Chapter 18: Quality of Life for Children Living with Chronic or Complex Diseases Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 18: Quality of Life for Children Living with Chronic or Complex Diseases

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse case manager is planning a care conference about a young child who has complex health care needs and will soon be discharged home. Who should the nurse invite to the conference?
a. Family and nursing staff
b. Social worker, nursing staff, and primary care physician
c. Family and key health professionals involved in childs care
d. Primary care physician and key health professionals involved in the childs care
ANS: C
A multidisciplinary conference is necessary for coordination of care for children with complex health needs. The family is included, along with key health professionals who are involved in the childs care. The nursing staff can address the childs nursing care needs with the family, but other involved disciplines must be included. The family must be included in the discharge conferences, which allows them to determine what education they will require and the resources needed at home. A member of the nursing staff must be included to review the childs nursing needs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 538
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

2. Which represents a common best practice in the provision of services to children with special needs?
a. Care is now being focused on the childs chronologic age.
b. Children with special needs are being integrated into regular classrooms.
c. Children with special needs no longer have to be cared for by their families.
d. Children with special needs are being separated into residential treatment facilities.
ANS: B
Normalization refers to behaviors and interventions for the disabled to integrate into society by living life as persons without a disability would. For children, normalization includes attending school and being integrated into regular classrooms. This affords the child the advantages of learning with a wide group of peers. Care is necessarily focused on the childs developmental age. Home care by the family is considered best practice. The nurse can assist families by assessing social support systems, coping strategies, family cohesiveness, and family and community resources.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 539
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

3. Lindsey, age 5 years, will be starting kindergarten next month. She has cerebral palsy, and it has been determined that she needs to be in a special education classroom. Her parents are tearful when telling the nurse about this and state that they did not realize her disability was so severe. The best interpretation of this situation is that:
a. this is a sign parents are in denial.
b. this is a normal anticipated time of parental stress.
c. the parents need to learn more about cerebral palsy.
d. the parents are used to having expectations that are too high.
ANS: B
Parenting a child with a chronic illness can be stressful for parents. There are anticipated times that parental stress increases. One of these identified times is when the child begins school. Nurses can help parents recognize and plan interventions to work through these stressful periods. The parents are not in denial; they are responding to the childs placement in school. The parents are not exhibiting signs of a knowledge deficit; this is their first interaction with the school system with this child.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 540
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. Approach behaviors are those coping mechanisms that result in a familys movement toward adjustment and resolution of the crisis of having a child with a chronic illness or disability. Which is considered an approach behavior?
a. Is unable to adjust to a progression of the disease or condition
b. Anticipates future problems and seeks guidance and answers
c. Looks for new cures without a perspective toward possible benefit
d. Fails to recognize seriousness of childs condition despite physical evidence
ANS: B
The parents who anticipate future problems and seek guidance and answers are demonstrating approach behaviors. They are demonstrating positive actions in caring for their child. Being unable to adjust to a progression of the disease or condition, looking for new cures without a perspective toward possible benefit, and failing to recognize seriousness of childs condition despite physical evidence are avoidance behaviors. The parents are moving away from adjustment (and toward maladaptation) in the crisis of a child with chronic illness or disability.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 542-543
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

5. Families progress through various stages of reactions when a child is diagnosed with a chronic illness or disability. After the shock phase, a period of adjustment usually follows. This is often characterized by which of the following responses?
a. Denial
b. Guilt and anger
c. Social reintegration
d. Acceptance of childs limitations
ANS: B
For most families, the adjustment phase is accompanied by several responses. Guilt, self-accusation, bitterness, and anger are common reactions. The initial diagnosis of a chronic illness or disability often is met with intense emotion, characterized by shock and denial. Social reintegration and acceptance of the childs limitations are the culmination of the adjustment process.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 543
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

6. Which nursing intervention is especially helpful in assessing parental guilt when a disability or chronic illness is diagnosed?
a. Ask the parents if they feel guilty.
b. Discuss guilt only after the parents mention it.
c. Discuss the meaning of the parents religious and cultural background.
d. Observe for signs of overprotectiveness.
ANS: C
Guilt may be associated with cultural or religious beliefs. Some parents are convinced that they are being punished for some previous misdeed. Others may see the disorder as a sacrifice sent by God to test their religious beliefs. The nurse can help the parents explore their religious beliefs. The parents may not be able to identify the feelings of guilt. It would be appropriate for the nurse to explore their adjustment responses. Overprotectiveness is a parental response during the adjustment phase. The parents fear letting the child achieve any new skill and avoid all discipline.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 543
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

7. The nurse observes that a seriously ill child passively accepts all painful procedures. The nurse should recognize that this is most likely an indication that the child is experiencing a:
a. sense of hopefulness.
b. sense of chronic sorrow.
c. belief that procedures are a deserved punishment.
d. belief that procedures are an important part of care.
ANS: C
The nurse should be particularly alert to the child who passively accepts all painful procedures. This child may believe that such acts are inflicted as deserved punishment. The child who is hopeful is mobilized into goal-directed actions. This child would actively participate in care. Chronic sorrow is the feeling of sorrow and loss that recurs in waves over time. It is usually evident in the parents, not in the child. A child who believes that procedures are an important part of care would actively participate in care. Nursing interventions should be used to minimize the pain.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 543-544
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

8. The nurse comes into the room of a child who was just diagnosed with a chronic disability. The childs parents begin to yell at the nurse about a variety of concerns. Which is the nurses best response?
a. What is really wrong?
b. Being angry is only natural.
c. Yelling at me will not change things.
d. I will come back when you settle down.
ANS: B
Parental anger after the diagnosis of a child with a chronic disability is a common response. One of the most common targets for parental anger is members of the staff. The nurse should recognize the common response of anger to the diagnosis and allow the family to ventilate. What is really wrong?/Yelling at me will not change things/I will come back when you settle down will place the parents on the defensive and not facilitate communication.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 551
TOP: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

9. A common parental reaction to a child with special needs is parental overprotection. Parental behavior suggestive of this includes:
a. giving inconsistent discipline.
b. providing consistent, strict discipline.
c. forcing child to help self, even when not capable.
d. encouraging social and educational activities not appropriate to childs level of capability.
ANS: A
Parental overprotection is manifested by the parents fear of letting the child achieve any new skill; they allow the child to avoid all discipline and cater to every desire to prevent frustration. Overprotective parents: do not set limits and or institute discipline; prefer to remain in the role of total caregiver; do not allow the child to perform self-care; and do not encourage the child to participate in social and educational activities.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 544
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

10. Most parents of children with special needs tend to experience chronic sorrow. This is characterized by:
a. lack of acceptance of childs limitation.
b. lack of available support to prevent sorrow.
c. periods of intensified sorrow when experiencing anger and guilt.
d. periods of intensified sorrow and loss that occur in waves over time.
ANS: D
Chronic sorrow is manifested by feelings of sorrow and loss that recur in waves over time. The sorrow is in response to the recognition of the childs limitations. The family should be assessed in an ongoing manner to provide appropriate support as the needs of the family change. The sorrow is not preventable. The chronic sorrow occurs during the reintegration and acknowledgment stage.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 544
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

11. Which intervention will encourage a sense of autonomy in a toddler with disabilities?
a. Avoid separation from family during hospitalizations.
b. Encourage independence in as many areas as possible.
c. Expose child to pleasurable experiences as much as possible.
d. Help parents learn special care needs of their child.
ANS: B
Encouraging the toddler to be independent encourages a sense of autonomy. The child can be given choices about feeding, dressing, and diversional activities, which will provide a sense of control. Avoiding separation from family during hospitalizations, and helping parents learn special care needs of their child should be practiced as part of family-centered care. It does not necessarily foster autonomy. Exposing the child to pleasurable experiences, especially sensory ones, is a supportive intervention. It does not promote autonomy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 553
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

12. The feeling of guilt that the child caused the disability or illness is especially critical in which child?
a. Toddler
b. Preschooler
c. School-age child
d. Adolescent
ANS: B
Preschoolers are most likely to be affected by feelings of guilt that they caused the illness or disability or are being punished for wrongdoings. Toddlers are focused on establishing their autonomy. The illness will foster dependence. The school-age child will have limited opportunities for achievement and may not be able to understand limitations. Adolescents face the task of incorporating their disabilities into their changing self-concept.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 558
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. A 9-year-old boy has several physical disabilities. His father explains to the nurse that his son concentrates on what he can, rather than cannot, do and is as independent as possible. The nurses best interpretation of this is that the:
a. father is experiencing denial.
b. father is expressing his own views.
c. child is using an adaptive coping style.
d. child is using a maladaptive coping style.
ANS: C
The father is describing a well-adapted child who has learned to accept physical limitations. These children function well at home, at school, and with peers. They have an understanding of their disorder that allows them to accept their limitations, assume responsibility for care, and assist in treatment and rehabilitation. The father is describing his childs behavior. He is not denying the childs limitations. The father is exhibiting an adaptive coping style.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 545
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

14. The nurse is talking with the parent of a child newly diagnosed with a chronic illness. The parent is upset and tearful. The nurse asks, Whom do you talk to when something is worrying you? This should be interpreted as:
a. inappropriate, because the parent is so upset.
b. a diversion of the present crisis to similar situations with which the parent has dealt.
c. an intervention to find someone to help the parent.
d. part of assessing the parents available support system.
ANS: D
These are important data for the nurse to obtain. This question will provide information about the marital relationship (whether the parent speaks to the spouse), alternate support systems, and ability to communicate. By assessing these areas, the nurse can facilitate the identification and use of community resources as needed. It is an important part of assessment information to determine the parents support network. The nurse is obtaining information to help support the parent through the diagnosis. The parent is not in need of additional parenting help at this time.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 539
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

15. The nurse is providing support to parents at the time their child is diagnosed with chronic disabilities. The nurse notices that the parents keep asking the same questions. What is the nurses best intervention?
a. Patiently continue to answer questions.
b. Kindly refer them to someone else for answering their questions.
c. Recognize that some parents cannot understand explanations.
d. Suggest that they ask their questions when they are not upset.
ANS: A
Diagnosis is one of the anticipated stress points for parents. The parents may not hear or remember all that is said to them. The nurse should continue to provide the kind of information they desire. This is a particularly stressful time for the parents; the nurse can play a key role in providing necessary information. Parents should be provided with oral and written information. The nurse needs to work with the family to ensure understanding of the information. The parents require information at the time of diagnosis. Other questions will arise as they adjust to the information.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 540
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. Which is the most appropriate nursing intervention to promote normalization in a school-age child with a chronic illness?
a. Give child as much control as possible.
b. Ask childs peer to make child feel normal.
c. Convince child that nothing is wrong with him or her.
d. Explain to parents that family rules for the child do not need to be the same as for healthy siblings.
ANS: A
The school-age child who is ill may be forced into a period of dependency. To foster normalcy, the child should be given as much control as possible. It is unrealistic to expect one individual to make the child feel normal. The child has a chronic illness. It would be unacceptable to convince the child that nothing is wrong. The family rules should be similar for each of the children in a family. Resentment and hostility can arise if different standards are applied to each child.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 539
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

17. Nursing interventions to help the siblings of a child with special needs cope include:
a. explaining to the siblings that embarrassment is unhealthy.
b. encouraging the parents not to expect siblings to help them care for the child with special needs.
c. providing information to the siblings about the childs condition only as they request it.
d. suggesting to the parents ways of showing gratitude to the siblings who help care for the child with special needs.
ANS: D
The presence of a child with special needs in a family will change the family dynamic. Siblings may be asked to take on additional responsibilities to help the parents to care for the child. The parents should show gratitude, such as an increase in allowance, special privileges, and verbal praise. Embarrassment may be associated with having a sibling with a chronic illness or disability. Parents must be able to respond in an appropriate manner without punishing the sibling. The parents may need assistance with the care of the child. Most siblings are positive about the extra responsibilities. The siblings need to be informed about the childs condition before a nonfamily member does so. The parents do not want the siblings to fantasize about what is wrong with the child.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 541
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

18. The parents of a child born with disabilities ask the nurse for advice about discipline. The nurses response should be based on knowledge that discipline is:
a. essential for the child.
b. too difficult to implement with a special-needs child.
c. not needed unless child becomes problematic.
d. best achieved with punishment for misbehavior.
ANS: A
Discipline is essential for the child. It provides boundaries on which to test out their behavior and teaches them socially acceptable behaviors. The nurse should teach the parents ways to manage the childs behavior before it becomes problematic. Punishment is not effective in managing behavior.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 553
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

19. Kelly, an 8-year-old girl, will soon be able to return to school after an injury that resulted in several severe, chronic disabilities. Which is the most appropriate action by the school nurse?
a. Recommend that the childs parents attend school at first to prevent teasing.
b. Prepare the childs classmates and teachers for changes they can expect.
c. Refer the child to a school where the children have chronic disabilities similar to hers.
d. Discuss with the child and her parents the fact that her classmates will not accept her as they did before.
ANS: B
Attendance at school is an important part of normalization for Kelly. The school nurse should prepare teachers and classmates about her condition, abilities, and special needs. A visit by the parents can be helpful, but unless the classmates are prepared for the changes, it alone will not prevent teasing. Kellys school experience should be normalized as much as possible. Children need the opportunity to interact with healthy peers, as well as to engage in activities with groups or clubs composed of similarly affected persons. Children with special needs are encouraged to maintain and reestablish relationships with peers and to participate according to their capabilities.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 554
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

20. A 16-year-old boy with a chronic illness has recently become rebellious and is taking risks such as missing doses of his medication. The nurse should explain to his parents that:
a. he needs more discipline.
b. he needs more socialization with peers.
c. this is part of normal adolescence.
d. this is how he is asking for more parental control.
ANS: C
Risk taking, rebelliousness, and lack of cooperation are normal parts of adolescence.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 554
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

21. Which term best describes a multidisciplinary approach to the management of a terminal illness that focuses on symptom control and support?
a. Dying care
b. Curative care
c. Restorative care
d. Palliative care
ANS: D
This is one of the definitions of palliative care. The goal of palliative care is the achievement of the highest possible quality of life for patients and their families.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 555
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

22. Which best describes how preschoolers react to the death of a loved one?
a. Preschooler is too young to have a concept of death.
b. Preschooler may feel guilty and responsible for the death.
c. Grief is acute but does not last long at this age.
d. Grief is usually expressed in the same way in which the adults in the preschoolers life are expressing grief.
ANS: B
Because of egocentricity, the preschooler may feel guilty and responsible for the death.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 558
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

23. A preschooler is found digging up a pet bird that was recently buried after it died. The best explanation for this behavior is that:
a. he has a morbid preoccupation with death.
b. he is looking to see whether a ghost took it away.
c. the loss is not yet resolved, and professional counseling is needed.
d. reassurance is needed that the pet has not gone somewhere else.
ANS: D
The preschooler can recognize that the pet has died but has difficulties with the permanence. Digging up the bird gives reassurance that the bird is still present.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 558
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

24. At what age do most children have an adult concept of death as being inevitable, universal, and irreversible?
a. 4 to 5 years
b. 6 to 8 years
c. 9 to 11 years
d. 12 to 16 years
ANS: C
By age 9 to 11 years, children have an adult concept of death. They realize that it is inevitable, universal, and irreversible.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 559
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

25. Which is most descriptive of a school-age childs reaction to death?
a. Is very interested in funerals and burials
b. Has little understanding of words such as forever
c. Imagines the deceased person to be still alive
d. Has an idealistic view of world and criticizes funerals as barbaric
ANS: A
The school-age child is interested in post-death services and may be inquisitive about what happens to the body.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 559
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

26. At what developmental period do children have the most difficulty coping with death, particularly if it is their own?
a. Toddlerhood
b. Preschool
c. School-age
d. Adolescence
ANS: D
Adolescents, because of their mature understanding of death, remnants of guilt and shame, and issues with deviations from normal, have the most difficulty coping with death.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 559
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

27. A school-age child is diagnosed with a life-threatening illness. The parents want to protect their child from knowing the seriousness of the illness. The nurse should explain that:
a. this will help the child cope effectively by denial.
b. this attitude is helpful to give parents time to cope.
c. terminally ill children know when they are seriously ill.
d. terminally ill children usually choose not to discuss the seriousness of their illness.
ANS: C
The child needs honest and accurate information about the illness, treatments, and prognosis. Children, even at a young age, realize that something is seriously wrong and that it involves them. The nurse should help the parents understand the importance of honesty.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 557 | 560
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

28. A cure is no longer possible for a young child with cancer. The nursing staff recognizes that the goal of treatment must shift from cure to palliation. Which is an important consideration at this time?
a. The family is included in the decision to shift the goals of treatment.
b. The decision must be made by the health professionals involved in the childs care.
c. The family needs to understand that palliative care takes place in the home.
d. The decision should not be communicated to the family because it will encourage a sense of hopelessness.
ANS: A
When the child reaches the terminal stage, the nurse and physician should explore the familys wishes. The family should help decide what interventions will occur as they plan for their childs death.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 555
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

29. The nurse is caring for a child who has just died. The parents ask to be left alone so that they can rock their child one more time. The nurses most appropriate response is to:
a. grant their request.
b. assess why they feel this is necessary.
c. discourage this because it will only prolong their grief.
d. kindly explain that they need to say good-bye to their child now and leave.
ANS: A
The parents should be allowed to remain with their child after the death. The nurse can remove all the tubes and equipment and offer the parents the option of preparing the body.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 564
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

30. The nurse is talking with the parents of a child who died 6 months ago. They sometimes still hear the childs voice and have trouble sleeping. They describe feeling empty and depressed. The nurse should recognize that:
a. these are normal grief responses.
b. the pain of the loss is usually less by this time.
c. these grief responses are more typical of the early stages of grief.
d. this grieving is essential until the pain is gone and the child is gradually forgotten.
ANS: A
These are normal grief responses. The process of grief work is lengthy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 565
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

31. At the time of a childs death, the nurse tells his mother, We will miss him so much. The best interpretation of this is that the nurse is:
a. pretending to be experiencing grief.
b. expressing personal feelings of loss.
c. denying the mothers sense of loss.
d. talking when listening would be better.
ANS: B
A patients death is one of the most stressful aspects of critical care or oncology nursing. Nurses experience reactions similar to those of family members because of their involvement with the child and family during the illness. Nurses often have feelings of personal loss when a patient dies.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 566
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

32. Which is an appropriate nursing intervention when providing comfort and support for a child when death is imminent?
a. Limit care to essentials.
b. Avoid playing music near child.
c. Explain to child need for constant measurement of vital signs.
d. Whisper to child instead of using normal voice.
ANS: A
When death is imminent, care should be limited to interventions for palliative care.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 561
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

33. The nurse is providing support to a family who is experiencing anticipatory grief related to their childs imminent death. Which of the following is an appropriate nursing intervention?
a. Be available to family.
b. Attempt to lighten the mood.
c. Suggest activities to cheer up the family.
d. Discourage crying until actual time of death.
ANS: A
One of the most important nursing interventions of death is the availability of the nurse for the family.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 563
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

34. The nurse and a new nurse are caring for a child who will require palliative care. Which statement made by the new nurse would indicate a correct understanding of palliative care?
a. Palliative care serves to hasten death and make the process easier for the family.
b. Palliative care provides pain and symptom management for the child.
c. The goal of palliative care is to place the child in a hospice setting at the end of life.
d. The goal of palliative care is to act as the liaison between the family, child, and other health care professionals.
ANS: B
One of the goals of palliative care is to provide pain and symptom management.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 556
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

35. Parents are asking about an early intervention program for their child who has special needs. The nurse relates that this program is for which age of child?
a. Birth to 1 year of age
b. Birth to 3 years of age
c. Ages 1 to 4
d. Ages 4 and 5
ANS: B
A variety of supplemental programs have been designed in the school system to accommodate special needs, both at school age and younger, through early intervention, which consists of any sustained and systematic effort to assist children from birth to age 3 years with disabilities and those who are developmentally vulnerable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 539
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

36. A nurse is planning palliative care for a child with severe pain. Which should the nurse expect to be prescribed for pain relief?
a. Opioids as needed
b. Opioids on a regular schedule
c. Distraction and relaxation techniques
d. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
ANS: B
Pain medications, for children in palliative care, should be given on a regular schedule, and extra doses for breakthrough pain should be available to maintain comfort. Opioid drugs such as morphine should be given for severe pain, and the dose should be increased as necessary to maintain optimal pain relief. Techniques such as distraction, relaxation techniques, and guided imagery should be combined with drug therapy to provide the child and family strategies to control pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not sufficient to manage severe pain for children in palliative care.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 562
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which describes avoidance behaviors parents may exhibit when learning that their child has a chronic condition? (Select all that apply.)
a. Refuses to agree to treatment
b. Shares burden of disorder with others
c. Verbalizes possible loss of child
d. Withdraws from outside world
e. Punishes self because of guilt and shame
ANS: A, D, E
A parent who refuses to agree to treatment, withdraws from the outside world, and punishes self because of guilt and shame is exhibiting avoidance coping behaviors. A parent who shares the burden of disorder with others and verbalizes possible loss of child is exhibiting approach coping behaviors.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 543
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

2. Which are appropriate statements the nurse should make to parents after the death of their child? (Select all that apply.)
a. We feel so sorry that we couldnt save your child.
b. Your child isnt suffering anymore.
c. I know how you feel.
d. Youre feeling all the pain of losing a child.
e. You are still young enough to have another baby.
ANS: A, D
By saying, We feel so sorry that we couldnt save your child, the nurse is expressing personal feeling of loss or frustration, which is therapeutic. Stating, Youre feeling all the pain of losing a child, focuses on a feeling, which is therapeutic. The statement, Your child isnt suffering anymore, is a judgmental statement, which is nontherapeutic. I know how you feel and Youre still young enough to have another baby are statements that give artificial consolation and are nontherapeutic.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 566
TOP: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

3. Which are adaptive coping patterns used by children with special needs? (Select all that apply.)
a. Feels different and withdraws
b. Is irritable, moody, and acts out
c. Seeks support
d. Develops optimism
ANS: C, D
Adaptive coping patterns used by children with special needs include seeking support and developing optimism. Maladaptive behaviors are seeing themselves as different and withdrawing and becoming irritable, moody, and beginning to act out.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 545
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. A nurse is caring for a child who is near death. Which physical signs indicate the child is approaching death? (Select all that apply.)
a. Body feels warm
b. Tactile sensation decreasing
c. Speech becomes rapid
d. Change in respiratory pattern
e. Difficulty swallowing
ANS: B, D, E
Physical signs of approaching death include: tactile sensation beginning to decrease, a change in respiratory pattern, and difficulty swallowing. Even though there is a sensation of heat the body feels cool, not warm, and speech becomes slurred, not rapid.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 564
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

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