Chapter 17: Promoting Healthy Communities Using Multilevel Participatory Strategies Nursing School Test Banks

Stanhope: Public Health Nursing, 8th Edition

Chapter 17: Promoting Healthy Communities Using Multilevel Participatory Strategies

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The biomedical model defines health as the:
a. Avoidance of illness
b. Absence of disease
c. Promotion of healthy behaviors
d. Protection from illness and disease states
ANS: B
The biomedical model defines health as the absence of disease. It does not explain why populations remain healthy or how health is enhanced.

DIF: COG: Remembering REF: 375 OBJ: 1

2. According to Leavell and Clark, primary prevention consists of:
a. Health promotion and rehabilitation
b. Health promotion and specific protection
c. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment
d. Health maintenance and early diagnosis
ANS: B
Leavell and Clark stated that primary prevention includes health promotion and specific protection from disease.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 380 OBJ: 1

3. According to Laffrey, Loveland-Cherry, and Winkler, the health perspective views:
a. Health as the absence of disease
b. Human lifestyle based on ones prescribed regime
c. Humans as complex and interconnected with the environment
d. Community education as the role of the registered nurse
ANS: C
The health paradigm includes the view that humans are complex and interconnected with the environment.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 375 OBJ: 1

4. Screening school-age children for hearing deficits is an example of:
a. Primary prevention
b. Secondary prevention
c. Tertiary prevention
d. Health promotion
ANS: B
Secondary prevention focuses on early detection and prompt treatment of disease, injury, or disability.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 380 OBJ: 1

5. Examples of modifiable behaviors include:
a. Smoking, poor diet, and alcohol consumption
b. Cancer, emphysema, and cardiovascular disease
c. Walking, running, and aerobic exercise
d. Genetic abnormalities
ANS: A
The leading causes of death in 2000 were tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption. These are modifiable behaviors.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 374 OBJ: 1

6. A nurse utilizing a disease-oriented approach would:
a. Promote a greater level of positive health.
b. Teach about common disease processes.
c. Provide acute care management of chronic disease.
d. Direct care toward disease prevention.
ANS: D
Disease prevention, risk appraisal, and disease management are all elements of the disease-oriented approach.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 375 OBJ: 1

7. A client eats a nutritious, balanced diet on a daily basis to keep the current state of health. This is described as _____ behavior.
a. Illness prevention
b. Health promotion
c. Health maintenance
d. Health protective
ANS: C
Health maintenance behavior is directed toward keeping a current state of health.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 381 OBJ: 1

8. A 5-feet, 6-inch, 25-year-old female who weighs 120 pounds walks 5 miles a day because she has a long family history of early death from heart attacks and is refraining from a sedentary lifestyle. Which term best describes this example?
a. Health promotion
b. Illness prevention
c. Health maintenance
d. Health protection
ANS: B
The woman is exercising to prevent an illness that runs in her family. Illness prevention is a behavior directed toward reducing the threat of illness.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 381 OBJ: 1

9. A 5-feet, 6-inch, 25-year-old woman who weighs 120 pounds runs 5 miles a day because it improves her mood and energy level. Which term best describes this example?
a. Health promotion
b. Illness prevention
c. Health maintenance
d. Health protection
ANS: A
The woman is exercising to improve and promote her health. Health promotion is directed toward achieving a greater level of health.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 381 OBJ: 1

10. A woman has attended a weight reduction program for a year and lost 75 pounds. She now attends weekly meetings to keep the weight off. Which term best describes this example?
a. Health promotion
b. Illness prevention
c. Health maintenance
d. Health protection
ANS: C
The womans weight is being maintained through attending the weight reduction program. Health maintenance focuses on keeping a current state of health.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 381 OBJ: 1

11. The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services provides:
a. The most recent recommendations for preventive interventions
b. Assistance in interpreting Healthy People 2020
c. A basis for public health nursing practice
d. Health risk appraisal instruments
ANS: A
The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services provides recommendations for preventive interventions including screening tests, counseling, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 382 OBJ: 2

12. One advantage of health-risk appraisal instruments is that they:
a. Are suitable for all age-groups
b. Accurately reflect an individuals ability to initiate changes in lifestyle
c. Provide support to nurses in counseling individuals about self-care behaviors
d. Emphasize environmental factors
ANS: C
Health-risk appraisal instruments provide support to nurses in counseling and educating individuals in self-care behaviors.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 382 OBJ: 2

13. Which statement best describes health risk appraisals?
a. Data about health practices are collected from families.
b. Primary prevention strategies are implemented by using the collected data.
c. Identified risks can be easily modified.
d. Individual health practices are compared with data from epidemiologic studies.
ANS: D
During a health risk appraisal, individuals supply information about their health practices, demographic characteristics, and personal and family medical history for comparison with data from epidemiologic studies. These comparisons are used to predict individuals risk of morbidity and mortality and to suggest areas in which disease risks may be reduced. Health risks appraisals use secondary prevention by screening to prevent or detect disease in its earliest stages.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 381 OBJ: 2

14. When using the integrative model for community health promotion, the nurse would apply the dimension of client system by:
a. Concentrating on individual health behaviors
b. Studying client-centered initiatives
c. Providing multidimensional nursing care among various levels of clients
d. Focusing on health promotion, illness prevention, and illness care
ANS: C
Nursing care is targeted toward several levels of clients in the client system.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 376-377 OBJ: 2

15. When would a nurse use The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services?
a. Conducting group risk appraisal and risk reduction
b. Providing recommendations for preventive interventions
c. Completing a community wellness inventory
d. Improving environmental living conditions and sanitation
ANS: B
These include screening tests, counseling, immunizations, and chemoprophylaxis regimens for more than 80 conditions.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 382 OBJ: 2

16. The Framingham Heart Study was successful in:
a. Providing information on the effectiveness of risk-reduction interventions
b. Documenting the relationship between social variables and heart disease
c. Identifying factors contributing to the development of coronary heart disease
d. Demonstrating the effects of mass media in modifying high-risk behavior
ANS: C
The Framingham Heart Study identified factors contributing to the development of coronary heart disease and high blood pressure.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 385 OBJ: 3

17. Which community-based risk-reduction intervention resulted in equally favorable health risk changes for both control and treatment groups?
a. Framingham Heart Study
b. Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program
c. North Karelia Study
d. Minnesota Heart Health Program
ANS: D
The Minnesota Heart Health Program resulted in equally favorable health risk changes for both control and treatment groups.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 386 OBJ: 3

18. A public health nurse collaborates with local community leaders to develop a local campaign educating about the importance of wearing a seat belt. What client system of the integrative model does this describe?
a. Community
b. Aggregate
c. Family
d. Individual
ANS: A
Interventions to initiate or maintain healthy lifestyles must be multifocal. At the broadest level of care (community), nurses work with community leaders, other community residents, and health professionals to plan programs to promote optimal health for the community and its people.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 377 OBJ: 3

19. When applying the integrative model for community health promotion, a nurse assesses a neighborhood for accessibility and adequacy of care to provide treatment for medical conditions. What client system does this describe?
a. Individual
b. Family
c. Aggregate
d. Community
ANS: D
The community focus includes the nurse assessing the community for accessibility and adequacy of care to provide treatment for medical conditions.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 377|389-390 OBJ: 3

20. When using Anderson and McFarlanes model to complete a community health assessment, a nurse would collect information about the _____ the community.
a. Resources available to promote health in
b. Interactions among subsystems in
c. Physical environment of
d. Demographics of
ANS: B
A community health assessment must include information about the subsystems and interactions of the total community with the systems external to it.

DIF: COG: Analyzing REF: 384 OBJ: 3

21. A nurse provides counseling to an obese client about the importance of good nutrition and regular exercise with the intention of helping the client avoid future chronic diseases associated with obesity. What client system and focus of care are being applied in this situation?
a. Family level health promotion
b. Individual level illness prevention
c. Aggregate level illness prevention
d. Individual level health promotion
ANS: B
The simplest level of the client system is the individual. The focus of care is illness prevention, directed at disease or disability prevention.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 377|384 OBJ: 4

22. A public health nurse collaborates with a physicians clinic to increase the number of infants and toddlers who receive lead screening. According to the integrative model, what client system and focus of care are being addressed?
a. Aggregate level health promotion
b. Aggregate level illness prevention
c. Family level illness care
d. Individual level health promotion
ANS: A
Each succeeding level of the client system is more complex. In this situation, the public health nurse is working with an aggregate of infants and toddlers. The focus of care being addressed is health promotion, focusing on positive measures such as education for healthy living and promotion of favorable environmental conditions as well as periodic examinations, including well-child developmental assessment and health education.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 377|381 OBJ: 4

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which intervention is being performed on the individual level? Select all that apply.
a. Teaching well-balanced nutrition to a mother with a malnourished child
b. Providing a parent age-specific information for immunizations
c. Assessing the community for other cases of malnutrition
d. Assessing other families on the same street for similar problems
ANS: A, B
Teaching well-balanced nutrition and age-specific information about immunizations are the only interventions that focus on individuals. The other examples relate to families and the community.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 377 OBJ: 3

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