Chapter 17 Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

A patient is admitted to the ED complaining of severe abdominal pain, stating that he has been vomiting coffee-ground like emesis. The patient is diagnosed with a perforated gastric ulcer and is informed that he needs surgery. When can the patient most likely anticipate that the surgery will be scheduled?

A)

Within 24 hours

B)

Within the next week

C)

Without delay because the bleed is emergent

D)

As soon as all the days elective surgeries have been completed

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Emergency surgeries are unplanned and occur with little time for preparation for the patient or the perioperative team. An active bleed is considered an emergency, and the patient requires immediate attention because the disorder may be life threatening. The surgery would not likely be deferred until after elective surgeries have been completed.

2.

The nurse is performing a preoperative assessment on a patient going to surgery. The patient informs the nurse that he drinks approximately two bottles of wine each day and has for the last several years. What postoperative difficulties can the nurse anticipate for this patient?

A)

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome immediately following surgery

B)

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome 2 to 4 days after his last alcohol drink

C)

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome upon administration of general anesthesia

D)

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome 1 week after his last alcohol drink

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome may be anticipated between 48 and 96 hours after alcohol withdrawal and is associated with a significant mortality rate when it occurs postoperatively.

3.

In anticipation of a patients scheduled surgery, the nurse is teaching her to perform deep breathing and coughing to use postoperatively. What action should the nurse teach the patient?

A)

The patient should take three deep breaths and cough hard three times, at least every 15 minutes for the immediately postoperative period.

B)

The patient should take three deep breaths and exhale forcefully and then take a quick short breath and cough from deep in the lungs.

C)

The patient should take a deep breath in through the mouth and exhale through the mouth, take a short breath, and cough from deep in the lungs.

D)

The patient should rapidly inhale, hold for 30 seconds or as long as possible, and exhale slowly.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The patient assumes a sitting position to enhance lung expansion. The nurse then demonstrates how to take a deep, slow breath and how to exhale slowly. After practicing deep breathing several times, the patient is instructed to breathe deeply, exhale through the mouth, take a short breath, and cough from deep in the lungs.

4.

The nurse is preparing a patient for surgery prior to her hysterectomy without oophorectomy. The nurse is witnessing the patients signature on a consent form. Which comment by the patient would best indicate informed consent?

A)

I know Ill be fine because the physician said he has done this procedure hundreds of times.

B)

I know Ill have pain after the surgery but theyll do their best to keep it to a minimum.

C)

The physician is going to remove my uterus and told me about the risk of bleeding.

D)

Because the physician isnt taking my ovaries, Ill still be able to have children.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The surgeon must inform the patient of the benefits, alternatives, possible risks, complications, disfigurement, disability, and removal of body parts as well as what to expect in the early and late postoperative periods. The nurse clarifies the information provided, and, if the patient requests additional information, the nurse notifies the physician. In the correct response, the patient is able to tell the nurse what will occur during the procedure and the associated risks. This indicates the patient has a sufficient understanding of the procedure to provide informed consent. Clarification of information given may be necessary, but no additional information should be given. The other listed statements do not reflect an understanding of the surgery to be performed.

5.

The nurse is planning patient teaching for a patient who is scheduled for an open hemicolectomy. The nurse intends to address the topics of incision splinting and leg exercises during this teaching session. When is the best time for the nurse to provide teaching?

A)

Upon the patients admission to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU)

B)

When the patient returns from the PACU

C)

During the intraoperative period

D)

As soon as possible before the surgical procedure

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Teaching is most effective when provided before surgery. Preoperative teaching is initiated as soon as possible, beginning in the physicians office, clinic, or at the time of preadmission testing when diagnostic tests are performed. Upon admission to the PACU, the patient is usually drowsy, making this an inopportune time for teaching. Upon the patients return from the PACU, the patient may remain drowsy. During the intraoperative period, anesthesia alters the patients mental status, rendering teaching ineffective.

6.

The nurse is caring for a hospice patient who is scheduled for a surgical procedure to reduce the size of his spinal tumor in an effort to relieve his pain. The nurse should plan this patient care with the knowledge that his surgical procedure is classified as which of the following?

A)

Diagnostic

B)

Laparoscopic

C)

Curative

D)

Palliative

Ans:

D

Feedback:

A patient on hospice will undergo a surgical procedure only for palliative care to reduce pain, but it is not curative. The reduction of tumor size to relieve pain is considered a palliative procedure. A laparoscopic procedure is a type of surgery that is utilized for diagnostic purposes or for repair. The excision of a tumor is classified as curative. This patient is not having the tumor removed, only the size reduced.

7.

A nurse is providing preoperative teaching to a patient who will soon undergo a cardiac bypass. The nurses teaching plan includes exercises of the extremities. What is the purpose of teaching a patient leg exercises prior to surgery?

A)

Leg exercises increase the patients muscle mass postoperatively.

B)

Leg exercises improve circulation and prevent venous thrombosis.

C)

Leg exercises help to prevent pressure sores to the sacrum and heels.

D)

Leg exercise help increase the patients level of consciousness after surgery.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Exercise of the extremities includes extension and flexion of the knee and hip joints (similar to bicycle riding while lying on the side) unless contraindicated by type of surgical procedure (e.g., hip replacement). When the patient does leg exercises postoperatively, circulation is increased, which helps to prevent blood clots from forming. Leg exercises do not prevent pressure sores to the sacrum, or increase the patients level of consciousness. Leg exercises have the potential to increase strength and mobility, but are unlikely to make a change to muscle mass in the short term.

8.

During the care of a preoperative patient, the nurse has given the patient a preoperative benzodiazepine. The patient is now requesting to void. What action should the nurse take?

A)

Assist the patient to the bathroom.

B)

Offer the patient a bedpan or urinal.

C)

Wait until the patient gets to the operating room and is catheterized.

D)

Have the patient go to the bathroom.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

If a preanesthetic medication is administered, the patient is kept in bed with the side rails raised because the medication can cause lightheadedness or drowsiness. If a patient needs to void following administration of a sedative, the nurse should offer the patient a urinal. The patient should not get out of bed because of the potential for lightheadedness.

9.

The nurse is preparing a patient for surgery. The patient states that she is very nervous and really does not understand what the surgical procedure is for or how it will be performed. What is the most appropriate nursing action for the nurse to take?

A)

Have the patient sign the informed consent and place it in the chart.

B)

Call the physician to review the procedure with the patient.

C)

Explain the procedure clearly to the patient and her family.

D)

Provide the patient with a pamphlet explaining the procedure.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

While the nurse may ask the patient to sign the consent form and witness the signature, it is the surgeons responsibility to provide a clear and simple explanation of what the surgery will entail prior to the patient giving consent. The surgeon must also inform the patient of the benefits, alternatives, possible risks, complications, disfigurement, disability, and removal of body parts as well as what to expect in the early and late postoperative periods. The nurse clarifies the information provided, and, if the patient requests additional information, the nurse notifies the physician. The consent formed should not be signed until the patient understands the procedure that has been explained by the surgeon. The provision of a pamphlet will benefit teaching the patient about the surgical procedure, but will not substitute for the information provided by the physician.

10.

The nurse is caring for a patient who is admitted to the ER with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The nurse notes during the assessment that the patients ribs and xiphoid process are prominent. The patient states she exercises two to three times daily and her mother indicates that she is being treated for anorexia nervosa. How should the nurse best follow up these assessment data?

A)

Inform the postoperative team about the patients risk for wound dehiscence.

B)

Evaluate the patients ability to manage her pain level.

C)

Facilitate a detailed analysis of the patients electrolyte levels.

D)

Instruct the patient on the need for a high-sodium diet to promote healing.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The surgical team should be informed about the patients medical history regarding anorexia nervosa. Any nutritional deficiency, such as malnutrition, should be corrected before surgery to provide adequate protein for tissue repair. The electrolyte levels should be evaluated and corrected to prevent metabolic abnormalities in the operative and postoperative phase. The risk of wound dehiscence is more likely associated with obesity. Instruction on proper nutrition should take place in the postoperative period, and a consultation should be made with her psychiatric specialist. Evaluation of pain management is always important, but not particularly significant in this scenario.

11.

The nurse is doing preoperative patient education with a 61-year-old male patient who has a 40-pack per year history of cigarette smoking. The patient will undergo an elective bunionectomy at a time that fits his work schedule in a few months. What would be the best instruction to give to this patient?

A)

Reduce smoking by 50% to prevent the development of pneumonia.

B)

Stop smoking at least 6 weeks before the scheduled surgery to enhance pulmonary function and decrease infection.

C)

Aim to quit smoking in the postoperative period to reduce the chance of surgical complications

D)

Stop smoking 4 to 8 weeks before the scheduled surgery to enhance pulmonary function and decrease infection.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The reduction of smoking will enhance pulmonary function; in the preoperative period, patients who smoke should be urged to stop 4 to 8 weeks before surgery.

12.

You are providing preoperative teaching to a patient scheduled for hip replacement surgery in 1 month. During the preoperative teaching, the patient gives you a list of medications she takes, the dosage, and frequency. Which of the following interventions provides the patient with the most accurate information?

A)

Instruct the patient to stop taking St. Johns wort at least 2 weeks prior to surgery due to its interaction with anesthetic agents.

B)

Instruct the patient to continue taking ephedrine prior to surgery due to its beneficial effect on blood pressure.

C)

Instruct the patient to discontinue Synthroid due to its effect on blood coagulation and the potential for heart dysrhythmias.

D)

Instruct the patient to continue any herbal supplements unless otherwise instructed, and inform the patient that these supplements have minimal effect on the surgical procedure.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Because of the potential effects of herbal medications on coagulation and potential lethal interactions with other medications, the nurse must ask surgical patients specifically about the use of these agents, document their use, and inform the surgical team and anesthesiologist, anesthetist, or nurse anesthetist. Currently, it is recommended that the use of herbal products be discontinued at least 2 weeks before surgery. Patients with uncontrolled thyroid disorders are at risk for thyrotoxicosis and respiratory failure. The administration of Synthroid is imperative in the preoperative period. The use of ephedrine in the preoperative phase can cause hypertension and should be avoided.

13.

The nurse is creating the care plan for a 70-year-old obese patient who has been admitted to the postsurgical unit following a colon resection. This patients age and increased body mass index mean that she is at increased risk for what complication in the postoperative period?

A)

Hyperglycemia

B)

Azotemia

C)

Falls

D)

Infection

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Like age, obesity increases the risk and severity of complications associated with surgery. During surgery, fatty tissues are especially susceptible to infection. In addition, obesity increases technical and mechanical problems related to surgery. Therefore, dehiscence (wound separation) and wound infections are more common. A postoperative patient who is obese will not likely be at greater risk for hyperglycemia, azotemia, or falls.

14.

The nurse is caring for a patient in the postoperative period following an abdominal hysterectomy. The patient states, I dont want to use my pain meds because theyll make me dependent and I wont get better as fast. Which response is most important when explaining the use of pain medication?

A)

You will need the pain medication for at least 1 week to help in your recovery. What do you mean you feel you wont get better faster?

B)

Pain medication will help to decrease your pain and increase your ability to breath. Dependency is a risk with pain medication, but you are young and wont have any problems.

C)

Pain medication can be given by mouth to prevent the risk of dependency that you are worried about. The pain medication has not been shown to affect your risk of a slowed recovery.

D)

You will move more easily and heal more quickly with decreased pain. Dependence only occurs when it is administered for an extended period of time.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Postoperatively, medications are administered to relieve pain and maintain comfort without increasing the risk of inadequate air exchange. In the responses by the nurse, (response D) addresses the patients concerns about drug dependency and the nurses need to increase the patients ability to move and recover from surgery. The other responses offer incorrect information, such as increasing the patients ability to breathe or specifying the time needed to take the medication. Opioids will cause respiratory depression.

15.

The nurse admitting a patient who is insulin dependent to the same-day surgical suite for carpal tunnel surgery. How should this patients diagnosis of type 1 diabetes affect the care that the nurse plans?

A)

The nurse should administer a bolus of dextrose IV solution preoperatively.

B)

The nurse should keep the patient NPO for at least 8 hours preoperatively.

C)

The nurse should initiate a subcutaneous infusion of long-acting insulin.

D)

The nurse should assess the patients blood glucose levels vigilantly.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The patient with diabetes who is undergoing surgery is at risk for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Close glycemic monitoring is necessary. Dextrose infusion and prolonged NPO status are contraindicated. There is no specific need for an insulin infusion preoperatively.

16.

The nurse is checking the informed consent for a 17-year-old who has just been married and expecting her first child. She is scheduled for a cesarean section. She is still living with her parents and is on her parents health insurance. When obtaining informed consent for the cesarean section, who is legally responsible for signing?

A)

Her parents

B)

Her husband

C)

The patient

D)

The obstetrician

Ans:

C

Feedback:

An emancipated minor (married or independently earning his or her own living) may sign his or her own consent form. In this case, the patient is the only person who can provide consent unless she would be neurologically incapacitated or incompetent, in which case her husband would need to provide consent.

17.

The nurse is providing preoperative teaching to a patient scheduled for surgery. The nurse is instructing the patient on the use of deep breathing, coughing, and the use of incentive spirometry when the patient states, I dont know why youre focusing on my breathing. My surgery is on my hip, not my chest. What rationale for these instructions should the nurse provide?

A)

To prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

B)

To promote optimal lung expansion

C)

To enhance peripheral circulation

D)

To prevent pneumothorax

Ans:

B

Feedback:

One goal of preoperative nursing care is to teach the patient how to promote optimal lung expansion and consequent blood oxygenation after anesthesia. COPD is not a realistic risk and pneumothorax is also unlikely. Breathing exercises do not primarily affect peripheral circulation.

18.

One of the things a nurse has taught to a patient during preoperative teaching is to have nothing by mouth for the specified time before surgery. The patient asks the nurse why this is important. What is the most appropriate response for the patient?

A)

You will need to have food and fluid restricted before surgery so you are not at risk for choking.

B)

The restriction of food or fluid will prevent the development of pneumonia related to decreased lung capacity.

C)

The presence of food in the stomach interferes with the absorption of anesthetic agents.

D)

By withholding food for 8 hours before surgery, you will not develop constipation in the postoperative period.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The major purpose of withholding food and fluid before surgery is to prevent aspiration. There is no scientific basis for withholding food and the development of pneumonia or interference with absorption of anesthetic agents. Constipation in patients in the postoperative period is related to the anesthesia, not from withholding food or fluid in the hours before surgery.

19.

A patient is scheduled for a bowel resection in the morning and the patients orders include a cleansing enema tonight. The patient wants to know why this is necessary. The nurse should explain that the cleansing enema will have what therapeutic effect?

A)

Preventing aspiration of gastric contents

B)

Preventing the accumulation of abdominal gas postoperatively

C)

Preventing potential contamination of the peritoneum

D)

Facilitating better absorption of medications

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The administration of a cleansing enema will allow for satisfactory visualization of the surgical site and to prevent trauma to the intestine or contamination of the peritoneum by feces. It will have no effect on aspiration of gastric contents or the absorption of medications. The patient should expect to develop gas in the postoperative period.

20.

The nurse is caring for a patient who is experiencing pain and anxiety following his prostatectomy. Which intervention will likely best assist in decreasing the patients pain and anxiety?

A)

Administration of NSAIDs rather than opioids

B)

Allowing the patient to increase activity

C)

Use of guided imagery along with pain medication

D)

Use of deep breathing and coughing exercises

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The use of guided imagery will enhance pain relief and assist in reduction of anxiety. It may be combined with analgesics. Deep breathing and the increase in activity may produce increased pain. Replacing opioids with NSAIDs may cause an increase in pain.

21.

A patient is on call to the OR for an aortobifemoral bypass and the nurse administers the ordered preoperative medication. After administering a preoperative medication to the patient, what should the nurse do?

A)

Encourage light ambulation.

B)

Place the bed in a low position with the side rails up.

C)

Tell the patient that he will be asleep before he leaves for surgery.

D)

Take the patients vital signs every 15 minutes.

Ans:

B

Feedback:

When the preoperative medication is given, the bed should be placed in low position with the side rails raised. The patient should not get up without assistance. The patient may not be asleep, but he may be drowsy. Vital signs should be taken before the preoperative medication is given; vital signs are not normally required every 15 minutes after administration.

22.

The nurse is performing a preadmission assessment of a patient scheduled for a bilateral mastectomy. Of what purpose of the preadmission assessment should the nurse be aware?

A)

Verifies completion of preoperative diagnostic testing

B)

Discusses and reviews patients health insurance coverage

C)

Determines the patients suitability as a surgical candidate

D)

Informs the patient of need for postoperative transportation

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Purposes of preadmission testing (PAT) include verifying completion of preoperative diagnostic testing. The nurses role in PAT does not normally involve financial considerations or addressing transportation. The physician determines the patients suitability for surgery.

23.

A nurse in the preoperative holding area is admitting a woman prior to reduction mammoplasty. What should the nurse include in the care given to this patient? Select all that apply.

A)

Establishing an IV line

B)

Verifying the surgical site with the patient

C)

Taking measures to ensure the patients comfort

D)

Applying a grounding device to the patient

E)

Preparing the medications to be administered in the OR

Ans:

A, B, C

Feedback:

In the holding area, the nurse reviews charts, identifies patients, verifies surgical site and marks site per institutional policy, establishes IV lines, administers medications, if prescribed, and takes measures to ensure each patients comfort. A nurse in the preoperative holding area does not prepare medications to be administered by anyone else. A grounding device is applied in the OR.

24.

An OR nurse will be participating in the intraoperative phase of a patients kidney transplant. What action will the nurse prioritize in this aspect of nursing care?

A)

Monitoring the patients physiologic status

B)

Providing emotional support to family

C)

Maintaining the patients cognitive status

D)

Maintaining a clean environment

Ans:

A

Feedback:

During the intraoperative phase, the nurse is responsible for physiologic monitoring. The intraoperative nurse cannot support the family at this time and the nurse is not responsible for maintaining the patients cognitive status. The intraoperative nurse maintains an aseptic, not clean, environment.

25.

The nurse is doing a preoperative assessment of an 87-year-old man who is slated to have a right lung lobe resection to treat lung cancer. What underlying principle should guide the nurses preoperative assessment of an elderly patient?

A)

Elderly patients have a smaller lung capacity than younger patients.

B)

Elderly patients require higher medication doses than younger patients.

C)

Elderly patients have less physiologic reserve than younger patients.

D)

Elderly patients have more sophisticated coping skills than younger patients.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The underlying principle that guides the preoperative assessment, surgical care, and postoperative care is that elderly patients have less physiologic reserve (the ability of an organ to return to normal after a disturbance in its equilibrium) than do younger patients. Elderly patients do not have larger lung capacities than younger patients. Elderly patients cannot necessarily cope better than younger patients and they often require lower doses of medications.

26.

The PACU nurse is caring for a patient who has been deemed ready to go to the postsurgical floor after her surgery. What would the PACU nurse be responsible for reporting to the nurse on the floor? Select all that apply.

A)

The names of the anesthetics that were used

B)

The identities of the staff in the OR

C)

The patients preoperative level of consciousness

D)

The presence of family and/or significant others

E)

The patients full name

Ans:

C, D, E

Feedback:

The PACU nurse is responsible for informing the floor nurse of the patients intraoperative factors (e.g., insertion of drains or catheters, administration of blood or medications during surgery, or occurrence of unexpected events), preoperative level of consciousness, presence of family and/or significant others, and identification of the patient by name. The PACU nurse does not tell which anesthetic was used, only the type and amount used. The PACU nurse does not identify the staff that was in the OR with the patient.

27.

A 77-year-old mans coronary artery bypass graft has been successful and discharge planning is underway. When planning the patients subsequent care, the nurse should know that the postoperative phase of perioperative nursing ends at what time?

A)

When the patient is returned to his room after surgery

B)

When a follow-up evaluation in the clinical or home setting is done

C)

When the patient is fully recovered from all effects of the surgery

D)

When the family becomes partly responsible for the patients care

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The postoperative phase begins with the admission of the patient to the PACU and ends with a follow-up evaluation in the clinical setting or home.

28.

The nurse is caring for a trauma victim in the ED who will require emergency surgery due to injuries. Before the patient leaves the ED for the OR, the patient goes into cardiac arrest. The nurse assists in the successful resuscitation and proceeds to release the patient to the OR staff. When can the ED nurse perform the preoperative assessment?

A)

When he or she has the opportunity to review the patients electronic health record

B)

When the patient arrives in the OR

C)

When assisting with the resuscitation

D)

Preoperative assessment is not necessary in this case

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The only opportunity for preoperative assessment may take place at the same time as resuscitation in the ED. Preoperative assessment is necessary, but the nurse could not normally enter the OR to perform this assessment. The health record is an inadequate data source.

29.

The admitting nurse in a short-stay surgical unit is responsible for numerous aspects of care. What must the nurse verify before the patient is taken to the preoperative holding area?

A)

That preoperative teaching was performed

B)

That the family is aware of the length of the surgery

C)

That follow-up home care is not necessary

D)

That the family understands the patient will be discharged immediately after surgery.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The nurse needs to be sure that the patient and family understand that the patient will first go to the preoperative holding area before going to the OR for the surgical procedure and then will spend some time in the PACU before being discharged home with the family later that day. Other preoperative teaching content should also be verified and reinforced, as needed. The nurse should ensure that any plans for follow-up home care are in place.

30.

The clinic nurse is doing a preoperative assessment of a patient who will be undergoing outpatient cataract surgery with lens implantation in 1 week. While taking the patients medical history, the nurse notes that this patient had a kidney transplant 8 years ago and that the patient is taking immunosuppressive drugs. For what is this patient at increased risk when having surgery?

A)

Rejection of the kidney

B)

Rejection of the implanted lens

C)

Infection

D)

Adrenal storm

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Because patients who are immunosuppressed are highly susceptible to infection, great care is taken to ensure strict asepsis. The patient is unlikely to experience rejection or adrenal storm.

31.

The nurse is planning the care of a patient who has type 1 diabetes and who will be undergoing knee replacement surgery. This patients care plan should reflect an increased risk of what postsurgical complications? Select all that apply.

A)

Hypoglycemia

B)

Delirium

C)

Acidosis

D)

Glucosuria

E)

Fluid overload

Ans:

A, C, D

Feedback:

Hypoglycemia may develop during anesthesia or postoperatively from inadequate carbohydrates or excessive administration of insulin. Hyperglycemia, which can increase the risk for surgical wound infection, may result from the stress of surgery, which can trigger increased levels of catecholamine. Other risks are acidosis and glucosuria. Risks of fluid overload and delirium are not normally increased.

32.

The surgical nurse is preparing to send a patient from the presurgical area to the OR and is reviewing the patients informed consent form. What are the criteria for legally valid informed consent? Select all that apply.

A)

Consent must be freely given.

B)

Consent must be notarized.

C)

Consent must be signed on the day of surgery.

D)

Consent must be obtained by a physician.

E)

Signature must be witnessed by a professional staff member.

Ans:

A, D, E

Feedback:

Valid consent must be freely given, without coercion. Consent must be obtained by a physician and the patients signature must be witnessed by a professional staff member. It does not need to be signed on the same day as the surgery and it does not need to be notarized.

33.

You are the nurse caring for an unconscious trauma victim who needs emergency surgery. The patient is a 55-year-old man with an adult son. He is legally divorced and is planning to be remarried in a few weeks. His parents are at the hospital with the other family members. The physician has explained the need for surgery, the procedure to be done, and the risks to the children, the parents, and the fianc. Who should be asked to sign the surgery consent form?

A)

The fianc

B)

The son

C)

The physician, acting as a surrogate

D)

The patients father

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The patient personally signs the consent if of legal age and mentally capable. Permission is otherwise obtained from a surrogate, who most often is a responsible family member (preferably next of kin) or legal guardian. In this instance, the child would be the appropriate person to ask to sign the consent form as he is the closest relative at the hospital. The fianc is not legally related to him as the marriage has not yet taken place. The father would only be asked to sign the consent if no children were present to sign. The physician would not sign if family members were available.

34.

The ED nurse is caring for an 11-year-old brought in by ambulance after having been hit by a car. The childs parents are thought to be en route to the hospital but have not yet arrived. No other family members are present and attempts to contact the parents have been unsuccessful. The child needs emergency surgery to save her life. How should the need for informed consent be addressed?

A)

A social worker should temporarily sign the informed consent.

B)

Consent should be obtained from the hospitals ethics committee.

C)

Surgery should be done without informed consent.

D)

Surgery should be delayed until the parents arrive.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

In an emergency, it may be necessary for the surgeon to operate as a lifesaving measure without the patients informed consent. However, every effort must be made to contact the patients family. In such a situation, contact can be made by electronic means. In this scenario, the surgery is considered lifesaving, and the parents are on their way to the hospital and not available. A delay would be unacceptable. Neither a social worker nor a member of the ethics committee may sign.

35.

The nurse is caring for a 78-year-old female patient who is scheduled for surgery to remove her brain tumor. The patient is very apprehensive and keeps asking when she will get her preoperative medicine. The medicine is ordered to be given on call to OR. When would be the best time to give this medication?

A)

As soon as possible, in order to alleviate the patients anxiety

B)

As the patient is transferred to the OR bed

C)

When the porter arrives on the floor to take the patient to surgery

D)

After being notified by the OR and before other preoperative preparations

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The nurse can have the medication ready to administer as soon as a call is received from the OR staff. It usually takes 15 to 20 minutes to prepare the patient for the OR. If the nurse gives the medication before attending to the other details of preoperative preparation, the patient will have at least partial benefit from the preoperative medication and will have a smoother anesthetic and operative course.

36.

The nurse is preparing to send a patient to the OR for a scheduled surgery. What should the nurse ensure is on the chart when it accompanies the patient to surgery? Select all that apply.

A)

Laboratory reports

B)

Nurses notes

C)

Verification form

D)

Social work assessment

E)

Dieticians assessment

Ans:

A, B, C

Feedback:

The completed chart (with the preoperative checklist and verification form) accompanies the patient to the OR with the surgical consent form attached, along with all laboratory reports and nurses records. Any unusual last-minute observations that may have a bearing on anesthesia or surgery are noted prominently at the front of the chart. The social work and dieticians assessments are not normally necessary when the patient goes to surgery.

37.

You are caring for an 88-year-old woman who is scheduled for a right mastectomy. You know that elderly patients are frequently more anxious prior to surgery than younger patients. What would you increase with this patient to decrease her anxiety?

A)

Analgesia

B)

Therapeutic touch

C)

Preoperative medication

D)

Sleeping medication the night before surgery

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Older patients report higher levels of preoperative anxiety; therefore, the nurse should be prepared to spend additional time, increase the amount of therapeutic touch utilized, and encourage family members to be present to decrease anxiety. For most patients, nonpharmacologic interventions should be attempted before administering medications.

38.

The policies and procedures on a preoperative unit are being amended to bring them closer into alignment with the focus of the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP). What intervention most directly addresses the priorities of the SCIP?

A)

Actions aimed at increasing participation of families in planning care

B)

Actions aimed at preventing surgical site infections

C)

Actions aimed at increasing interdisciplinary collaboration

D)

Actions aimed at promoting the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)

Ans:

B

Feedback:

SCIP identifies performance measures aimed at preventing surgical complications, including venous thromboembolism (VTE) and surgical site infections (SSI). It does not explicitly address family participation, interdisciplinary collaboration, or CAM.

39.

A 90-year-old female patient is scheduled to undergo a partial mastectomy for the treatment of breast cancer. What nursing diagnosis should the nurse prioritize when planning this patients postoperative care?

A)

Risk for Delayed Growth and Development related to prolonged hospitalization

B)

Risk for Decisional Conflict related to discharge planning

C)

Risk for Impaired Memory related to old age

D)

Risk for Infection related to reduced immune function

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The lessened physiological reserve of older adults results in an increased risk for infection postoperatively. This physiological consideration is a priority over psychosocial considerations, which may or may not be applicable. Impaired memory is always attributed to a pathophysiological etiology, not advanced age.

40.

A clinic nurse is conducting a preoperative interview with an adult patient who will soon be scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery. What interview question most directly addresses the patients safety?

A)

What prescription and nonprescription medications do you currently take?

B)

Have you previously been admitted to the hospital, either for surgery or for medical treatment?

C)

How long do you expect to be at home recovering after your surgery?

D)

Would you say that you tend to eat a fairly healthy diet?

Ans:

A

Feedback:

It is imperative to know a preoperative patients current medication regimen, including OTC medications and supplements. None of the other listed questions directly addresses an issue with major safety implications.

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