Chapter 16: Nutrition and Physical Fitness Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 16: Nutrition and Physical Fitness
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The bodys carbohydrate energy reserve consists of
a. glucose and fructose.
b. sugar and starch.
c. glucose and glycogen.
d. glycogen and fatty acids.
ANS: C
Glucose circulating in the blood and glycogen stores in the muscle cells and liver provide the bodys carbohydrate energy reserve.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 319 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

2. The most common ergogenic supplement is
a. creatine.
b. caffeine.
c. iron.
d. carnitine.
ANS: A
Creatine is the most commonly used ergogenic supplement and is considered safe in moderate doses.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 326 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

3. If an athlete exercises for a prolonged period of time, the muscles will become
a. atrophied.
b. fatigued.
c. cramped.
d. limp.
ANS: B
With prolonged exercise the muscles become fatigued. The nutrient reserves become depleted during continuous exercise; the body burns its fuel stores to meet increasing energy demands and requires replenishing. With prolonged exercise, nutrient levels fall too low to sustain the bodys continued demands. Fatigue follows, and exhaustion may result.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 319-320 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

4. The fuel source for short-term energy needs is
a. glycogen.
b. fatty acids.
c. fructose.
d. amino acids.
ANS: A
The source for short-term energy needs is glycogen stored in muscle cells and the liver.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 319 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

5. The most appropriate pregame meal would be
a. pasta with cream sauce and apple juice.
b. cheese and fruit.
c. cereal with skim milk and orange juice.
d. a bagel with cream cheese and water.
ANS: C
A pregame meal consisting of a bowl of cereal with skim milk and a small glass of orange juice would provide high complex carbohydrates, low little fat, moderate protein, moderate fiber, and approximately 300 kcal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 324
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

6. Long-term energy needs are provided by
a. glucose and fatty acids.
b. glycogen and fatty acids.
c. ascorbic acid and fatty acids.
d. glycogen and amino acids.
ANS: A
Long-term energy needs are provided by glucose and fatty acids. Fatty acids serve as a fuel source from stored fat tissue. Some glucose is always needed as a fuel source.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 320-321 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

7. For the body to maintain a high level of steady exercise
a. there must be ample fat stores.
b. there must be sufficient oxygen available to the cells.
c. it must revert to an aerobic phase of metabolism.
d. energy expenditure must decrease.
ANS: B
Sufficient oxygen must be available to cells to maintain a high level of steady exercise. The aerobic capacity depends on two basic factors: (1) the fitness of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels; and (2) body composition.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 319 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

8. To prepare for an athletic event of high endurance, the proper glycogen-loading process is
a. intensive workouts and very high intake of complex carbohydrates.
b. intensive workouts 2 to 3 times a day and high intake of simple carbohydrates.
c. gradual tapering of workouts and increasing carbohydrate intake.
d. gradual tapering of workouts and decreasing carbohydrate intake.
ANS: C
The current practice of glycogen loading or carbohydrate. It involves a moderate, gradual tapering of exercise while total carbohydrate intake in the diet is increased.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 323-325 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

9. Dehydration is not affected by
a. surrounding temperature.
b. body fat content.
c. level of fitness.
d. the pregame or pre-exercise state of hydration.
ANS: B
Fluid needs depend on the intensity and duration of exercise, surrounding temperature, altitude, humidity, level of fitness, and the pregame state of hydration. It is not affected by body fat content.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 319 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

10. The effect of exercise on blood lipoprotein levels is to
a. decrease low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and decrease high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).
b. increase LDLs and increase HDLs.
c. increase LDLs and decrease HDLs.
d. decrease LDLs and increase HDLs.
ANS: D
Exercise raises blood levels of HDLs because HDL carries surplus cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for breakdown and removal from the body. At the same time as surplus is removed, LDL levels decrease.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 314 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

11. Aerobic capacity is related to
a. fitness of the heart and lungs.
b. hydration status.
c. hormone levels.
d. environmental temperature and humidity.
ANS: A
Aerobic capacity depends on the fitness of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels as well as body composition.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 314|318-319 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

12. The maximal attainable heart rate for a 30-year-old is _____ beats/min.
a. 145
b. 165
c. 180
d. 190
ANS: D
Rationale: The maximal attainable heart rate is calculated as 220 Age. In this case 220 30 = 190.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 318
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

13. Aerobic capacity is expressed in terms of amount of _____ of body weight per minute.
a. water absorbed per kilogram
b. oxygen consumed per kilogram
c. oxygen consumed per pound
d. carbon dioxide produced per kilogram
ANS: B
Aerobic capacity is expressed in terms of the amount of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body weight per minute. It depends on the fitness of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels as well as body composition.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 319 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

14. A lower proportion of lean body mass to fat is associated with _____ fitness level.
a. lower
b. greater
c. no effect on
d. a gradual decline in
ANS: A
Lower fitness level is associated with a lower proportion of lean body mass to fat. Body tissues that are metabolically active comprise the lean body mass, which is mainly muscle mass.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 319 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

15. The calories supplied by fat for a person requiring 2200 kcal should not exceed _____ kcal.
a. 300
b. 450
c. 770
d. 840
ANS: C
The percentage of total daily calories supplied from fat should not be less than 20% or greater than 35%. Thus, 2200 kcal 0.35 = 770 kcal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 322 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. A food that would provide significant energy for exercise is
a. lean beef.
b. ice cream.
c. oatmeal.
d. spinach.
ANS: C
A major nutrient for energy support in exercise is carbohydrate, and oatmeal is a good source of carbohydrate.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 320-322 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. For an athlete consuming a 3000 kcal diet, the recommended amount of calories from carbohydrate would be
a. 800 1050 kcal.
b. 950 1250 kcal.
c. 1300 1550 kcal.
d. 1350 1950 kcal.
ANS: D
The percentage of total daily calories from carbohydrate should be approximately 45% to 65%. 3000 kcal x 45% = 1350 kcal. 3000 kcal x 65% = 1950 kcal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 322 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. Vitamins and minerals are important in energy production because
a. they supply a necessary energy source.
b. they speed up energy production.
c. more are needed during exercise.
d. they are needed as cofactors in enzyme reactions.
ANS: D
Vitamins and minerals are important in energy production as cofactors in enzyme reactions. Increased exercise does not require increased vitamin and minerals.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 321 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. A meal that can be beneficial if eaten before athletic competition is
a. a cheeseburger with french fries.
b. grilled chicken, french fries, and cola.
c. whole grain pasta with tomatoes and spinach.
d. fried chicken breast, onion rings, and lemonade.
ANS: C
A meal before athletic competition should be low fat, low protein, and high complex carbohydrate and consist of approximately 300 kcal. The whole grain pasta with tomatoes and spinach would provide this type of meal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 324
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

20. The most beneficial rehydration fluid for most types of exercise lasting 1 hour or less is
a. water with 1/4 cup sugar and 1 crushed vitamin.
b. water with 1 tablespoon salt and lemon flavoring.
c. a prepared or commercial solution with electrolytes.
d. water with nothing added.
ANS: D
Water is the most beneficial fluid for rehydration for most types of exercise.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 325
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

21. For older adults, it is important that
a. all adults perform 150 minutes of high-intensity exercise every week.
b. adults between the ages of 65-75 be active at least 3 times per week.
c. adults be as physically active as condition and ability allows during the week.
d. all adults perform aerobic exercise 60 minutes each day of the week.
ANS: C
Older adult guidelines follow Healthy People 2020 physical activity unless they cannot perform 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity every week. If they cannot exercise at this intensity or for this amount of time, they should be as physically active as abilities and condition allow.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 312
TOP: Nursing Process: Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

22. Of the following, an activity that would be the most beneficial for a person with diabetes would be
a. playing video games 2 hours a day.
b. a walking regimen as approved by his or her physician.
c. eating fast foods only 3 times per week.
d. swimming 10 miles 7 days a week.
ANS: B
An approved moderate exercise plan can increase the number of insulin receptor sites on cell membranes and is therefore beneficial for persons with diabetes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 316-318
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

23. The feeling of well-being after a vigorous workout may be from the production of
a. heat.
b. muscle.
c. endorphins.
d. hormones.
ANS: C
Exercise stimulates the production of brain opiates, substances called endorphins. These natural chemicals decrease pain and improve mood, which may include an exhilarating kind of high.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 316 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance, Psychosocial Integrity

24. An athlete consumes a light meal of pasta with vegetables, fruit, and yogurt. Before beginning a competitive event, the athlete should wait
a. 30 to 60 minutes.
b. 1 to 2 hours.
c. 2 to 3 hours.
d. 3 to 4 hours.
ANS: D
An athlete should consume a light meal 3 to 4 hours before a competitive event. This schedule gives the body time to digest, absorb, and transform the meal and to store glycogen.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 324
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

25. Some fat in the diet is required to provide
a. essential fatty acids.
b. sufficient energy for all activities.
c. cholesterol for hormone production.
d. adequate body fat stores.
ANS: A
Some fat in the diet is needed to provide essential fatty acids for the body to function properly.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 322 TOP: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

26. A food that may be a good source of iron for female and adolescent athletes is
a. ice cream.
b. whole milk.
c. dried apricots
d. apple.
ANS: C
Dried fruits such as apricots are a good source of iron. Iron is the mineral that female and adolescent athletes may require in increased amounts to meet requirements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 321-322
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

27. Before running 3 miles, an athlete should
a. take a 5-minute shower to prevent fatigue.
b. perform 25 pushups for muscle strength.
c. eat a high protein, high fat meal for energy.
d. perform stretching exercises to prevent injury.
ANS: D
Stretching is important to prevent stress or injury to the body. Time to cool down afterwards also is necessary.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 318
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

28. An appropriate amount of exercise for a 12-year-old would be
a. no more than 15 minutes of stretching per day.
b. at least 20 minutes of physical activity per week.
c. at least 60 minutes of physical activity per day.
d. no more than 30 minutes of physical activity every other day.
ANS: C
Children and adolescents should do 60 minutes (1 hour) or more of physical activity per day.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 312
TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

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