Chapter 16 Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

In the past three to four decades, nursing has moved into the forefront in providing care for the dying. Which phenomenon has most contributed to this increased focus of care of the dying?

A)

Increased incidence of infections and acute illnesses

B)

Increased focus of health care providers on disease prevention

C)

Larger numbers of people dying in hospital settings

D)

Demographic changes in the population

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The focus on care of the dying has been motivated by the aging of the population, the prevalence of, and publicity surrounding, life-threatening illnesses (e.g., cancer and AIDS), and the increasing likelihood of a prolonged period of chronic illness prior to death. The salience of acute infections, prevention measures, and death in hospital settings are not noted to have had a major influence on this phenomenon.

2.

A nurse who works in the specialty of palliative care frequently encounters issues and situations that constitute ethical dilemmas. What issue has most often presented challenging ethical issues, especially in the context of palliative care?

A)

The increase in cultural diversity in the United States

B)

Staffing shortages in health care and questions concerning quality of care

C)

Increased costs of health care coupled with inequalities in access

D)

Ability of technology to prolong life beyond meaningful quality of life

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The application of technology to prolong life has raised several ethical issues. The major question is, Because we can prolong life through increasingly sophisticated technology, does it necessarily follow that we must do so? The increase in cultural diversity has not raised ethical issues in health care. Similarly, costs and staffing issues are relevant, but not central to the most common ethical issues surrounding palliative care.

3.

The nurse is caring for a patient who has been recently diagnosed with late stage pancreatic cancer. The patient refuses to accept the diagnosis and refuses to adhere to treatment. What is the most likely psychosocial purpose of this patients strategy?

A)

The patient may be trying to protect loved ones from the emotional effects of the illness.

B)

The patient is being noncompliant in order to assert power over caregivers.

C)

The patient may be skeptical of the benefits of the Western biomedical model of health.

D)

The patient thinks that treatment does not provide him comfort.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Patients who are characterized as being in denial may be using this strategy to preserve important interpersonal relationships, to protect others from the emotional effects of their illness, and to protect themselves because of fears of abandonment. Each of the other listed options is plausible, but less likely.

4.

A nurse who sits on the hospitals ethics committee is reviewing a complex case that has many of the hallmarks of assisted suicide. Which of the following would be an example of assisted suicide?

A)

Administering a lethal dose of medication to a patient whose death is imminent

B)

Administering a morphine infusion without assessing for respiratory depression

C)

Granting a patients request not to initiate enteral feeding when the patient is unable to eat

D)

Neglecting to resuscitate a patient with a do not resuscitate order

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Assisted suicide refers to providing another person the means to end his or her own life. This is not to be confused with the ethically and legally supported practices of withholding or withdrawing medical treatment in accordance with the wishes of the terminally ill individual. The other listed options do not fit this accepted definition of assisted suicide.

5.

A medical nurse is providing palliative care to a patient with a diagnosis of end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). What is the primary goal of this nurses care?

A)

To improve the patients and familys quality of life

B)

To support aggressive and innovative treatments for cure

C)

To provide physical support for the patient

D)

To help the patient develop a separate plan with each discipline of the health care team

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The goal of palliative care is to improve the patients and the familys quality of life. The support should include the patients physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Each discipline should contribute to a single care plan that addresses the needs of the patient and family. The goal of palliative care is not aggressive support for curing the patient. Providing physical support for the patient is also not the goal of palliative care. Palliative care does not strive to achieve separate plans of care developed by the patient with each discipline of the health care team.

6.

After contributing to the care of several patients who died in the hospital, the nurse has identified some lapses in the care that many of these patients received toward the end of their lives. What have research studies identified as a potential deficiency in the care of the dying in hospital settings?

A)

Families needs for information and support often go unmet.

B)

Patients are too sedated to achieve adequate pain control.

C)

Patients are not given opportunities to communicate with caregivers.

D)

Patients are ignored by the care team toward the end of life.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Studies have demonstrated that the health care system continues to be challenged when meeting seriously ill patients needs for pain and symptom management and their families needs for information and support. Oversedation, lack of communication, and lack of care are not noted to be deficiencies to the same degree.

7.

An adult oncology patient has a diagnosis of bladder cancer with metastasis and the patient has asked the nurse about the possibility of hospice care. Which principle is central to a hospice setting?

A)

The patient and family should be viewed as a single unit of care.

B)

Persistent symptoms of terminal illness should not be treated.

C)

Each member of the interdisciplinary team should develop an individual plan of care.

D)

Terminally ill patients should die in the hospital whenever possible.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Hospice care requires that the patient and family be viewed as a single unit of care. The other listed principles are wholly inconsistent with the principles of hospice care.

8.

A clinic nurse is providing patient education prior to a patients scheduled palliative radiotherapy to her spine. At the completion of the patient teaching, the patient continues to ask the same questions that the nurse has already addressed. What is the plausible conclusion that the nurse should draw from this?

A)

The patient is not listening effectively.

B)

The patient is noncompliant with the plan of care.

C)

The patient may have a low intelligence quotient or a cognitive deficit.

D)

The patient has not achieved the desired learning outcomes.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The nurse should be sensitive to patients ongoing needs and may need to repeat previously provided information or simply be present while the patient and family react emotionally. Telling a patient something is not teaching. If a patient continues to ask the same questions, teaching needs to be reinforced. The patients response is not necessarily suggestive of noncompliance, cognitive deficits, or not listening.

9.

The nurse is part of the health care team at an oncology center. A patient has been diagnosed with leukemia and the prognosis is poor, but the patient is not yet aware of the prognosis. How can the bad news best be conveyed to the patient?

A)

Family should be given the prognosis first.

B)

The prognosis should be delivered with the patient at eye level.

C)

The physician should deliver the news to the patient alone.

D)

The appointment should be scheduled at the end of the day.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Communicating about a life-threatening diagnosis should be done in a team setting at eye level with the patient. The family cannot be notified first because that would breech patient confidentiality. The family may be present at the patients request. The appointment should be scheduled when principles can all be in attendance and unrushed.

10.

A patient has just been told that her illness is terminal. The patient tearfully states, I cant believe I am going to die. Why me? What is your best response?

A)

I know how you are feeling.

B)

You have lived a long life.

C)

This must be very difficult for you.

D)

Life can be so unfair.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The most important intervention the nurse can provide is listening empathetically. To communicate effectively, the nurse should ask open-ended questions and acknowledge the patients fears. Deflecting the statement or providing false sympathy must be avoided.

11.

The nurse has observed that an older adult patient with a diagnosis of end-stage renal failure seems to prefer to have his eldest son make all of his health care decisions. While the family is visiting, the patient explains to you that this is a cultural practice and very important to him. How should you respond?

A)

Privately ask the son to allow the patient to make his own health care decisions.

B)

Explain to the patient that he is responsible for his own decisions.

C)

Work with the team to negotiate informed consent.

D)

Avoid divulging information to the eldest son.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

In this case of a patient who wishes to defer decisions to his son, the nurse can work with the team to negotiate informed consent, respecting the patients right not to participate in decision making and honoring his familys cultural practices.

12.

One aspect of the nurses comprehensive assessment when caring for the terminally ill is the assessment of hope. The nurse is assessing a patient with liver failure for the presence of hope. What would the nurse identify as a hope-fostering category?

A)

Uplifting memories

B)

Ignoring negative outcomes

C)

Envisioning one specific outcome

D)

Avoiding an actual or potential threat

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Hope is a multidimensional construct that provides comfort as a person endures life threats and personal challenges. Uplifting memories are noted as a hope-fostering category, whereas the other listed options are not identified as such.

13.

A medical nurse is providing end-of-life care for a patient with metastatic bone cancer. The nurse notes that the patient has been receiving oral analgesics for her pain with adequate effect, but is now having difficulty swallowing the medication. What should the nurse do?

A)

Request the physician to order analgesics by an alternative route.

B)

Crush the medication in order to aid swallowing and absorption.

C)

Administer the patients medication with the meal tray.

D)

Administer the medication rectally.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

A change in medication route is indicated and must be made by a physicians order. Many pain medications cannot be crushed and given to a patient. Giving the medication with a meal is not going to make it any easier to swallow. Rectal administration may or may not be an option.

14.

A 66-year-old patient is in a hospice receiving palliative care for lung cancer which has metastasized to the patients liver and bones. For the past several hours, the patient has been experiencing dyspnea. What nursing action is most appropriate to help to relive the dyspnea the patient is experiencing?

A)

Administer a bolus of normal saline, as ordered.

B)

Initiate high-flow oxygen therapy.

C)

Administer high doses of opioids.

D)

Administer bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as ordered.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Bronchodilators and corticosteroids help to improve lung function as well as low doses of opioids. Low-flow oxygen often provides psychological comfort to the patient and family. A fluid bolus is unlikely to be of benefit.

15.

The nurse is caring for a patient who has terminal lung cancer and is unconscious. Which assessment finding would most clearly indicate to the nurse that the patients death is imminent?

A)

Mottling of the lower limbs

B)

Slow, steady pulse

C)

Bowel incontinence

D)

Increased swallowing

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The time of death is generally preceded by a period of gradual diminishment of bodily functions in which increasing intervals between respirations, weakened and irregular pulse, and skin color changes or mottling may be observed. The patient will not be able to swallow secretions, so suctioning, frequent and gentle mouth care, and, possibly, the administration of a transdermal anticholinergic drug. Bowel incontinence may or may not occur.

16.

A patient on the medical unit is dying and the nurse has determined that the familys psychosocial needs during the dying process need to be addressed. What is a cause of many patient care dilemmas at the end of life?

A)

Poor communication between the family and the care team

B)

Denial of imminent death on the part of the family or the patient

C)

Limited visitation opportunities for friends and family

D)

Conflict between family members

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Many dilemmas in patient care at the end of life are related to poor communication between team members and the patient and family, as well as to failure of team members to communicate with each other effectively. Regardless of the care setting, the nurse can ensure a proactive approach to the psychosocial care of the patient and family. Denial of death may be a response to the situation, but it is not classified as a need. Visitation should accommodate wishes of the family member as long as patient care is not compromised.

17.

The nurse is assessing a 73-year-old patient who was diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer. The nurse notes that the patient is exhibiting signs of loss, grief, and intense sadness. Based on this assessment data, the nurse will document that the patient is most likely in what stage of death and dying?

A)

Depression

B)

Denial

C)

Anger

D)

Resignation

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Loss, grief, and intense sadness indicate depression. Denial is indicated by the refusal to admit the truth or reality. Anger is indicated by rage and resentment. Acceptance is indicated by a gradual, peaceful withdrawal from life.

18.

You are caring for a 50-year-old man diagnosed with multiple myeloma; he has just been told by the care team that his prognosis is poor. He is tearful and trying to express his feelings, but he is having difficulty. What should you do first?

A)

Ask if he would like you to sit with him while he collects his thoughts.

B)

Tell him that you will leave for now but will be back shortly.

C)

Offer to call pastoral care or a member of his chosen clergy.

D)

Reassure him that you can understand how he is feeling.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The most important intervention the nurse can provide is listening empathetically. Seriously ill patients and their families need time and support to cope with the changes brought about by serious illness and the prospect of impending death. The nurse who is able to listen without judging and without trying to solve the patients and familys problems provides an invaluable intervention. The patient needs to feel that people are concerned with his situation. Leaving him does not show acceptance of his feelings. Offering to call pastoral care may be helpful for some patients, but should be done after you have spent time with the patient. Telling the patient that you understand how he is feeling is inappropriate because it does not help him express his feelings.

19.

The nurse in a pediatric ICU is caring for a child who is dying of sickle cell anemia. The childs mother has been unable to eat or sleep and can talk only about her impending loss and the guilt she feels about the childs pain and suffering. What intervention has the highest priority?

A)

Allowing the patient to express her feelings without judging her

B)

Helping the patient to understand the phases of the grieving process

C)

Reassuring the patient that the childs death is not her fault

D)

Arranging for genetic counseling to inform the patient of her chances of having another child with the disease

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Listening to the patient express her feelings openly without judging her is the highest priority. The nurse should not impose his or her own values on the patient. The nurse should also help the patient to understand the grieving process and use all the support systems that are available to assist her in coping with this situation. Genetic counseling may be appropriate at a later time.

20.

You are caring for a patient, a 42-year-old mother of two children, with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. She has just been told that her ovarian cancer is terminal. When you admitted this patient, you did a spiritual assessment. What question would it have been most important for you to evaluate during this assessment?

A)

Is she able to tell her family of negative test results?

B)

Does she have a sense of peace of mind and a purpose to her life?

C)

Can she let go of her husband so he can make a new life?

D)

Does she need time and space to bargain with God for a cure?

Ans:

B

Feedback:

In addition to assessment of the role of religious faith and practices, important religious rituals, and connection to a religious community, you should further explore the presence or absence of a sense of peace of mind and purpose in life; other sources of meaning, hope, and comfort; and spiritual or religious beliefs about illness, medical treatment, and care of the sick. Telling her family and letting her husband go are not parts of a spiritual assessment. Bargaining is a stage of death and dying, not part of a spiritual assessment.

21.

A patients rapid cancer metastases have prompted a shift from active treatment to palliative care. When planning this patients care, the nurse should identify what primary aim?

A)

To prioritize emotional needs

B)

To prevent and relieve suffering

C)

To bridge between curative care and hospice care

D)

To provide care while there is still hope

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Palliative care, which is conceptually broader than hospice care, is both an approach to care and a structured system for care delivery that aims to prevent and relieve suffering and to support the best possible quality of life for patients and their families, regardless of the stage of the disease or the need for other therapies. Palliative care goes beyond simple prioritization of emotional needs; these are always considered and addressed. Palliative care is considered a bridge, but it is not limited to just hospice care. Hope is something patients and families have even while the patient is actively dying.

22.

The organization of a patients care on the palliative care unit is based on interdisciplinary collaboration. How does interdisciplinary collaboration differ from multidisciplinary practice?

A)

It is based on the participation of clinicians without a team leader.

B)

It is based on clinicians of varied backgrounds integrating their separate plans of care.

C)

It is based on communication and cooperation between disciplines.

D)

It is based on medical expertise and patient preference with the support of nursing.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Interdisciplinary collaboration, which is different from multidisciplinary practice, is based on communication and cooperation among the various disciplines, each member of the team contributing to a single integrated care plan that addresses the needs of the patient and family. Multidisciplinary care refers to participation of clinicians with varied backgrounds and skill sets, but without coordination and integration. Interdisciplinary collaboration is not based on patient preference and should not prioritize medical expertise over other disciplines.

23.

As the American population ages, nurses expect see more patients admitted to long-term care facilities in need of palliative care. Regulations now in place that govern how the care in these facilities is both organized and reimbursed emphasize what aspect of care?

A)

Ongoing acute care

B)

Restorative measures

C)

Mobility and socialization

D)

Incentives to palliative care

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Regulations that govern how care in these facilities is organized and reimbursed tend to emphasize restorative measures and serve as a disincentive to palliative care. Long-term care facilities do not normally provide acute care for their patients. Regulations for long-term care facilities do not primarily emphasize mobility and socialization.

24.

A patient with end-stage heart failure has participated in a family meeting with the interdisciplinary team and opted for hospice care. On what belief should the patients care in this setting be based?

A)

Meaningful living during terminal illness requires technologic interventions.

B)

Meaningful living during terminal illness is best supported in designated facilities.

C)

Meaningful living during terminal illness is best supported in the home.

D)

Meaningful living during terminal illness is best achieved by prolonging physiologic dying.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The hospice movement in the United States is based on the belief that meaningful living is achievable during terminal illness and that it is best supported in the home, free from technologic interventions to prolong physiologic dying.

25.

A nurse who provides care on an acute medical unit has observed that physicians are frequently reluctant to refer patients to hospice care. What are contributing factors that are known to underlie this tendency? Select all that apply.

A)

Financial pressures on health care providers

B)

Patient reluctance to accept this type of care

C)

Strong association of hospice care with prolonging death

D)

Advances in curative treatment in late-stage illness

E)

Ease of making a terminal diagnosis

Ans:

A, B, D

Feedback:

Physicians are reluctant to refer patients to hospice, and patients are reluctant to accept this form of care. Reasons include the difficulties in making a terminal prognosis (especially for those patients with noncancer diagnoses), the strong association of hospice with death, advances in curative treatment options in late-stage illness, and financial pressures on health care providers that may cause them to retain rather than refer hospice-eligible patients.

26.

A nurse is caring for an 87-year-old Mexican-American female patient who is in end-stage renal disease. The physician has just been in to see the patient and her family to tell them that nothing more can be done for the patient and that death is not far. The physician offers to discharge the patient home to hospice care, but the patient and family refuse. After the physician leaves, the patients daughter approaches you and asks what hospice care is. What would this lack of knowledge about hospice care be perceived as?

A)

Lack of an American education of the patient and her family

B)

A language barrier to hospice care for this patient

C)

A barrier to hospice care for this patient

D)

Inability to grasp American concepts of health care

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Historical mistrust of the health care system and unequal access to even basic medical care may underlie the beliefs and attitudes among ethnically diverse populations. In addition, lack of education or knowledge about end-of-life care treatment options and language barriers influence decisions among many socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. The scenario does not indicate whether the patients family has an American education, whether they are unable to grasp American concepts of health care, or whether they can speak or understand English.

27.

Patients who are enrolled in hospice care through Medicare are often felt to suffer unnecessarily because they do not receive adequate attention for their symptoms of the underlying illness. What factor most contributes to this phenomenon?

A)

Unwillingness to overmedicate the dying patient

B)

Rules concerning completion of all cure-focused medical treatment

C)

Unwillingness of patients and families to acknowledge the patient is terminal

D)

Lack of knowledge of patients and families regarding availability of care

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Because of Medicare rules concerning completion of all cure-focused medical treatment before the Medicare hospice benefit may be accessed, many patients delay enrollment in hospice programs until very close to the end of life. Hospice care does not include an unwillingness to medicate the patient to keep him or her from suffering. Patients must accept that they are terminal before being admitted to hospice care. Lack of knowledge is common; however, this is not why some Medicare patients do not receive adequate attention for the symptoms of their underlying illness.

28.

One of the functions of nursing care of the terminally ill is to support the patient and his or her family as they come to terms with the diagnosis and progression of the disease process. How should nurses support patients and their families during this process? Select all that apply.

A)

Describe their personal experiences in dealing with end-of-life issues.

B)

Encourage the patient and family to keep fighting as a cure may come.

C)

Try to appreciate and understand the illness from the patients perspective.

D)

Assist patients with performing a life review.

E)

Provide interventions that facilitate end-of-life closure.

Ans:

C, D, E

Feedback:

Nurses are responsible for educating patients about their illness and for supporting them as they adapt to life with the illness. Nurses can assist patients and families with life review, values clarification, treatment decision making, and end-of-life closure. The only way to do this effectively is to try to appreciate and understand the illness from the patients perspective. The nurses personal experiences should not normally be included and a cure is often not a realistic hope.

29.

The nurse is admitting a 52-year-old father of four into hospice care. The patient has a diagnosis of Parkinsons disease, which is progressing rapidly. The patient has made clear his preference to receive care at home. What interventions should the nurse prioritize in the plan of care?

A)

Aggressively continuing to fight the disease process

B)

Moving the patient to a long-term care facility when it becomes necessary

C)

Including the children in planning their fathers care

D)

Supporting the patients and familys values and choices

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Nurses need to develop skill and comfort in assessing patients and families responses to serious illness and planning interventions that support their values and choices throughout the continuum of care. To be admitted to hospice care, the patient must have come to terms with the fact that he is dying. The scenario states that the patient wants to be cared for at home, not in a long-term setting. The children may be able to participate in their fathers care, but they should not be assigned responsibility for planning it.

30.

A patient has just died following urosepsis that progressed to septic shock. The patients spouse says, I knew this was coming, but I feel so numb and hollow inside. The nurse should know that these statements are characteristic of what?

A)

Complicated grief and mourning

B)

Uncomplicated grief and mourning

C)

Depression stage of dying

D)

Acceptance stage of dying

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Uncomplicated grief and mourning are characterized by emotional feelings of sadness, anger, guilt, and numbness; physical sensations, such as hollowness in the stomach and tightness in the chest, weakness, and lack of energy; cognitions that include preoccupation with the loss and a sense of the deceased as still present; and behaviors such as crying, visiting places that are reminders of the deceased, social withdrawal, and restless overactivity. Complicated grief and mourning occur at a prolonged time after the death. The spouses statement does not clearly suggest depression or acceptance.

31.

A 67-year-old woman experienced the death of her husband from a sudden myocardial infarction 5 weeks ago. The nurse recognizes that the woman will be going through the process of mourning for an extended period of time. What processes of mourning will allow the woman to accommodate the loss in a healthy way? Select all that apply.

A)

Reiterating her anger at her husbands care team

B)

Reinvesting in new relationships at the appropriate time

C)

Reminiscing about the relationship she had with her husband

D)

Relinquishing old attachments to her husband at the appropriate time

E)

Renewing her lifelong commitment to her husband

Ans:

B, C, D

Feedback:

Six key processes of mourning allow people to accommodate to the loss in a healthy way:

1.) Recognition of the loss

2.) Reaction to the separation, and experiencing and expressing the pain of the loss

3.) Recollection and re-experiencing the deceased, the relationship, and the associated feelings

4.) Relinquishing old attachments to the deceased

5.) Readjustment to adapt to the new world without forgetting the old

6.) Reinvestment

Reiterating her anger and renewing her lifelong commitment may be counterproductive to the mourning process.

32.

A nurse has made a referral to a grief support group, knowing that many individuals find these both comforting and beneficial after the death of a loved one. What is the most important accomplishment available by attending a grief support group?

A)

Providing a framework for incorporating the old life into the new life

B)

Normalizing adaptation to a continuation of the old life

C)

Aiding in adjusting to using old, familiar social skills

D)

Normalization of feelings and experiences

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Although many people complete the work of mourning with the informal support of families and friends, many find that talking with others who have had a similar experience, such as in formal support groups, normalizes the feelings and experiences and provides a framework for learning new skills to cope with the loss and create a new life. The other listed options are incorrect because they indicate the need to hold onto the old life and not move on.

33.

A patients daughter has asked the nurse about helping him end his terrible suffering. The nurse is aware of the ANA Position Statement on Assisted Suicide, which clearly states that nursing participation in assisted suicide is a violation of the Code for Nurses. What does the Position Statement further stress?

A)

Educating families about the moral implications of assisted suicide

B)

Identifying patient and family concerns and fears

C)

Identifying resources that meet the patients desire to die

D)

Supporting effective means to honor the patients desire to die

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The ANA Position Statement further stresses the important role of the nurse in supporting effective symptom management, contributing to the creation of environments for care that honor the patients and familys wishes, as well as identifying their concerns and fears. Discussion of moral implications would normally be beyond the purview of the nurse.

34.

A hospice nurse is caring for a 22-year-old with a terminal diagnosis of leukemia. When updating this patients plan of nursing care, what should the nurse prioritize?

A)

Interventions aimed at maximizing quantity of life

B)

Providing financial advice to pay for care

C)

Providing realistic emotional preparation for death

D)

Making suggestions to maximize family social interactions after the patients death

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Hospice care focuses on quality of life, but, by necessity, it usually includes realistic emotional, social, spiritual, and financial preparation for death. Financial advice and actions aimed at post-death interaction would not be appropriate priorities.

35.

A pediatric nurse is emotionally distraught by the death of a 9-year-old girl who received care on the unit over the course of many admissions spanning several years. What action is the most appropriate response to the nurses own grief?

A)

Take time off from work to mourn the death.

B)

Post mementos of the patient on the unit.

C)

Solicit emotional support from the patients family.

D)

Attend the patients memorial service.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

In many settings, staff members organize or attend memorial services to support families and other caregivers who find comfort in joining each other to remember and celebrate the lives of patients. Taking time off should not be necessary and posting mementos would be inappropriate. It would be highly inappropriate to solicit emotional support from the patients family during their time of loss.

36.

As a staff member in a local hospice, a nurse deals with death and dying on a frequent basis. Where would be the safe venue for the nurse to express her feelings of frustration and grief about a patient who has recently died?

A)

In the cafeteria

B)

At a staff meeting

C)

At a social gathering

D)

At a memorial service

Ans:

B

Feedback:

In hospice settings, where death, grief, and loss are expected outcomes of patient care, interdisciplinary colleagues rely on each other for support, using meeting time to express frustration, sadness, anger, and other emotions; to learn coping skills from each other; and to speak about how they were affected by the lives of those patients who have died since the last meeting. Public settings are inappropriate places to express frustration about the death of a patient.

37.

A hospice nurse is well aware of how difficult it is to deal with others pain on a daily basis. This nurse should put healthy practices into place to guard against what outcome?

A)

Inefficiency in the provision of care

B)

Excessive weight gain

C)

Emotional exhaustion

D)

Social withdrawal

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Well before the nurse exhibits symptoms of stress or burnout, he or she should acknowledge the difficulty of coping with others pain on a daily basis and put healthy practices in place that guard against emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion is more likely to have deleterious effects than inefficiency, social withdrawal, or weight gain, though these may signal emotional exhaustion.

38.

The hospice nurse is caring for a 45-year-old mother of three young children in the patients home. During the most recent visit, the nurse has observed that the patient has a new onset of altered mental status, likely resulting from recently diagnosed brain metastases. What goal of nursing interventions should the nurse identify?

A)

Helping the family to understand why the patient needs to be sedated

B)

Making arrangements to promptly move the patient to an acute-care facility

C)

Explaining to the family that death is near and the patient needs around-the-clock nursing care

D)

Teaching family members how to interact with, and ensure safety for, the patient with impaired cognition

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Nursing interventions should be aimed at accommodating the change in the patients status and maintaining her safety. The scenario does not indicate the need either to sedate the patient or to move her to an acute-care facility. If the family has the resources, there is no need to bring in nurses to be with the patient around-the-clock, and the scenario does not indicate that death is imminent.

39.

You are caring for a patient who has just been told that his illness is progressing and nothing more can be done for him. After the physician leaves, the patient asks you to stay with him for a while. The patient becomes tearful and tries several times to say something, but cannot get the words out. What would be an appropriate response for you to make at this time?

A)

Can I give you some advice?

B)

Do you need more time to think about this?

C)

Is there anything you want to say?

D)

I have cared for lots of patients in your position. It will get easier.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Prompt gently: Do you need more time to think about this? Giving advice is inappropriate and it is obvious from the scenario that the patient has something to say. Referring to other patients negates the patients feelings at this time.

40.

A patient who is receiving care for osteosarcoma has been experiencing severe pain since being diagnosed. As a result, the patient has been receiving analgesics on both a scheduled and PRN basis. For the past several hours, however, the patients level of consciousness has declined and she is now unresponsive. How should the patients pain control regimen be affected?

A)

The patients pain control regimen should be continued.

B)

The pain control regimen should be placed on hold until the patients level of consciousness improves.

C)

IV analgesics should be withheld and replaced with transdermal analgesics.

D)

The patients analgesic dosages should be reduced by approximately one half.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Pain should be aggressively treated, even if dying patients become unable to verbally report their pain. There is no need to forego the IV route. There is no specific need to discontinue the pain control regiment or to reduce it.

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