Chapter 14: Pain Management Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 14: Pain Management

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. An 18-year-old pregnant woman, gravida 1, is admitted to the labor and birth unit with moderate contractions every 5 minutes that last 40 seconds. The woman states, My contractions are so strong that I dont know what to do with myself. The nurse should:

a.

Assess for fetal well-being.

b.

Encourage the woman to lie on her side.

c.

Disturb the woman as little as possible.

d.

Recognize that pain is personalized for each individual.

ANS: D

Each womans pain during childbirth is unique and is influenced by a variety of physiologic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. A critical issue for the nurse is how support can make a difference in the pain of the woman during labor and birth.

Assessing for fetal well-being includes no information that would indicate fetal distress or a logical reason to be overly concerned about the well-being of the fetus. The left lateral position is used to alleviate fetal distress, not maternal stress. The nurse has an obligation to provide physical, emotional, and psychosocial care and support to the laboring woman. This client clearly needs support.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 357

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. Nursing care measures are commonly offered to women in labor. Which nursing measure reflects application of the gate-control theory?

a.

Massaging the womans back

b.

Changing the womans position

c.

Giving the prescribed medication

d.

Encouraging the woman to rest between contractions

ANS: A

According to the gate-control theory, pain sensations travel along sensory nerve pathways to the brain, but only a limited number of sensations, or messages, can travel through these nerve pathways at one time. Distraction techniques such as massage or stroking, music, focal points, and imagery reduce or completely block the capacity of nerve pathways to transmit pain. These distractions are thought to work by closing down a hypothetic gate in the spinal cord and thus preventing pain signals from reaching the brain. The perception of pain is thereby diminished. Changing the womans position, giving prescribed medication, and encouraging rest do not reduce or block the capacity of nerve pathways to transmit pain using the gate-control theory.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 362

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

3. A woman in active labor receives an analgesic opioid agonist. Which medication relieves severe, persistent, or recurrent pain; creates a sense of well-being; overcomes inhibitory factors; and may even relax the cervix but should be used cautiously in women with cardiac disease?

a.

Meperidine (Demerol)

c.

Butorphanol tartrate (Stadol)

b.

Promethazine (Phenergan)

d.

Nalbuphine (Nubain)

ANS: A

Meperidine is the most commonly used opioid agonist analgesic for women in labor throughout the world. It overcomes inhibitory factors in labor and may even relax the cervix. Because tachycardia is a possible adverse reaction, meperidine is used cautiously in women with cardiac disease. Phenergan is an ataractic (tranquilizer) that may be used to augment the desirable effects of the opioid analgesics but has few of the undesirable effects of those drugs. Stadol and Nubain are opioid agonist-antagonist analgesics.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 368

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. A laboring woman received an opioid agonist (meperidine) intravenously 90 minutes before she gave birth. Which medication should be available to reduce the postnatal effects of Demerol on the neonate?

a.

Fentanyl (Sublimaze)

c.

Naloxone (Narcan)

b.

Promethazine (Phenergan)

d.

Nalbuphine (Nubain)

ANS: C

An opioid antagonist can be given to the newborn as one part of the treatment for neonatal narcosis, which is a state of central nervous system (CNS) depression in the newborn produced by an opioid. Opioid antagonists such as naloxone (Narcan) can promptly reverse the CNS depressant effects, especially respiratory depression. Fentanyl, promethazine, and nalbuphine do not act as opioid antagonists to reduce the postnatal effects of Demerol on the neonate. Although meperidine (Demerol) is a low-cost medication and readily available, the use of Demerol in labor has been controversial because of its effects on the neonate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 370

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning, Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

5. A woman in labor has just received an epidural block. The most important nursing intervention is to:

a.

Limit parenteral fluids.

b.

Monitor the fetus for possible tachycardia.

c.

Monitor the maternal blood pressure for possible hypotension.

d.

Monitor the maternal pulse for possible bradycardia.

ANS: C

The most important nursing intervention for a woman who has received an epidural block is to monitor the maternal blood pressure frequently for signs of hypotension. Intravenous fluids are increased for a woman receiving an epidural, to prevent hypotension. The nurse observes for signs of fetal bradycardia. The nurse monitors for signs of maternal tachycardia secondary to hypotension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 373

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

6. The nurse should be aware that an effective plan to achieve adequate pain relief without maternal risk is most effective if:

a.

The mother gives birth without any analgesic or anesthetic.

b.

The mother and familys priorities and preferences are incorporated into the plan.

c.

The primary health care provider decides the best pain relief for the mother and family.

d.

The nurse informs the family of all alternative methods of pain relief available in the hospital setting.

ANS: B

The assessment of the woman, her fetus, and her labor is a joint effort of the nurse and the primary health care providers, who consult with the woman about their findings and recommendations. The needs of each woman are different, and many factors must be considered before a decision is made whether pharmacologic methods, nonpharmacologic methods, or a combination of the two will be used to manage labor pain.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 380

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

7. A woman in the active phase of the first stage of labor is using a shallow pattern of breathing, which is about twice the normal adult breathing rate. She starts to complain about feeling lightheaded and dizzy and states that her fingers are tingling. The nurse should:

a.

Notify the womans physician.

b.

Tell the woman to slow the pace of her breathing.

c.

Administer oxygen via a mask or nasal cannula.

d.

Help her breathe into a paper bag

ANS: D

This woman is experiencing the side effects of hyperventilation, which include the symptoms of lightheadedness, dizziness, tingling of the fingers, or circumoral numbness. Having the woman breathe into a paper bag held tightly around her mouth and nose may eliminate respiratory alkalosis. This enables her to rebreathe carbon dioxide and replace the bicarbonate ion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 362

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

8. A woman is experiencing back labor and complains of intense pain in her lower back. An effective relief measure would be to use:

a.

Counterpressure against the sacrum.

b.

Pant-blow (breaths and puffs) breathing techniques.

c.

Effleurage.

d.

Conscious relaxation or guided imagery.

ANS: A

Counterpressure is steady pressure applied by a support person to the sacral area with the fist or heel of the hand. This technique helps the woman cope with the sensations of internal pressure and pain in the lower back. The pain management techniques of pant-blow, effleurage, and conscious relaxation or guided imagery are usually helpful for contractions per the gate-control theory.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 362

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

9. If an opioid antagonist is administered to a laboring woman, she should be told that:

a.

Her pain will decrease.

b.

Her pain will return.

c.

She will feel less anxious.

d.

She will no longer feel the urge to push.

ANS: B

The woman should be told that the pain that was relieved by the opioid analgesic will return with administration of the opioid antagonist. Opioid antagonists, such as Narcan, promptly reverse the central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects of opioids. In addition, the antagonist counters the effect of the stress-induced levels of endorphins. An opioid antagonist is especially valuable if labor is more rapid than expected and birth is anticipated when the opioid is at its peak effect.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 370

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

10. A woman has requested an epidural for her pain. She is 5 cm dilated and 100% effaced. The baby is in a vertex position and is engaged. The nurse increases the womans intravenous fluid for a preprocedural bolus. She reviews her laboratory values and notes that the womans hemoglobin is 12 g/dL, hematocrit is 38%, platelets are 67,000, and white blood cells (WBCs) are 12,000/mm3. Which factor would contraindicate an epidural for the woman?

a.

She is too far dilated.

c.

She has thrombocytopenia.

b.

She is anemic.

d.

She is septic.

ANS: C

The platelet count indicates a coagulopathy, specifically, thrombocytopenia (low platelets), which is a contraindication to epidural analgesia/anesthesia. Typically epidural analgesia/anesthesia is used in the laboring woman when a regular labor pattern has been achieved, as evidenced by progressive cervical change. The laboratory values show that the womans hemoglobin and hematocrit are in the normal range and show a slight increase in the WBC count that is not uncommon in laboring women.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 375

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. The role of the nurse with regard to informed consent is to:

a.

Inform the client about the procedure and have her sign the consent form.

b.

Act as a client advocate and help clarify the procedure and the options.

c.

Call the physician to see the client.

d.

Witness the signing of the consent form.

ANS: B

Nurses play a part in the informed consent process by clarifying and describing procedures or by acting as the womans advocate and asking the primary health care provider for further explanations. The physician is responsible for informing the woman of her options, explaining the procedure, and advising the client about potential risk factors. The physician must be present to explain the procedure to the client. However, the nurses responsibilities go further than simply asking the physician to see the client. The nurse may witness the signing of the consent form. However, depending on the states guidelines, the womans husband or another hospital health care employee may sign as witness.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 377

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment

12. A first-time mother is concerned about the type of medications she will receive during labor. She is in a fair amount of pain and is nauseous. In addition, she appears to be very anxious. You explain that opioid analgesics often are used with sedatives because:

a.

The two together work the best for you and your baby.

b.

Sedatives help the opioid work better, and they also will assist you to relax and relieve your nausea.

c.

They work better together so you can sleep until you have the baby.

d.

This is what the doctor has ordered for you.

ANS: B

Sedatives can be used to reduce the nausea and vomiting that often accompany opioid use. In addition, some ataractics reduce anxiety and apprehension and potentiate the opioid analgesic affects. A potentiator may cause the two drugs to work together more effectively, but it does not ensure maternal or fetal complications will not occur. Sedation may be a related effect of some ataractics, but it is not the goal. Furthermore, a woman is unlikely to be able to sleep through transitional labor and birth. This is what the doctor has ordered for you may be true, but it is not an acceptable comment for the nurse to make.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 367

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning, Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

13. To help clients manage discomfort and pain during labor, nurses should be aware that:

a.

The predominant pain of the first stage of labor is the visceral pain located in the lower portion of the abdomen.

b.

Referred pain is the extreme discomfort between contractions.

c.

The somatic pain of the second stage of labor is more generalized and related to fatigue.

d.

Pain during the third stage is a somewhat milder version of the second stage.

ANS: A

This pain comes from cervical changes, distention of the lower uterine segment, and uterine ischemia. Referred pain occurs when the pain that originates in the uterus radiates to the abdominal wall, lumbosacral area of the back, iliac crests, and gluteal area. Second-stage labor pain is intense, sharp, burning, and localized. Third-stage labor pain is similar to that of the first stage.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 356

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. Which statement correctly describes the effects of various pain factors?

a.

Higher prostaglandin levels arising from dysmenorrhea can blunt the pain of childbirth.

b.

Upright positions in labor increase the pain factor because they cause greater fatigue.

c.

Women who move around trying different positions are experiencing more pain.

d.

Levels of pain-mitigating b-endorphins are higher during a spontaneous, natural childbirth.

ANS: D

Higher endorphin levels help women tolerate pain and reduce anxiety and irritability. Higher prostaglandin levels correspond to more severe labor pains. Upright positions in labor usually result in improved comfort and less pain. Moving freely to find more comfortable positions is important for reducing pain and muscle tension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 357

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

15. Nurses with an understanding of cultural differences regarding likely reactions to pain may be better able to help clients. Nurses should know that _____ women may be stoic until late in labor, when they may become vocal and request pain relief.

a.

Chinese

c.

Hispanic

b.

Arab or Middle Eastern

d.

African-American

ANS: C

Hispanic women may be stoic early and more vocal and ready for medications later. Chinese women may not show reactions to pain. Medical interventions must be offered more than once. Arab or Middle Eastern women may be vocal in response to labor pain from the start. They may prefer pain medications. African-American women may express pain openly; use of medications for pain is more likely to vary with the individual.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 358

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. With regard to a pregnant womans anxiety and pain experience, nurses should be aware that:

a.

Even mild anxiety must be treated.

b.

Severe anxiety increases tension, which increases pain, which in turn increases fear and anxiety, and so on.

c.

Anxiety may increase the perception of pain, but it does not affect the mechanism of labor.

d.

Women who have had a painful labor will have learned from the experience and have less anxiety the second time because of increased familiarity.

ANS: B

Anxiety and pain reinforce each other in a negative cycle. Mild anxiety is normal for a woman in labor and likely needs no special treatment other than the standard reassurances. Anxiety increases muscle tension and ultimately can build sufficiently to slow the progress of labor. Unfortunately, an anxious, painful first labor is likely to carry over, through expectations and memories, into an anxious and painful experience in the second pregnancy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 358

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

17. Nurses should be aware of the differences experience can make in labor pain such as:

a.

Sensory pain for nulliparous women often is greater than for multiparous women during early labor.

b.

Affective pain for nulliparous women usually is less than for multiparous women throughout the first stage of labor.

c.

Women with a history of substance abuse experience more pain during labor.

d.

Multiparous women have more fatigue from labor and therefore experience more pain.

ANS: A

Sensory pain is greater for nulliparous women because their reproductive tract structures are less supple. Affective pain is greater for nulliparous women during the first stage but decreases for both nulliparous and multiparous during the second stage. Women with a history of substance abuse experience the same amount of pain as those without such a history. Nulliparous women have longer labors and therefore experience more fatigue.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 358

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

18. In the current practice of childbirth preparation, emphasis is placed on:

a.

The Dick-Read (natural) childbirth method.

b.

The Lamaze (psychoprophylactic) method.

c.

The Bradley (husband-coached) method.

d.

Having expectant parents attend childbirth preparation in any or no specific method.

ANS: D

Encouraging expectant parents to attend childbirth preparation class is most important because preparation increases a womans confidence and thus her ability to cope with labor and birth. Although still popular, the method format of classes is being replaced with other offerings such as Hypnobirthing and Birthing from Within.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 360

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. With regard to breathing techniques during labor, maternity nurses should understand that:

a.

Breathing techniques in the first stage of labor are designed to increase the size of the abdominal cavity to reduce friction.

b.

By the time labor has begun, it is too late for instruction in breathing and relaxation.

c.

Controlled breathing techniques are most difficult near the end of the second stage of labor.

d.

The patterned-paced breathing technique can help prevent hyperventilation.

ANS: A

First-stage techniques promote relaxation of abdominal muscles, thereby increasing the size of the abdominal cavity. Instruction in simple breathing and relaxation techniques early in labor is possible and effective. Controlled breathing techniques are most difficult in the transition phase at the end of the first stage of labor when the cervix is dilated 8 to 10 cm. Patterned-paced breathing sometimes can lead to hyperventilation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 360

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

20. Maternity nurses often have to answer questions about the many, sometimes unusual ways people have tried to make the birthing experience more comfortable. For instance, nurses should be aware that:

a.

Music supplied by the support person has to be discouraged because it could disturb others or upset the hospital routine.

b.

Women in labor can benefit from sitting in a bathtub, but they must limit immersion to no longer than 15 minutes at a time.

c.

Effleurage is permissible, but counterpressure is almost always counterproductive.

d.

Electrodes attached to either side of the spine to provide high-intensity electrical impulses facilitate the release of endorphins.

ANS: D

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation does help. Music may be very helpful for reducing tension and certainly can be accommodated by the hospital. Women can stay in a bath as long as they want, although repeated baths with breaks may be more effective than a long soak. Counterpressure can help the woman cope with lower back pain.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 363

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

21. With regard to systemic analgesics administered during labor, nurses should be aware that:

a.

Systemic analgesics cross the maternal blood-brain barrier as easily as they do the fetal blood-brain barrier.

b.

Effects on the fetus and newborn can include decreased alertness and delayed sucking.

c.

Intramuscular administration (IM) is preferred over intravenous (IV) administration.

d.

IV patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) results in increased use of an analgesic.

ANS: B

Effects depend on the specific drug given, the dosage, and the timing. Systemic analgesics cross the fetal blood-brain barrier more readily than the maternal blood-brain barrier. IV administration is preferred over IM administration because the drug acts faster and more predictably. PCA results in decreased use of an analgesic.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 367

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

22. With regard to nerve block analgesia and anesthesia, nurses should be aware that:

a.

Most local agents are related chemically to cocaine and end in the suffix -caine.

b.

Local perineal infiltration anesthesia is effective when epinephrine is added, but it can be injected only once.

c.

A pudendal nerve block is designed to relieve the pain from uterine contractions.

d.

A pudendal nerve block, if done correctly, does not significantly lessen the bearing-down reflex.

ANS: A

Common agents include lidocaine and chloroprocaine. Injections can be repeated to prolong the anesthesia. A pudendal nerve block relieves pain in the vagina, vulva, and perineum but not the pain from uterine contractions, and it lessens or shuts down the bearing-down reflex.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 370

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

23. With regard to spinal and epidural (block) anesthesia, nurses should know that:

a.

This type of anesthesia is commonly used for cesarean births but is not suitable for vaginal births.

b.

A high incidence of after-birth headache is seen with spinal blocks.

c.

Epidural blocks allow the woman to move freely.

d.

Spinal and epidural blocks are never used together.

ANS: B

Headaches may be prevented or mitigated to some degree by a number of methods. Spinal blocks may be used for vaginal births, but the woman must be assisted through labor. Epidural blocks limit the womans ability to move freely. Combined use of spinal and epidural blocks is becoming increasingly popular.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 373

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

24. A woman in labor is breathing into a mouthpiece just before the start of her regular contractions. As she inhales, a valve opens, and gas is released. She continues to inhale the gas slowly and deeply until the contraction starts to subside. When the inhalation stops, the valve closes. This procedure is:

a.

Not used much anymore.

b.

Likely to be used in the second stage of labor but not in the first stage.

c.

An application of nitrous oxide.

d.

A prelude to cesarean birth.

ANS: C

This is an application of nitrous oxide, which could be used in either the first or second stage of labor (or both) as part of the preparation for a vaginal birth. Nitrous oxide is self-administered and found to be very helpful.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 376

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

25. In assessing a woman for pain and discomfort management during labor, a nurse most likely would:

a.

Have the woman use a visual analog scale (VAS) to determine her level of pain.

b.

Note drowsiness as a sign that the medications were working.

c.

Interpret a womans fist clenching as an indication that she is angry at her male partner and the physician.

d.

Evaluate the womans skin turgor to see whether she needs a gentle oil massage.

ANS: A

The VAS is a means of adding the womans assessment of her pain to the nurses observations. Drowsiness is a side effect of medications, not usually (sedatives aside) a sign of effectiveness. The fist clenching likely is a sign of apprehension that may need attention. Skin turgor, along with the moistness of the membranes and the concentration of the urine, is a sign that helps the nurse evaluate hydration.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 379

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

26. After change-of-shift report the nurse assumes care of a multiparous client in labor. The woman is complaining of pain that radiates to her abdominal wall, lower back, and buttocks and down her thighs. Before implementing a plan of care, the nurse should understand that this type of pain is:

a.

Visceral.

c.

Somatic.

b.

Referred.

d.

Afterpain.

ANS: B

As labor progresses the woman often experiences referred pain. This occurs when pain that originates in the uterus radiates to the abdominal wall, the lumbosacral area of the back, the gluteal area, and thighs. The woman usually has pain only during a contraction and is free from pain between contractions. Visceral pain is that which predominates in the first stage of labor. This pain originates from cervical changes, distention of the lower uterine segment, and uterine ischemia. Visceral pain is located over the lower portion of the abdomen. Somatic pain is described as intense, sharp, burning, and well localized. This results from stretching of the perineal tissues and the pelvic floor. This occurs during the second stage of labor. Pain experienced during the third stage of labor or afterward during the early postpartum period is uterine. This pain is very similar to that experienced in the first stage of labor.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 356

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

27. It is important for the nurse to develop a realistic birth plan with the pregnant woman in her care. The nurse can explain that a major advantage of nonpharmacologic pain management is:

a.

Greater and more complete pain relief is possible.

b.

No side effects or risks to the fetus are involved.

c.

The woman remains fully alert at all times.

d.

A more rapid labor is likely.

ANS: B

Because nonpharmacologic pain management does not include analgesics, adjunct drugs, or anesthesia, it is harmless to the mother and the fetus. There is less pain relief with nonpharmacologic pain management during childbirth. The womans alertness is not altered by medication; however, the increase in pain will decrease alertness. Pain management may or may not alter the length of labor. At times when pain is decreased, the mother relaxes and labor progresses at a quicker pace.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 359

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

28. The nurse providing newborn stabilization must be aware that the primary side effect of maternal narcotic analgesia in the newborn is:

a.

Respiratory depression.

c.

Acrocyanosis.

b.

Bradycardia.

d.

Tachypnea.

ANS: A

An infant delivered within 1 to 4 hours of maternal analgesic administration is at risk for respiratory depression from the sedative effects of the narcotic. Bradycardia is not the anticipated side effect of maternal analgesics. Acrocyanosis is an expected finding in a newborn and is not related to maternal analgesics. The infant who is having a side effect to maternal analgesics normally would have a decrease in respirations, not an increase.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 367

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

29. The nerve block used in labor that provides anesthesia to the lower vagina and perineum is called:

a.

An epidural.

c.

A local.

b.

A pudendal.

d.

A spinal block.

ANS: B

A pudendal block anesthetizes the lower vagina and perineum to provide anesthesia for an episiotomy and use of low forceps if needed. An epidural provides anesthesia for the uterus, perineum, and legs. A local provides anesthesia for the perineum at the site of the episiotomy. A spinal block provides anesthesia for the uterus, perineum, and down the legs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 370

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

30. Which method of pain management is safest for a gravida 3 para 2 admitted at 8 cm cervical dilation?

a.

Epidural anesthesia

c.

Spinal block

b.

Narcotics

d.

Breathing and relaxation techniques

ANS: D

Nonpharmacologic methods of pain management may be the best option for a woman in advanced labor. It is unlikely that enough time remains to administer epidural or spinal anesthesia. A narcotic given at this time may reach its peak about the time of birth and result in respiratory depression in the newborn.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 361

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

31. The laboring woman who imagines her body opening to let the baby out is using a mental technique called:

a.

Dissociation.

c.

Imagery.

b.

Effleurage.

d.

Distraction.

ANS: C

Imagery is a technique of visualizing images that will assist the woman in coping with labor. Dissociation helps the woman learn to relax all muscles except those that are working. Effleurage is self-massage. Distraction can be used in the early latent phase by having the woman engage in another activity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 360

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

32. The obstetric nurse is preparing the patient for an emergency cesarean birth, with no time to administer spinal anesthesia. The nurse is aware and prepared for the greatest risk of administering general anesthesia to the patient. This risk is:

a.

Respiratory depression.

c.

Inadequate muscle relaxation.

b.

Uterine relaxation.

d.

Aspiration of stomach contents.

ANS: D

Aspiration of acidic gastric contents with possible airway obstruction is a potentially fatal complication of general anesthesia. Respirations can be altered during general anesthesia, and the anesthesiologist will take precautions to maintain proper oxygenation. Uterine relaxation can occur with some anesthesia; however, this can be monitored and prevented. Inadequate muscle relaxation can be improved with medication.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 376

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

33. To assist the woman after delivery of the infant, the nurse knows that the blood patch is used after spinal anesthesia to relieve:

a.

Hypotension.

c.

Neonatal respiratory depression.

b.

Headache.

d.

Loss of movement.

ANS: B

The subarachnoid block may cause a postspinal headache resulting from loss of cerebrospinal fluid from the puncture in the dura. When blood is injected into the epidural space in the area of the dural puncture, it forms a seal over the hole to stop leaking of cerebrospinal fluid. Hypotension is prevented by increasing fluid volume before the procedure. Neonatal respiratory depression is not an expected outcome with spinal anesthesia. Loss of movement is an expected outcome of spinal anesthesia.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 371

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

34. Maternal hypotension is a potential side effect of regional anesthesia and analgesia. What nursing interventions could you use to raise the clients blood pressure (Select all that apply)?

a.

Place the woman in a supine position.

b.

Place the woman in a lateral position.

c.

Increase intravenous (IV) fluids.

d.

Administer oxygen.

e.

Perform a vaginal examination.

ANS: B, C, D

Nursing interventions for maternal hypotension arising from analgesia or anesthesia include turning the woman to a lateral position, increasing IV fluids, administering oxygen via face mask, elevating the womans legs, notifying the physician, administering an IV vasopressor, and monitoring the maternal and fetal status at least every 5 minutes until these are stable. Placing the client in a supine position would cause venous compression, thereby limiting blood flow to and oxygenation of the placenta and fetus. A sterile vaginal examination has no bearing on maternal blood pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 373

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

35. The class of drugs known as opioid analgesics (butorphanol, nalbuphine) is not suitable for administration to women with known opioid dependence. The antagonistic activity could precipitate withdrawal symptoms (abstinence syndrome) in both mothers and newborns. Signs of opioid/narcotic withdrawal in the mother would include (Select all that apply):

a.

Yawning, runny nose.

b.

Increase in appetite.

c.

Chills and hot flashes.

d.

Constipation.

e.

Irritability, restlessness.

ANS: A, C, E

The woman experiencing maternal opioid withdrawal syndrome will exhibit yawning, runny nose, sneezing, anorexia, chills or hot flashes, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, irritability, restlessness, muscle spasms, weakness, and drowsiness. It is important for the nurse to assess both mother and baby and to plan care accordingly.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 369

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

36. While developing an intrapartum care plan for the patient in early labor, it is important that the nurse recognize that psychosocial factors may influence a womans experience of pain. These include (Select all that apply):

a.

Culture.

b.

Anxiety and fear.

c.

Previous experiences with pain.

d.

Intervention of caregivers.

e.

Support systems.

ANS: A, B, C, E

Culture: a womans sociocultural roots influence how she perceives, interprets, and responds to pain during childbirth. Some cultures encourage loud and vigorous expressions of pain, whereas others value self-control. The nurse should avoid praising some behaviors (stoicism) while belittling others (noisy expression). Anxiety and fear: extreme anxiety and fear magnify sensitivity to pain and impair a womans ability to tolerate it. Anxiety and fear increase muscle tension in the pelvic area, which counters the expulsive forces of uterine contractions and pushing efforts. Previous experiences with pain: fear and withdrawal are a natural response to pain during labor. Learning about these normal sensations ahead of time helps a woman suppress her natural reactions of fear regarding the impending birth. If a woman previously had a long and difficult labor, she is likely to be anxious. She may also have learned ways to cope and may use these skills to adapt to the present labor experience. Support systems: an anxious partner is less able to provide help and support to a woman during labor. A womans family and friends can be an important source of support if they convey realistic and positive information about labor and delivery.

Although the intervention of caregivers may be necessary for the well-being of the woman and her fetus, some interventions add discomfort to the natural pain of labor (i.e., fetal monitor straps, intravenous lines).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 357-359

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

MATCHING

Many women seek alternative or complementary pain relief during labor to delay or avoid pharmacologic or invasive therapies. Evidence regarding the use of these modalities has been sparse, and so they remain underutilized. Published reviews of the best-known therapies identified the benefits of each modality for the woman in labor. Please match the alternative modality with the correct research finding.

a.

Yoga

d.

Water immersion

b.

Massage

e.

Aromatherapy

c.

Acupuncture

37. Less pain intensity, decreased use of analgesia, fewer instrumental births

38. Significantly decreased use of analgesia, shorter labor

39. No difference when compared with placebo

40. Less pain and anxiety during the first stage of labor

41. Reduced length of labor, increased satisfaction of pain relief

37. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 366 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: Evidence remains insufficient regarding the use of various alternative or complimentary therapies; however, it suggests that they do not cause harm. Nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief may be most effective in latent or early active labor. Womens needs must be reevaluated frequently, and women should be offered various pain relief modalities throughout labor.

38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 366 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: Evidence remains insufficient regarding the use of various alternative or complimentary therapies; however, it suggests that they do not cause harm. Nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief may be most effective in latent or early active labor. Womens needs must be reevaluated frequently, and women should be offered various pain relief modalities throughout labor.

39. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 366 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: Evidence remains insufficient regarding the use of various alternative or complimentary therapies; however, it suggests that they do not cause harm. Nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief may be most effective in latent or early active labor. Womens needs must be reevaluated frequently, and women should be offered various pain relief modalities throughout labor.

40. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 366 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: Evidence remains insufficient regarding the use of various alternative or complimentary therapies; however, it suggests that they do not cause harm. Nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief may be most effective in latent or early active labor. Womens needs must be reevaluated frequently, and women should be offered various pain relief modalities throughout labor.

41. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 366 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

NOT: Evidence remains insufficient regarding the use of various alternative or complimentary therapies; however, it suggests that they do not cause harm. Nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief may be most effective in latent or early active labor. Womens needs must be reevaluated frequently, and women should be offered various pain relief modalities throughout labor.

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