Chapter 19: Preschool Child Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 19: Preschool Child
Edelman: Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A 5-year-old is prescribed a medication that is renally excreted. Which of the following considerations should be made when the nurse examines the dosage of the medication?
a. The dosage should be lower than the recommended dose.
b. The dosage should be at the recommended dose.
c. The dosage should be higher than the recommended dose.
d. The medication should not be administered.
ANS: B
The dose should be at the recommended dose. Kidneys reach full maturity by the end of infancy and early toddler years. As a result, medications that are renally excreted can be given at the recommended doses.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: pp. 450-451

2. A nurse is discussing genetic disorders with a local community group. Which of the following statements would the nurse make during the presentation?
a. Downs syndrome is most likely to appear during the preschool years.
b. Hemophilia is most likely to appear during the preschool years.
c. Cystic fibrosis is most likely to appear during the preschool years.
d. Multiple sclerosis is most likely to appear during the preschool years.
ANS: C
The genetic problems most likely to appear during the preschool years are cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, fragile X syndrome, Williamss syndrome, and autism.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 453

3. A mother comments to the school nurse that her child has poor hygiene habits and asks the nurse for suggestions as to how to teach her child to improve on his hygiene. Which of the following recommendations would the nurse give the mother?
a. Have him learn it at school.
b. Model the behavior at home.
c. Lecture him about hygiene.
d. Punish him when he forgets to brush his teeth.
ANS: B
The best way for a parent to teach a child good hygiene is to model the behavior at home. Reinforcement of health-promotion activities helps to instill behaviors. Additionally, preschoolers like to imitate adults.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 453

4. A 5-year-old is consuming a daily caloric intake of 1400 calories. Approximately what portion of the diet should be comprised of carbohydrates?
a. 300 calories
b. 700 calories
c. 900 calories
d. 1200 calories
ANS: C
Preschoolers should consume approximately half of their diet in carbohydrates. Children ages 3 to 5 years old should receive 1200 to 1600 calories per day depending on their activity level and gender.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 454

5. A nurse is determining caloric needs for a preschooler who weighs 18 kilograms. Which of the following represents the daily caloric needs for this child?
a. 1360 calories
b. 1540 calories
c. 1620 calories
d. 1800 calories
ANS: C
The approximate number of calories required by an 18-kg preschooler is 1620. Preschoolers need approximately 90 kcal/kg of body weight per day for health maintenance, activity, and growth.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 454

6. Which of the following foods will a 5-year-old child need help eating?
a. Pudding
b. Macaroni and cheese
c. Chicken
d. Jelly sandwich
ANS: C
The preschooler will need help with the chicken. In the later preschool years, most children need help cutting meats.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 454-455

7. A 2-year-old child has hives. Of the following items ingested, which is most likely to have caused the allergic reaction?
a. Apple juice
b. Oatmeal raisin cookies
c. Jelly sandwich
d. Banana
ANS: B
Oatmeal raisin cookies are most likely to have caused the allergic reaction. Nuts are a food that is likely to cause allergic reactions, and oatmeal raisin cookies often contain nut products.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 455

8. A 4-year-old boy had an episode of enuresis. Which of the following actions should be taken by the parents?
a. Have him change his own pajamas before going to bed.
b. Take away one video game.
c. Tell his 6-year-old sister about the incident.
d. Make him wear his diaper to bed.
ANS: A
The parents should have the child change his own pajamas before going to bed. Preschoolers should not be ridiculed or punished. They should be responsible for changing their own clothes and encouraged to avoid problems in the future.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 455

9. A nurse is working with a local daycare center to develop appropriate outdoor play activities for 5-year-old children at the center. Which of the following activities would the nurse most likely recommend?
a. Having the children bring their bikes to the center so they can go for bike rides in the neighborhood
b. Playing hopscotch on the sidewalk in front of the daycare center
c. Taking the children swimming at the neighborhood pool
d. Playing on the outdoor preschool equipment while being supervised by daycare personnel
ANS: D
Appropriate outdoor play for a 5-year-old child includes playing on age-appropriate playground equipment while being supervised by daycare personnel. At the age of 5, the child is still not proficient at controlling a bike in the streets or being safe with many children at a neighborhood pool. Additionally, children of this age have less fear of strangers.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: pp. 455-456 | p. 468

10. A 4-year-old girl asks her mother for a second cup of yogurt before starting to eat the first cup she was given. What will the child most likely do with the extra helping?
a. Eat it herself.
b. Ask her brother if he wants it.
c. Feed it to her dog.
d. Give it to her imaginary friend.
ANS: D
The extra helping is likely for the childs imaginary friend. Preschoolers may have one or more imaginary companions. They are usually another child. Preschoolers eat, play, and sleep with their imaginary companions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 456

11. Which sleep ritual is age appropriate for a preschooler?
a. Asking for every light in the home to be turned on at bedtime
b. Saying good night to all 20 stuffed animals in the room before going to sleep
c. Going right to sleep
d. Asking the parent to read all books on the bookshelf before going to bed
ANS: B
An age-appropriate sleep ritual for a preschooler is to say good night to all 20 stuffed animals in the room before going to sleep. Preschoolers have longer, more rigid bedtime rituals than toddlers. They prolong bedtime routines, which for them generally last about 30 minutes. Reasonable rituals should be honored.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 457

12. During a well-child visit, a parent tells the nurse that their preschooler occasionally wakes up during the middle of the night. Based on growth and development, which of the following would be the most common reason for the preschooler to wake up?
a. Nightmares
b. Night terrors
c. Enuresis
d. Hunger
ANS: A
Nightmares are a common reason for nighttime awakenings. Nightmares fully waken the child and give them a feeling of fearfulness and helplessness.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 457

13. Which of the following is a hallmark of Piagets preconceptual substage?
a. Using language to function symbolically
b. Using concrete thought processes
c. Using mental abstracting
d. Using transductive reasoning
ANS: A
The hallmark of Piagets preconceptual substage is using language to function symbolically.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 458

14. A preschooler and her school-age brother both received the same swimming tube as a gift. The brother accidentally took his sisters swimming tube. The sister protested that she needed her swimming tube to go swimming. Which of the following is being demonstrated by this behavior by the sister?
a. Abstract thinking
b. Concrete thinking
c. Jealousy
d. A temper tantrum
ANS: B
The behavior is indicative of concrete thinking. Egocentrism exemplifies the concept of concrete thinking. Children can only concentrate on their own perspective. The preschooler is not able to consider more than one factor at a time when solving problems.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 458

15. A school nurse is planning to assess the visual acuity of the preschool students at the school. Which of the following tests would be used?
a. Snellen Screening test
b. Denver Eye Screening test
c. Ishiharas test
d. Cover test
ANS: A
The Snellen Screening test is a reliable estimate of actual visual acuity. The Snellen Screening test is performed with the Snellen E chart.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 459

16. A nurse is reviewing the chart of a preschool child who has been diagnosed with Aspergers syndrome. Which of the following findings is the nurse most likely to discover?
a. Eating finger foods at 10 months old
b. Absent crawling at 10 months old
c. Separation anxiety at 10 months old
d. Saying ma-ma at 10 months old
ANS: B
Manifestations of autism spectrum disorders vary considerably. However, these children usually have had some childhood stressors such as chronic ear infections, sleeping/eating problems, absent/brief crawling phase, language delays, atypical responses to sensory stimulation, lack of separation anxiety, and failure to attain motor skill developmental milestones as warning signs that warrant further assessment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 463

17. A 4-year-old child tells the school nurse that he invented a new song. Which of the following would be the best response by the nurse?
a. Congratulate the child on a job well done.
b. Tell the child that he is too young to invent anything.
c. Nicely tell the child that it does not sound like a song.
d. Ask the child to come back later when there is more time to listen to the song.
ANS: A
The nurses best response is to congratulate the child on a job well done. When children perceive their value, they experience good feelings about themselves. They develop initiative through active imagination. According to Erikson, this is the most important developmental task in the development of self-concept. Reinforcement of behaviors and praising are methods that help develop self-concept.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 463

18. During the 5-year-old well-child visit, the father tells the nurse that he is unsure if the child is socially ready to attend school. The nurse asks the father to describe some of the social interactions of the child. Which of the following behaviors would indicate that the preschooler is socially ready to attend school?
a. He gives his brother the ball when he is tired of playing with it.
b. He never engages in any activity until his mother tells him to.
c. He plays well with a group of neighborhood children.
d. He moves from one activity to another.
ANS: C
Playing well with a group of neighborhood children best indicates the preschooler is ready to attend school. Social interaction prepares preschoolers for school. The child acquires readiness to interact in group situations, follow directions, and take turns by interacting with others.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 464

19. A nurse is using primary prevention strategies to prevent child abuse in the community. Which of the following interventions would the nurse implement?
a. Educate the public about violence and the potential for abuse.
b. Remove a child who has been abused from the home.
c. Report a case of child abuse.
d. Refer a parent who abused their child to counseling.
ANS: A
Educating the public about violence and the potential for abuse is a form of primary prevention. Nurses provide primary prevention for violence by promoting awareness and providing anticipatory guidance. Primary prevention is used before violence actually occurs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 465

20. During a well-child visit, a father tells the nurse that the preschool-aged child has been enjoying their road trips that they take together when the child gets to sit in the front seat of the car with him. Which of the following actions should the nurse take next?
a. Report the father to the Department of Human Services.
b. Encourage the father to have the child sit in the back seat instead.
c. Instruct the father on the dangers of having small children in the front seat.
d. Provide the parent with educational materials about car seat safety.
ANS: C
Federal investigations concluded that children under age 13 should ride in the back seat of a motor vehicle, particularly because of potential injury or death from a passenger seat air bag that could inflate in a severe car accident. Although parents may know that infants should be placed in the back seat, they do not always know that children in the front seat of a motor vehicle face danger, even if they are using a restraint system.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 467

21. A nurse is discussing with parents how to prevent burns in a preschooler. Which of the following recommendations is the nurse most likely to give the parents?
a. Do not read to the child while sitting on the sofa in front of the fireplace.
b. Do not cook on a gas grill until the child is a teenager.
c. Do not leave cigarettes and matches on the kitchen counter.
d. Do not cook with the child in the kitchen.
ANS: C
Advising a parent to not leave cigarettes and matches on the kitchen counter is the most useful recommendation for preventing burns in a preschooler. Preschoolers like to imitate and act older than they are. Having cigarettes and matches on the kitchen counter makes them available for use by the preschooler and can lead to burns. Preschoolers should also be taught the dangers of matches and fire.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 469

22. A mother thinks her 2-year-old child drank Drano. What should the nurse tell the mother to do next?
a. Call the pediatrician on call.
b. Give ipecac syrup.
c. Call the Poison Control Center.
d. Wait to see if the child will vomit.
ANS: C
The first thing the mother should do is call the Poison Control Center. Parents should have the number for the poison control center handy. Ipecac syrup should also be in the home; however, The Poison Control Center should be contacted before administration of ipecac syrup in order to determine if this would be appropriate following ingestion of this substance.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: pp. 470-471

23. Which of the following is the most common intraocular tumor in young children?
a. Neuroblastoma
b. Wilms tumor
c. Retinoblastoma
d. Leukemia
ANS: C
Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in young children.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 471

24. The nurse suspects a 5-year-old child has asthma. Which information from the childs past medical history is a risk factor?
a. The child was breast-fed.
b. The child had respiratory infections as an infant.
c. The child was born via a C-section.
d. The child had pressure equalizer tubes as an infant.
ANS: B
Having respiratory infections (such as RSV) as an infant is a risk factor for asthma. Other potential causes of asthma include genetic predisposition, allergens such as animal dander or dust mites, and other nonspecific precipitants such as exercise, weather, or stress.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 472

25. The nurse makes a home visit to a child who has recently been diagnosed with asthma. Which environmental finding has the potential to trigger an asthma exacerbation?
a. Radiator heating system
b. Air conditioner
c. Hardwood flooring
d. Leaky roof
ANS: D
A leaky roof has the potential to trigger an asthma exacerbation because water or moisture can lead to mold growth, and mold is an allergen that can trigger asthma.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 472

26. The nurse is conducting a physical exam on a 3-year-old child. Which of the following would be the best way for the nurse to approach the child during the exam?
a. Let the child listen to the nurses heart with the stethoscope.
b. Tell him to sit quietly while the nurse examines him.
c. Ask his parents to leave the room to minimize distractions.
d. Ask another nurse to hold him while the nurse examines him.
ANS: A
The best way for the nurse to approach a 3-year-old during a physical exam is to let him listen to the nurses heart with the stethoscope. Preschoolers like to imitate adults and like to play with medical devices.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 474

27. A nurse is using the Healthy People 2020 health promotion and disease prevention objectives for preschoolers when planning for health policy development in the community. Which of the following health policies would the nurse support?
a. Elimination of the school requirement for the MMR vaccine
b. Regulation of the use of electronic devices used by preschoolers
c. Regulation of the paint allowed for use with toys
d. Elimination of WIC programs
ANS: C
One way to address a Healthy People 2020 health promotion and disease prevention objective for preschoolers is to regulate the paint that is allowed for use in toys. Paints can contain lead, and lead poisoning can lead to disabilities. A Healthy People 2020 objective is to eliminate elevated blood-lead levels in children.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) REF: p. 450 (Box 19-1)

28. The school nurse is observing the development of gross motor skills of young children at the school and watches a child who is learning how to throw a ball overhand. How old is this child?
a. 3 years old
b. 4 years old
c. 5 years old
d. 6 years old
ANS: B
At the age of 4, most children have mastered throwing a ball overhand.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 451 (Table 19-1)

29. How old is a preschooler with a receptive vocabulary of up to 5600 words?
a. 42 months old
b. 48 months old
c. 54 months old
d. 60 months old
ANS: B
By 48 months of age, most preschoolers have receptive languages skills of up to 5600 words.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge) REF: p. 461 (Table 19-2)

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A mother tells the nurse her 3-year-old child has not been himself lately. The nurse examines the child. Which of the following physical findings would be cause for concern? (select all that apply)
a. Bruises
b. Pale skin
c. Enlarged lymph nodes
d. Hives
ANS: A, B, C
Bruises, pale skin, and enlarged lymph nodes are all warning signs that may indicate childhood cancer.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 472 (Box 19-9)

2. A nurse administers the Draw-a-Person and Draw-a-Family tests with a preschool student. Which of the following purposes will these tests serve? (select all that apply)
a. Assess verbal development.
b. Assess intelligence development.
c. Assess social development.
d. Assess emotional development.
ANS: B, D
Draw-a-Person and Draw-a-Family tests approximate intelligence and emotional development; however, scoring figure drawings requires standardized test conditions and analysis of findings by a psychometric specialist. Nurses, however, use these methods in conjunction with other information to help establish rapport and provide a starting point to guide assessment. Drawings may indicate general developmental level, fine motor control, and evidence of concept formation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 462

3. Which of the following behaviors by a preschooler indicates use of an effective coping mechanism? (select all that apply)
a. The preschooler walks away from the situation.
b. The preschooler blames a friend for causing the problem.
c. The preschooler states what he is upset about.
d. The preschooler has a temper tantrum.
ANS: B, C
Preschoolers use many of the coping mechanisms developed during their toddler years, but they generally show greater ability to verbalize frustration, fewer temper tantrums, and more patience in experimentation to resolve difficulty than the typical toddler. Preschoolers refine their problem-solving skills. Through fantasy play, they investigate solutions or responses to stressful events and find inner control for challenging situations. Preschoolers tend to project blame.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) REF: p. 466

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