Chapter 15: Care of Intraoperative Patients Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 15: Care of Intraoperative Patients
Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The circulating nurse is plugging in a piece of equipment and notes that the cord is frayed. What action by the nurse is best?
a. Call maintenance for repair.
b. Check the machine before using.
c. Get another piece of equipment.
d. Notify the charge nurse.
ANS: C
The circulating nurse is responsible for client safety. If an electrical cord is frayed, the risk of fire or sparking increases. The nurse should obtain a replacement. The nurse should also tag the original equipment for repair as per agency policy. Checking the equipment is not important as the nurse should not even attempt to use it. Calling maintenance or requesting maintenance per facility protocol is important, but first ensure client safety by having a properly working piece of equipment for the procedure about to take place. The charge nurse probably does need to know of the need for equipment repair, but ensuring client safety is the priority.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 239
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| circulating nurse| safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

2. The circulating nurse and preoperative nurse are reviewing the chart of a client scheduled for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). What information on the chart needs to be reported to the surgeon as a priority?
a. Allergies noted and allergy band on
b. Consent for MIS procedure only
c. No prior anesthesia exposure
d. NPO status for the last 8 hours
ANS: B
All MIS procedures have the potential for becoming open procedures depending on findings and complications. The clients consent should include this possibility. The nurse should report this finding to the surgeon prior to surgery taking place. Having allergies noted and an allergy band applied is standard procedure. Not having any prior surgical or anesthesia exposure is not the priority. Maintaining NPO status as prescribed is standard procedure.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 250
KEY: Intraoperative care| informed consent| circulating nurse
MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

3. A client is having robotic surgery. The circulating nurse observes the instruments being inserted, then the surgeon appears to break scrub when going to the console and sitting down. What action by the nurse is best?
a. Call a time-out to discuss sterile procedure and scrub technique.
b. Document the time the robotic portion of the procedure begins.
c. Inform the surgeon that the scrub preparation has been compromised.
d. Report the surgeons actions to the charge nurse and unit manager.
ANS: B
During a robotic operative procedure, the surgeon inserts the articulating arms into the client, then breaks scrub to sit at the viewing console to perform the operation. The nurse should document the time the robotic portion of the procedure began. There is no need for the other interventions.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 242
KEY: Intraoperative care| circulating nurse| robotic technology| sterile procedure
MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

4. The circulating nurse is in the operating room and sees the surgeon don gown and gloves using appropriate sterile procedure. The surgeon then folds the hands together and places them down below the hips. What action by the nurse is most appropriate?
a. Ask the surgeon to change the sterile gown.
b. Do nothing; this is acceptable sterile procedure.
c. Inform the surgeon that the sterile field has been broken.
d. Obtain a new pair of sterile gloves for the surgeon to put on.
ANS: C
The surgical gown is considered sterile from the chest to the level of the surgical field. By placing the hands down by the hips, the surgeon has broken sterile field. The circulating nurse informs the surgeon of this breach. Changing only the gloves or only the gown does not restore the sterile sections of the gown. Doing nothing is unacceptable.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 244
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| sterile field| surgical scrub| surgical gowning
MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

5. A client is in stage 2 of general anesthesia. What action by the nurse is most important?
a. Keeping the room quiet and calm
b. Being prepared to suction the airway
c. Positioning the client correctly
d. Warming the client with blankets
ANS: B
During stage 2 of general anesthesia (excitement, delirium), the client can vomit and aspirate. The nurse must be ready to react to this potential occurrence by being prepared to suction the clients airway. Keeping the room quiet and calm does help the client enter the anesthetic state, but is not the priority. Positioning the client usually occurs during stage 3 (operative anesthesia). Keeping the client warm is important throughout to prevent hypothermia.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 246
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| stages of anesthesia| airway
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

6. A client is having surgery. The circulating nurse notes the clients oxygen saturation is 90% and the heart rate is 110 beats/min. What action by the nurse is best?
a. Assess the clients end-tidal carbon dioxide level.
b. Document the findings in the clients chart.
c. Inform the anesthesia provider of these values.
d. Prepare to administer dantrolene sodium (Dantrium).
ANS: A
Malignant hyperthermia is a rare but serious reaction to anesthesia. The triad of early signs include decreased oxygen saturation, tachycardia, and elevated end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) level. The nurse should quickly check the end-tidal CO2 and then report findings to the anesthesia provider and surgeon. Documentation is vital, but not the most important action at this stage. Dantrolene sodium is the drug of choice if the client does have malignant hyperthermia.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 246
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| malignant hyperthermia| dantrolene sodium
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

7. A nurse is monitoring a client after moderate sedation. The nurse documents the clients Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) score at 3. What action by the nurse is best?
a. Assess the clients gag reflex.
b. Begin providing discharge instructions.
c. Document findings and continue to monitor.
d. Increase oxygen and notify the provider.
ANS: C
An RSS score of 3 means the client is able to respond quickly, but only to commands. The client has not had enough time to fully arouse. The nurse should document the findings and continue to monitor per agency policy. If the client had an oral endoscopy or was intubated, checking the gag reflex would be appropriate prior to permitting eating or drinking. The client is not yet awake enough for teaching. There is no need to increase oxygen and notify the provider.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 250
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| Ramsay Sedation Scale| moderate sedation
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

8. A client is scheduled for a below-the-knee amputation. The circulating nurse ensures the proper side is marked prior to the start of surgery. What action by the nurse is most appropriate?
a. Facilitate marking the site with the client and surgeon.
b. Have the client mark the operative site.
c. Mark the operative site with a waterproof marker.
d. Tell the surgeon it is time to mark the surgical site.
ANS: A
The Joint Commission now recommends that both the client and the surgeon mark the operative site together in order to prevent wrong-site surgery. The nurse should facilitate this process.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 250
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| wrong-site surgery| The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

9. A client has received intravenous anesthesia during an operation. What action by the postanesthesia care nurse is most important?
a. Assist with administering muscle relaxants to the client.
b. Place the client on a cardiac monitor and pulse oximeter.
c. Prepare to administer intravenous antiemetics to the client.
d. Prevent the client from experiencing postoperative shivering.
ANS: B
Intravenous anesthetic agents have the potential to cause respiratory and circulatory depression. The nurse should ensure the client is on a cardiac monitor and pulse oximeter. Muscle relaxants are not indicated for this client at this time. Intravenous anesthetics have a lower rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting than other types. Shivering can occur in any client, but is more common after inhalation agents.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 246
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| anesthetic agents| inhalation agents
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

10. A circulating nurse has transferred an older client to the operating room. What action by the nurse is most important for this client?
a. Allow the client to keep hearing aids in until anesthesia begins.
b. Pad the table as appropriate for the surgical procedure.
c. Position the client for maximum visualization of the site.
d. Stay with the client, providing emotional comfort and support.
ANS: A
Many older clients have sensory loss. To help prevent disorientation, facilities often allow older clients to keep their eyeglasses on and hearing aids in until the start of anesthesia. The other actions are appropriate for all operative clients.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 251
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| older adult
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. A circulating nurse wishes to provide emotional support to a client who was just transferred to the operating room. What action by the nurse would be best?
a. Administer anxiolytics.
b. Give the client warm blankets.
c. Introduce the surgical staff.
d. Remain with the client.
ANS: D
The nurse can provide emotional support by remaining with the client until anesthesia has been provided. An extremely anxious client may need anxiolytics, but not all clients require this for emotional support. Physical comfort and introductions can also help decrease anxiety.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 251
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| anxiety| comfort
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

12. A client in the operating room has developed malignant hyperthermia. The clients potassium is 6.5 mEq/L. What action by the nurse takes priority?
a. Administer 10 units of regular insulin.
b. Administer nifedipine (Procardia).
c. Assess urine for myoglobin or blood.
d. Monitor the client for dysrhythmias.
ANS: A
For hyperkalemia in a client with malignant hyperthermia, the nurse administers 10 units of regular insulin in 50 mL of 50% dextrose. This will force potassium back into the cells rapidly. Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension and dysrhythmias, and should not be used in a client with malignant hyperthermia. Assessing the urine for blood or myoglobin is important, but does not take priority. Monitoring the client for dysrhythmias is also important due to the potassium imbalance, but again does not take priority over treating the potassium imbalance.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 247
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| malignant hyperthermia| hyperkalemia
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A student nurse observing in the operating room notes that the functions of the Certified Registered Nurse First Assistant (CRNFA) include which activities? (Select all that apply.)
a. Dressing the surgical wound
b. Grafting new or synthetic skin
c. Reattaching severed nerves
d. Suctioning the surgical site
e. Suturing the surgical wound
ANS: A, D, E
The CRNFA can perform tasks under the direction of the surgeon such as suturing and dressing surgical wounds, cutting away tissue, suctioning the wound to improve visibility, and holding retractors. Reattaching severed nerves and performing grafts would be the responsibility of the surgeon.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 239
KEY: Surgery| Certified Registered Nurse First Assistant (CRNFA)
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

2. The nursing student observing in the perioperative area notes the unique functions of the circulating nurse, which include which roles? (Select all that apply.)
a. Ensuring the clients safety
b. Accounting for all sharps
c. Documenting all care given
d. Maintaining the sterile field
e. Monitoring traffic in the room
ANS: A, E
The circulating nurse has several functions, including maintaining client safety and privacy, monitoring traffic in and out of the operating room, assessing fluid losses, reporting findings to the surgeon and anesthesia provider, anticipating needs of the team, and communicating to the family. The circulating nurse and scrub person work together to ensure accurate counts of sharps, sponges, and instruments. The circulating nurse also documents care, but in the perioperative area, the preoperative or holding room nurse would also document care received there. Maintaining the sterile field is a joint responsibility among all members of the surgical team.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 239
KEY: Perioperative| circulating nurse MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

3. The circulating nurse reviews the days schedule and notes clients who are at higher risk of anesthetic overdose and other anesthesia-related complications. Which clients does this include? (Select all that apply.)
a. A 75-year-old client scheduled for an elective procedure
b. Client who drinks a 6-pack of beer each day
c. Client with a serum creatinine of 3.8 mg/dL
d. Client who is taking birth control pills
e. Young male client with a RYR1 gene mutation
ANS: A, B, C, E
People at higher risk for anesthetic overdose or other anesthesia-related complications include people with a slowed metabolism (older adults generally have slower metabolism than younger adults), those with kidney or liver impairments, and those with mutations of the RYR1 gene. Drinking a 6-pack of beer per day possibly indicates some liver disease; a creatinine of 3.8 is high, indicating renal disease; and the genetic mutation increases the chance of malignant hyperthermia. Taking birth control pills is not a risk factor.

DIF: Analyzing/Analysis REF: 247
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| anesthesia
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

4. A client is having shoulder surgery with regional anesthesia. What actions by the nurse are most important to enhance client safety related to this anesthesia? (Select all that apply.)
a. Assessing distal circulation to the operative arm after positioning
b. Keeping the client warm during the operative procedure
c. Padding the clients shoulder and arm on the operating table
d. Preparing to suction the clients airway if the client vomits
e. Speaking in a low, quiet voice as anesthesia is administered
ANS: A, C
After regional anesthesia is administered, the client loses all sensation distally. The nurse ensures client safety by assessing distal circulation and padding the shoulder and arm appropriately. Although awake, the client will not be able to report potential injury. Keeping the client warm is not related to this anesthesia, nor is suctioning or speaking quietly.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 248
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| regional anesthesia
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

5. What actions by the circulating nurse are important to promote client comfort? (Select all that apply.)
a. Correct positioning
b. Introducing ones self
c. Providing warmth
d. Remaining present
e. Removing hearing aids
ANS: A, B, C, D
The circulating nurse can do many things to promote client comfort, including positioning the client correctly and comfortably, introducing herself or himself to the client, keeping the client warm, and remaining present with the client. Removing hearing aids does not promote comfort and, if the client is still awake when they are removed, may contribute to disorientation and anxiety.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 239
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| comfort
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

SHORT ANSWER

1. A client has developed malignant hyperthermia. The client weighs 136 pounds. What is the safe dose range for one dose of dantrolene sodium (Dantrium)? (Enter your answer using whole numbers, separated by a hyphen with no spaces.) _____ mg

ANS:
124-186 mg
The dose of dantrolene is 2 to 3 mg/kg. The client weighs 62 kg, so the safe dose range is 124 to 186 mg.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 247
KEY: Intraoperative nursing| dantrolene sodium| malignant hyperthermia
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

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