Chapter 18- Developmental Concepts Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

A child gains weight and becomes taller each year. What is this process called?

A)

development

B)

orderly change

C)

progression

D)

growth

2.

All humans learn from both formal and informal experiences. What orderly pattern of changes results in part from learning?

A)

development

B)

growth

C)

maturity

D)

aging

3.

As the fetus develops, certain growth and development trends are regular and predictable. The first trend is cephalocaudal growth. What does this mean?

A)

Legs and feet develop first.

B)

Both sides of the body develop equally.

C)

Head and brain develop first.

D)

Gross motor skills are learned last.

4.

A second trend occurring with growth and development of the infant states that development is proximodistal. This means:

A)

Growth progresses from gross motor movements to fine motor movements.

B)

Both sides of the body grow equally.

C)

All humans experience the same growth patterns.

D)

As nerve pathways develop, they become more specialized.

5.

Many different factors affect growth and development. For example, why does Mary have blonde hair and blue eyes while John has brown hair and green eyes?

A)

childhood illnesses

B)

genetic inheritance

C)

prenatal influences

D)

maternal nutrition

6.

Which of the following statements accurately describe factors that may affect an individuals growth and development? Select all that apply.

A)

Physical characteristics such as height, bone size, and eye and hair color are inherited from the family of origin.

B)

Fetal development can be altered by maternal age or inadequate maternal nutrition or substance abuse.

C)

Abuse of alcohol and drugs is more prevalent in teenagers who have poor family relationships, low self-esteem, and poor social skills.

D)

Infants who are malnourished in utero develop fewer brain cells than infants who have had adequate prenatal nutrition.

E)

Environmental factors such as poverty and violence do not have a direct effect on growth and development.

F)

Inadequate caregiving skills may affect growth of the individual, but it has no effect on predetermined development.

7.

According to Freud, what is the name given to the part of the mind that represents ones conscience?

A)

unconscious mind

B)

id

C)

ego

D)

superego

8.

The mother of a 6-month-old infant asks the nurse at a community health center what she should do about her baby, who always wants to put everything in his mouth. What would be an appropriate response by the nurse, based on Freuds theory?

A)

There must be something wrongyour baby should not be doing that.

B)

I dont know if that is normal or not, but I will check on it.

C)

Babies at this age explore and enjoy their world with their mouths.

D)

This usually does not happen until babies are 2 years old.

9.

A 10-year-old boy tells his mother that he is going to be just like his father when he grows up. According to Freud, what stage of development is this child experiencing?

A)

anal

B)

phallic

C)

latency

D)

genital

10.

Based on Piagets theory of cognitive development, what type of activities would a nurse recommend to parents of children in the preoperational stage?

A)

play activities

B)

toilet training

C)

church lessons

D)

organized sports

11.

A nurse is teaching a 7-year old diabetic child who is in Piagets concrete operational stage about insulin injections. Based on Piagets theory, what would be the nurses best method of preparation for this child?

A)

Show the child a video about diabetes and insulin.

B)

Give the child a pamphlet on diabetes to read.

C)

Demonstrate the procedure on a teddy bear.

D)

Explain the procedure to the child in detail.

12.

According to Erikson, normal adolescent behavior includes trying on new roles and possibly even rebelling. What is the purpose of this behavior in adolescents?

A)

to establish a sense of security

B)

to establish a sense of identity

C)

to gain autonomy

D)

to avoid inferiority

13.

Using Eriksons theory, which of the following activities would the nurse use to provide a sense of fulfillment and purpose in later adulthood?

A)

becoming involved within the community

B)

making a commitment to others

C)

trying on new and different roles

D)

reminiscing about life events

14.

Based on Havighursts theory, which of the following is one of the developmental tasks of middle adulthood?

A)

achieving personal independence

B)

adjusting to physical changes

C)

taking on civic responsibility

D)

affiliating with ones age group

15.

Goulds theory of transformation in adults included which developmental phase for those ages 50 to 60?

A)

challenging false assumptions

B)

accepting life is neither simple nor controllable

C)

having increased self-approval and acceptance

D)

questioning self and values

16.

Levinson and associates based their theory on individual life structure, patterned at any point in time by the interaction of three components. Which one of the following is not a component of this theory?

A)

self

B)

social and cultural aspects

C)

individualized set of roles

D)

degree of wellness

17.

Which of the following actions would generally take place in the settling down stage of Daniel Levinsons Individual Life Structure theory? Select all that apply.

A)

breaking away from the family

B)

making initial career choices

C)

trying new lifestyles

D)

striving to gain respect

E)

investing in family

F)

maximizing self-approval

18.

A school-aged child always follows the rules and obeys traffic lights when crossing the street. Based on Kohlbergs theory, what type of development is being demonstrated?

A)

cognitive

B)

intellectual

C)

moral

D)

psychosocial

19.

In contrast to Kohlberg, Gilligan developed a theory of moral development specifically for women. What is the central theme of Gilligans theory?

A)

response and care

B)

rights and justice

C)

adult transformation

D)

individual life structure

20.

In which of Gilligans stages does acceptance by others become critical, with the ability to protect and care for others seen as the defining characteristic of female goodness?

A)

Level 1: selfisness

B)

Level 2: goodness

C)

Level 3: nonvioldence

D)

Level 4: responsiveness

21.

According to Fowlers theory, who or what initiates the development of faith in the infant?

A)

church attendance

B)

daycare activities

C)

primary caregivers

D)

siblings

22.

A 7-year-old attending a Roman Catholic Mass with his parents stands and holds his hymnal to sing the opening song. According to Fowler, what stage of development is this child experiencing?

A)

undifferentiated faith

B)

intuitiveprojective faith

C)

mythicalliteral faith

D)

syntheticconventional faith

23.

A nurse wants to teach children about oral health. Based on Piagets theory, to what age group would it be most appropriate to teach this topic?

A)

preschoolers

B)

third and fourth graders

C)

junior high school age

D)

high school age

24.

Using Eriksons theory, a nurse asks a young adult questions about family, friends, and support systems. Why is this important during assessments of adolescents?

A)

Without peer acceptance, feelings of inferiority may result.

B)

Overprotection by parents may result in feelings of shame and doubt.

C)

Restrictions on new experiences may lead to feelings of guilt.

D)

Fear of commitments may lead to loneliness and isolation.

25.

During a health history, a middle-aged man tells the nurse, I will always take care of my children because my parents took care of me. Based on Kohlbergs theory, what level of moral development is the man demonstrating?

A)

preconventional

B)

conventional

C)

postconventional

D)

goodness

26.

A 2-year-old child is hospitalized for a surgical procedure. Although previously all fluids were taken from a cup, the toddler wants a bottle to suck on. The nurse recognizes this behavior as what?

A)

totally unacceptable

B)

proof that the child is sick

C)

normal regression

D)

abnormal behavior

27.

Which of the following is an important role for the nurse when incorporating principles and theories of growth and development?

A)

Provide developmentally challenging environments and experiences.

B)

Provide physical care to meet comfort needs of children.

C)

Initiate activities that involve passive interactions with others.

D)

Initiate interventions to meet specific outcomes of care.

Answer Key

1.

D

2.

A

3.

C

4.

A

5.

B

6.

A, B, C, D

7.

D

8.

C

9.

C

10.

A

11.

C

12.

B

13.

D

14.

B

15.

C

16.

D

17.

D, E

18.

C

19.

A

20.

B

21.

C

22.

B

23.

B

24.

D

25.

B

26.

C

27.

A

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