Chapter 18- Asepsis and Infection Control Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

The nurse explains to the patient the first line of defense against infection is:

A)

frequent hand washing with soap and water.

B)

early intervention with antibiotics.

C)

staying home when sick.

D)

intact skin and mucous membranes.

E)

low levels of normal flora.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The first line of defense against infection is intact skin and mucous membranes covering body cavities.

2.

A patient has an inguinal hernia repair and later develops a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. What is the most important factor to prevent this infection?

A)

Surgical asepsis

B)

Increased T cells

C)

Decreased antibiotics

D)

Increased vitamin C

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Patients are at risk for nosocomial infections when the healthcare staff does not follow safety guidelines. Medical and surgical asepsis is the primary safety intervention for preventing disease in the healthcare environment.

3.

A patient has a draining wound that is contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. The nurse should observe

A)

Droplet precautions

B)

Universal precautions

C)

Reverse precautions

D)

Body-substance isolation

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Body-substance isolation involves the use of barriers to provide protection from all moist body secretions.

4.

When the patient who has been diagnosed with hepatitis B has been hospitalized, the type of isolation the nursing staff should observe is

A)

Droplet precautions

B)

Universal precautions

C)

Reverse precautions

D)

Body-substance isolation

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Universal precautions relate to blood and certain body fluids to protect healthcare workers from patients possibly carrying HIV, hepatitis B virus, or other bloodborne pathogens.

5.

Disinfectants are used

A)

To prepare instruments for surgery

B)

To sterilize surgical drapes

C)

To clean rooms between patients

D)

For preoperative bowel preparations

Ans:

C

Feedback:

A chemical used on lifeless objects is called a disinfectant.

6.

Surgical asepsis is defined as

A)

Absence of all virulent microorganisms

B)

Absence of all microorganisms

C)

Slowed growth of microorganisms

D)

Use of handwashing, gowning, and gloving

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Surgical asepsis refers to sterile technique and indicates procedures used to eliminate any microorganisms.

7.

To eliminate needlesticks as potential hazards to nurses, the nurse should

A)

Place the uncapped needle on a tray, carry it to the medicine room for disposal

B)

Immediately deposit uncapped needles into puncture-proof plastic container

C)

Stick the uncapped needle into a Styrofoam block and deposit in a plastic container

D)

Slide the needle into the cap and deposit it in a puncture-proof plastic container

Ans:

B

Feedback:

All uncapped needles should be placed in puncture-proof plastic units immediately after use.

8.

To protect the school-age children from communicable disease, the school nurse maintains records on the childrens

A)

Allergies

B)

Medications

C)

Diabetes

D)

Immunizations

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The incidence of communicable illness is high among children grouped together for study and play. Schools often employ nurses to teach classes, monitor immunization schedules, and develop and monitor infection control practices and outbreaks of communicable diseases.

9.

What is the most common patient site for development of nosocomial infections?

A)

Surgical wound

B)

Respiratory tract

C)

Bloodstream

D)

Urinary tract

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The urinary tract is the most common site for nosocomial infections.

10.

When a nurse picks up a patients contaminated tissue without gloves and fails to wash his hands sufficiently, the nurse provides for the patients organisms to be spread by which type of transmission?

A)

Airborne

B)

Contact

C)

Vector

D)

Vehicle

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Direct contact involves body surfacetobody surface contact, causing the physical transfer of organisms between an infected or colonized host and a susceptible host.

11.

A patient has sexual intercourse with someone infected with HIV. The vehicle of transmission is

A)

Semen

B)

Blood

C)

Wound drainage

D)

Sputum

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Vehicle transmission involves the transfer of microorganisms by way of vehicles, or contaminated items that transmit pathogens. For example, food can carry Salmonella. In this case, semen can carry human immunodeficiency virus.

12.

A patient with HIV is the

A)

Pathogen

B)

Virulence

C)

Specificity

D)

Carrier

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Patients may become infected from people who have active disease, people in the incubation portion of their disease, or people who harbor pathogens but have no symptoms of disease.

13.

Which of the following factors have contributed to resistant microbial strains?

A)

Use of antibiotics for bacterial infections

B)

Use of antibiotics for viral infections

C)

Use of Neosporin with abrasions

D)

Use of vitamins with animals

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The overprescribing of antibiotics for viral infections has contributed to the evolution of resistant microbial strains.

14.

Recently the United States and Canada have seen the development of West Nile virus. It is carried to humans by

A)

Mosquitoes

B)

Humans

C)

Deer

D)

Elk

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Parasites are multicellular organisms that live on other organisms without contributing anything to their hosts. Examples of parasites include protozoa, helminth, and arthropod species. Sexual contact, insects, and domestic animals frequently carry parasites to humans.

15.

Hepatitis is classified as a virus that

A)

Is localized in the liver

B)

Causes decreased urine

C)

Results in pallor

D)

Causes tissue damage

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Some viral infections are acute and controlled by the hosts defense mechanisms; others spread throughout the body and cause severe tissue damage or result in chronic illness.

16.

A patient suffers from bloody diarrhea after eating at a local restaurant. The patient has been infected with a(an)

A)

Bacteria

B)

Virus

C)

Fungi

D)

Protozoa

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Bacteria may be transmitted through air, food, water, soil, vectors, or sexual activity.

17.

Before and after doing aseptic techniques with a patient, the nurse should

A)

Sterilize equipment

B)

Apply clean gloves

C)

Replace equipment

D)

Wash hands

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Aseptic techniques, which start and end with handwashing, include the processes of cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization.

18.

A nursing student comes to the university health center complaining of a sore throat, malaise, and loss of appetite. The nurse assesses the student and determines she has large white yellow exudates in the back of the throat and a fever. The student is presenting with a/an

A)

Infectious disease

B)

Viral illness

C)

Throat mass

D)

Mononucleosis

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Infectious disease refers to the pathology or pathologic events that result from the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in a host. Toxins and enzymes produced by the microorganisms cause tissue injury. The injury produces manifestations of infection: fever, rashes, malaise, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, purulent discharge from wounds; a hot, red tender area around wounds or puncture sites; aches and pains; or total body collapse.

19.

An infection or the products of infection carried throughout the body by the blood is called

A)

Contamination

B)

Infectious disease

C)

Septicemia

D)

Viral illness

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Sepsis, a term that means poisoning of tissues, often is used to describe the presence of infection. Transport of an infection or the products of infection throughout the body by the blood is known as septicemia.

20.

A patient develops a high fever and has a urinary tract infection. The patient has malaise and is confused. The patient is

A)

Septic

B)

Anorexic

C)

Lethargic

D)

Apneic

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Sepsis, a term that means poisoning of tissues, often is used to describe the presence of infection.

21.

Any microorganism capable of disrupting normal physiologic body processes is a

A)

Bacterium

B)

Fomite

C)

Pathogen

D)

Virus

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Microorganisms that are capable of harming people are called pathogens or are pathogenic.

22.

The nurse washes her hands for 1 minute before caring for her patient. The rationale for this is

A)

To provide safe and effective nursing care

B)

To prevent her from developing disease

C)

Freedom from disease-producing organisms

D)

The sterilization of her hands to prevent infection

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Asepsis means to make free from disease-producing organisms.

23.

What is the most common reason people contact healthcare providers?

A)

Sleeplessness

B)

Infectious disease

C)

Anxiety

D)

Pain

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Infectious disease is the most common reason people contact healthcare providers and accounts for more clinic and physician office visits than any other cause in the United States.

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