, rapidly progresses to papule and then vesicle (surrounded by erythematous base; becomes umbilicated and cloudy; breaks easily and forms crusts); all three stages (papule, vesicle, crust) present in varying degrees at one time. Roseola rash is discrete rose-pink macules or maculopapules appearing first on trunk and then spreading to neck, face, and extremities; nonpruritic; fades on pressure; lasts 1-2 days. Rubeola rashappears 3-4 days after onset of prodromal stage; begins as erythematous maculopapular eruption on face and gradually spreads downward; more severe in earlier sites (appears confluent) and less intense in later sites (appears discrete); after 3-4 days, assumes brownish appearance, and fine desquamation occurs over area of extensive involvement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 425

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A nurse is teaching parents methods to reduce lead levels in their home. Which should the nurse include in the teaching? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Plant bushes around the outside of the house.

b.

Ensure your child eats frequent meals.

c.

Use hot water from the tap when boiling vegetables.

d.

Food can be stored in ceramic in the refrigerator.

e.

Ensure that your childs diet contains sufficient iron and calcium.

ANS: A, B, E

Methods to reduce lead levels in homes include: planting bushes around the outside of the house, if soil is contaminated with lead, so children cannot play there; ensuring that children eat regular meals because more lead is absorbed on an empty stomach; and ensuring that childrens diets contain sufficient iron and calcium. Cold water should only be used for drinking, cooking, and reconstituting powder infant formula. Hot water dissolves lead more quickly than cold water and thus contains higher levels of lead. Do not use pottery or ceramic ware that was inadequately fired or is meant for decorative use for food storage or service.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 445

TOP:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

ESSAY

1. Place in order the correct sequence for emergency treatment of poisoning in a child. Provide answer using lowercase letters separated by commas (e.g., a, b, c, d).

a.   Locate the poison.

b.   Assess the child.

c.   Prevent absorption of poison.

d.   Terminate exposure to the toxic substance.

ANS:

b, d, a, c

The initial step in treating poisonings is to assess the child, treat immediate life-threatening conditions, and initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if indicated. Terminating the exposure to the toxic substance is the second step. Locating the poison for identification is the third step. Preventing absorption of poison is the fourth step.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 437

TOP:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

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