Chapter 18: Developmental Assessment Throughout the Life Span Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 18: Developmental Assessment Throughout the Life Span
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which statement best illustrates Eriksons theory of development?
a. The main goal is to establish equilibrium between self and environment.
b. One progresses through stages that involve specific psychosocial tasks.
c. There are four distinct, sequential levels of cognitive development.
d. Cognitive development occurs from birth to around age 15.
ANS: B

Feedback
A This statement is not consistent with Eriksons theory of development.
B This statement is consistent with Eriksons theory of development.
C This is more consistent with Piagets theory.
D This is more consistent with Piagets theory.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 439-440
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

2. A nurse asks a 15-year-old boy to think of an explanation for a simple puzzle. When he is unable to come up with any answer at all, the nurse recognizes that he may not yet have successfully mastered which of Piagets levels of cognitive development?
a. Sensorimotor
b. Preoperational
c. Concrete operations
d. Formal operations
ANS: D

Feedback
A The sensorimotor stage develops in children between the ages of birth to 2 years, when thoughts are dominated by physical manipulation of objects and events.
B The preoperational stage develops in children between the ages of 2 to 7 years, when children function symbolically using language as a major tool.
C The concrete operations stage develops in children between the ages of 7 to 11 years, when mental reasoning processes assume logical approaches to solving concrete problems.
D The formal operations level develops in children between the ages of 11 and 15 years, during which true logical thoughts and manipulation of abstract concepts emerge.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 440
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

3. When performing a physical assessment on a 7-month-old infant, the nurse notes that the child is able to smile responsively and unable to roll from the prone to the supine position. What is the most appropriate action for this nurse?
a. Reassure the parents that the infant is performing like an 8-month-old.
b. Document the infants growth and development as within normal limits.
c. Continue to assess the infant for other signs of developmental delay.
d. Give the caretaker specific directions for specialized exercises.
ANS: C

Feedback
A This would be an incorrect statement because this infant has delayed development.
B This would be an incorrect statement because this infant has delayed development.
C An infant should be able to roll from prone to supine at 4 months.
D This infant needs to be referred for additional evaluation.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 441-442
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

4. A 7-month-old infant weighs 11.6 lb compared with a birth weight of 7.1 lb and has a head circumference of 19 inches. What does the nurse document about this infant?
a. Underweight and normal head circumference
b. Underweight and larger-than-normal head circumference
c. Overweight and smaller-than-normal head circumference
d. Normal weight and larger-than-normal head circumference
ANS: B

Feedback
A This 7-month-old infant should weigh more than 14 lb and have a head circumference of 16.5 to 17.5 inches.
B This 7-month-old infant should weigh more than 14 lb and have a head circumference of 16.5 to 17.5 inches. In general, infants double their birth weight by 4 to 5 months of age. Expected head circumference for term newborns averages from 13 to 14 inches (33 to 36 cm) and increases 0.5 inch (1.3 cm) monthly for the first six months.
C This 7-month-old infant should weigh more than 14 lb and have a head circumference of 16.5 to 17.5 inches.
D This 7-month-old infant should weigh more than 14 lb and have a head circumference of 16.5 to 17.5 inches.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 441
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

5. A nurse notices that an infant tries to reach for a toy that the mother has hidden in her hand. This illustrates that the child has developed an understanding of which concept?
a. Object permanence
b. Trust versus mistrust
c. Autonomy
d. Parallel play
ANS: A

Feedback
A Object permanence, meaning that objects and people still exist when they are out of sight.
B This is Eriksons developmental stage for infants when they develop trust relationships with the mother or primary caregiver. Important criteria are the quality and consistency of the mother-child relationship.
C This is Eriksons developmental stage for toddlers who yearn for independence; however, they lack judgment to maintain their safety.
D Parallel play is a social skill of a 2-year-old toddler.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 443
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

6. The parents of a toddler express concern that the child is not progressing the same way as their other children did at that age. What is the most appropriate suggestion the nurse can give the parents about monitoring the progress of the toddler?
a. Advising the parents to take the toddler to the clinic every 2 months for reevaluation
b. Teaching the parents how to use the Denver II test to assess for gross motor movement, language, fine motor movement, and personal-social skills
c. Suggesting that the child needs more time to reach the milestones and that additional monitoring is not necessary
d. Informing the parents about the ages and stages questionnaire (ASQ), which identifies developmental delays in children from 4 to 60 months
ANS: D

Feedback
A This suggestion is time-consuming, expensive, and not practical.
B The Denver II test requires special equipment and training, and is designed for health care professionals.
C The suggestion for the parents to take no action is not appropriate in this case.
D This is the best suggestion for these parents at this time. The ASQ is designed for parents to report data on their children.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 444
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

7. Which characteristics are expected during an assessment of a normal toddler?
a. Half of adult height achieved by age two, potbelly, and sway back.
b. Thirty-two erupted teeth by age 2, tripled birth weight by age 30 months.
c. Desire for autonomy coupled with sufficient judgment to ensure safety.
d. Head circumference greater than chest circumference, high frustration tolerance.
ANS: A

Feedback
A These are characteristics of toddlers.
B Toddlers have 20 teeth erupted and infants triple their birth weight.
C The Erikson developmental stage for toddlers is autonomy versus shame and doubt.
D The first part is true for toddlers, but they do not have a high frustration tolerance.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 444
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

8. A nurse makes observations about a toddlers motor development. Which behavior is an example of fine motor behavior?
a. Sitting up in a chair
b. Walking while holding on to the edge of a table
c. Creeping up the stairs
d. Stacking blocks to make a tower
ANS: D

Feedback
A Sitting up in a chair is an example of gross motor skills.
B Walking while holding on to the edge of a table is an example of gross motor skills.
C Creeping up the stairs is an example of gross motor skills.
D Stacking blocks to make a tower is an example of fine motor skills with hands and fingers.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 445
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

9. A nurse is assessing a preschooler who is able to draw a three-part human figure, hop on one foot, and recognize three colors. The nurse recognizes these characteristics as consistent for what age?
a. 3 years old
b. 4 years old
c. 5 years old
d. 6 years old
ANS: C

Feedback
A These characteristics are too advanced for 3-year-old children.
B These characteristics are too advanced for 4-year-old children.
C These are characteristics consistent with developmental expectations of 5-year-old children.
D These characteristics are below those expected for 6-year-old children who are in first grade.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 447, Table 18-5
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

10. A parent tells the nurse about having difficulty disciplining a 5-year-old child. What characteristic does the nurse teach this parent to improve the discipline of this child?
a. Children at this age are incapable of delaying gratification.
b. At age 5 years, children are not interested in attaining rights and privileges of individuality.
c. Five-year-olds should demonstrate basic social skills and respond to others expectations.
d. At age 5 years, children use highly inappropriate methods of expressing frustration.
ANS: C

Feedback
A This behavior describes a toddler.
B This behavior is not consistent with a preschooler.
C This describes expected developmental tasks of preschoolers.
D This behavior is more consistent with a toddler.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 445-447
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

11. The mother of a 7-year-old boy takes him for a checkup at the local clinic. The nurse notes that the child has gained 4.9 lb and has grown 2.5 inches in 1 year. Based on these findings, what is the most appropriate action of this nurse?
a. Recommend that the child be placed on a low-fat, high-protein diet.
b. Counsel the mother to increase the amount of calcium in the childs diet.
c. Ask the mother to return with the child next week for a more comprehensive growth and development study.
d. Inform the mother that the childs developmental rate is within the expected ranges for his age.
ANS: D

Feedback
A This childs weight is within expected ranges.
B This childs height is within expected ranges.
C This childs weight and height are within expected ranges.
D For school-age children, growth continues at a slow pace, with an average 5 lb weight gain and 2 inch height increase per year.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 446
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

12. What suggestions does the nurse make to parents to support the development of their 8-year-old child?
a. They buy the child a computer to foster a sense of self-worth.
b. The emphasis is placed on the importance of being a success at all costs.
c. The child is rewarded for cooperation and healthy competition with peers.
d. Social relationships outside the home are limited to one or two close friends.
ANS: C

Feedback
A This action is not needed for the development of a child at this age.
B This action is not needed for the development of a child at this age.
C Cooperation and healthy competition are developmental tasks for school-age children.
D This action would interfere with extending abilities to relate to others, a developmental task of this age group.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 446| 448
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

13. The parents of a 14-year-old boy express concern that their sons behavior ranges from clean-cut and personable to grungy and sullen. They have tried talking with him about this and have tried disciplining him, but he continues to show different sides, and they are confused. What is the nurses assessment for the behavior of this teenager?
a. The teenager is dangerously labile.
b. This behavior is normal experimentation.
c. This boy is being rebelliously hostile.
d. This behavior may require hospitalization.
ANS: B

Feedback
A The behaviors described fall within expected behavior for adolescents.
B Adolescents may behave in new and different ways, much to the chagrin of their parents, as they try on differing roles and values. Adolescents begin testing and evaluating previously accepted notions about life, living, spirituality, relating, and being.
C The behaviors described fall within expected behavior for adolescents.
D The behaviors described fall within expected behavior for adolescents.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 448, Box 18-5
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

14. During a counseling session, which statement by an adolescent indicates he is adjusting to expected developmental tasks?
a. I wish my parents would just leave me alone.
b. Im hoping to go to college.
c. I dont have any friends.
d. Its terrible being taller than all my friends.
ANS: B

Feedback
A This comment does not demonstrate adjustment, although it is a problem some adolescents face.
B This indicates a developmental task of adolescence.
C This comment does not demonstrate adjustment.
D This comment does not demonstrate adjustment, although it is a problem some adolescents face.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 448-449
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

15. Which behavior indicates successful achievement of the major developmental tasks of a young adulthood?
a. Accepting physical changes
b. Achieving emotional independence
c. Mastering money management
d. Getting an appropriate education
ANS: D

Feedback
A Accepting physical changes is a developmental task of adolescence.
B Achieving emotional independence is a developmental task of adolescence.
C Mastering money management is a developmental task of school-age children.
D Getting an appropriate education is a developmental task of young adults.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 448-449
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

16. Which statement reflects a 21-year-old womans achievement of an expected developmental task?
a. I am planning to get married next year.
b. I dont plan anything without asking my boyfriend first.
c. I dont know which direction Ill take after college.
d. I am living with my parents and may stay for a while.
ANS: A

Feedback
A This statement reflects an expected developmental task of a young adult.
B This statement does not reflect an expected developmental task of a young adult.
C This statement does not reflect an expected developmental task of a young adult.
D This statement does not reflect an expected developmental task of a young adult.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 448-449
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

17. Interviewing patients in middle adulthood, the nurse recognizes which behavior as an expected developmental task for this age group?
a. Finding meaning in life
b. Establishing autonomy as an individual
c. Increased self-understanding
d. Dissatisfaction with ones interpersonal relationships
ANS: C

Feedback
A This is a developmental task of older adults.
B This is a developmental task of young adults.
C This is a developmental task of middle adulthood.
D This behavior would not be consistent with normal adaptation.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 449
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

18. During middle adulthood, which immunization may be recommended?
a. PPV (pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine)
b. Hepatitis B virus vaccine, third dose
c. Human papillomavirus (HPV)
d. Td (tetanus and diphtheria toxoids)
ANS: D

Feedback
A This immunization is given to adults older than 65.
B This immunization is given between birth and age 10.
C This immunization is given between ages 11 and 24.
D This is the only immunization recommended for this age group. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoid is recommended every 10 years.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 451
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

19. A nurse recognizes that which patient has not yet successfully completed Eriksons final developmental stage?
a. A 78-year-old widower who has gone to the mental health clinic for counseling after the recent death of his wife
b. A 60-year-old man who tells the nurse that he is feeling fine and really does not need any help from anyone
c. An 81-year-old woman who states that she enjoys having her grandchildren visit but is usually glad when it is time for them to go home
d. A 75-year-old woman who tells the nurse that she wishes her friends were alive and she wishes she could change the choices she made over the years
ANS: D

Feedback
A Dealing with the death of a spouse is a developmental task of this age group, and this patient is seeking assistance to help him cope.
B This man is meeting the developmental tasks for his age.
C Enjoying grandchildren is a developmental task of this age group.
D Eriksons final stage is ego integrity versus despair, and this woman is voicing despair and regret about previous decisions made in her life.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 451-452
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

20. Which behavior illustrates a developmental task for a young-old older adult?
a. Adapting to living alone
b. Adjusting to loss of physical strength, illness, and emotional stress
c. Managing leisure time
d. Accepting possible institutional living arrangements
ANS: C

Feedback
A This is a developmental task of those 85 years and older.
B This is a developmental task of those older than 85 years of age.
C This is a developmental task of the young-old adult (65 to 85 years of age).
D This is a developmental task of those older than 85 years of age.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 452
TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development

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