Chapter 20: Central Nervous System Stimulants Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 20: Central Nervous System Stimulants
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse is performing a medication history on a patient who reports using phentermine HCl (Suprenza) 15 mg/day for the past 3 months as an appetite suppressant. The nurse will contact the patients provider to discuss
a. changing the medication to phentermine-topiramate (Qsymia).
b. increasing the dose to 37.5 mg/day since tolerance has likely occurred.
c. initiating a slow taper of the phentermine.
d. stopping the drug immediately since long-term use is not recommended.
ANS: C
The nurse should discuss a gradual taper of the medication with the provider. Patients using anorexiants should not stop taking them abruptly because depression and withdrawal symptoms may occur. Phentermine-topiramate is recommended for short-term use only. Patients should not use these medications longer than 12 weeks, so increasing the dose is not indicated.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 289
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Planning/Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

2. A patient reports having recurring headaches described as 1 to 2 headaches per day for several weeks. The nurse understands that these headaches are most likely descriptive of which type of headache?
a. Cluster headache
b. Migraine headache
c. Simple headache
d. Tension headache
ANS: A
Cluster headaches reoccur 1 to 3 times daily in a period lasting from approximately 2 weeks to 3 months. Migraine headaches are severe and characterized by an aura prior to the headache. Tension headaches are related to stress.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 285
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pathophysiology

3. The nurse is caring for a patient who has migraine headaches. The patient reports having these headaches more frequently. Which is an appropriate recommendation for this patient?
a. Avoid chocolate and caffeine.
b. Engage in strenuous exercise.
c. Have a glass of red wine with dinner.
d. Take ibuprofen prophylactically.
ANS: A
Triggering factors for migraine headache include foods such as chocolate, caffeine, and red wine. Intense physical exertion can trigger migraines. Prophylactic ibuprofen is not indicated.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 285
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pathophysiology

4. The nurse is caring for a 7-year-old child who has difficulty concentrating and completing tasks and who cannot seem to sit still. Which diagnostic test may be ordered to assist with a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in this child?
a. Computerized tomography (CT) of the head
b. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
c. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
d. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain
ANS: C
A child with ADHD may have abnormal EEG findings. CT, MRI, and ECG tests are not diagnostic for ADHD.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: Page 285
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pathophysiology

5. A patient has been using an amphetamine drug as an anorexiant for several weeks and asks the nurse about long-term adverse effects of this type of medication. The nurse will explain to the patient that these drugs
a. can cause cardiac dysrhythmias.
b. contribute to the development of narcolepsy.
c. do not have severe effects when used properly.
d. will cause orthostatic hypotension.
ANS: A
Amphetamines can cause adverse effects in the central nervous, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems even when used as directed. Cardiac dysrhythmias can occur with continued use. Amphetamines do not cause narcolepsy or hypotension.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 285
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

6. The nurse is teaching a child and a parent about taking methylphenidate (Ritalin) to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which statement by the parent indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. I should give this drug to my child at bedtime.
b. My child should avoid products containing caffeine.
c. The drug should be stopped immediately if my child develops aggression.
d. We should monitor my childs weight since weight gain is common.
ANS: B
Methylphenidate is a stimulant, so other stimulants such as caffeine should be avoided because a high plasma caffeine level can be fatal. The medication should be taken in the morning. Patients should be taught not to stop the drug abruptly to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Weight loss is common.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 286
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention: Patient Teaching
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

7. The parent of a child who is taking amphetamine (Adderall) to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) asks the provider to recommend an over-the-counter medication to treat a cold. What will the nurse tell the parent?
a. Avoid any products containing pseudoephedrine or caffeine.
b. Never give over-the-counter medications with Adderall.
c. Sudafed is a safe and effective decongestant.
d. Use any over-the-counter medication from the local pharmacy.
ANS: A
Adderall is a stimulant, so other stimulants, such as caffeine and pseudoephedrine, should be avoided because a high plasma caffeine level can be fatal.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 285
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention: Patient Teaching
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

8. The nurse is checking an 8-year-old child who has attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into a clinic for an annual well-child visit. The child takes methylphenidate HCl (Ritalin). Which assessments are especially important for this child?
a. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation
b. Height, weight, and blood pressure
c. Measures of fine- and gross-motor development
d. Nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal upset
ANS: B
Methylphenidate may cause growth suppression, so the childs height and weight should be assessed. Methylphenidate may also increase blood pressure, so the nurse should pay careful attention to blood pressure.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 286
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Assessment/Evaluation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

9. The parent of an adolescent who has taken methylphenidate 20 mg/day for 6 months for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) brings the child to clinic for evaluation of a recent onset of nausea, vomiting, and headaches. The parent expresses concern that the child seems less focused and more hyperactive than before. What will the nurse do next?
a. Ask the child whether the drug is being taken as prescribed.
b. Contact the provider to discuss increasing the dose to 30 mg/day.
c. Recommend taking the drug with meals to reduce gastrointestinal side effects.
d. Report signs of drug toxicity to the patients provider.
ANS: A
Nausea, vomiting, and headaches can occur with drug withdrawal, along with a recurrence of symptoms. The nurse should ask the child about drug compliance. Methylphenidate should be taken 30 to 45 minutes before meals, not with meals.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 287
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Evaluation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

10. The nurse is teaching a parent about methylphenidate (Ritalin) to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which statement by the parent indicates understanding of the teaching?
a. I should consult a pharmacist when giving my child OTC medications.
b. I will only give my child diet soft drinks while administering this medication.
c. Medication therapy means that behavioral therapy will not be necessary.
d. Weight gain is a common side effect of this medication.
ANS: A
Since many OTC medications contain stimulants, parents should consult a pharmacist or the provider before giving them with methylphenidate. Diet soft drinks often contain caffeine, a stimulant, and should be avoided with methylphenidate use. Behavioral therapy should still be an essential part of the treatment for ADHD. Weight loss is common.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 286
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention: Patient Teaching
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

11. The parent of an obese 10-year-old child asks the nurse about medications to aid in weight loss. Which response by the nurse is correct?
a. Anorexiants are often used to jump start a weight loss regimen in children.
b. Children are able to use over-the-counter anorexiants on a long-term basis.
c. Children under 12 years of age should not use weight loss drugs.
d. Side effects of anorexiants occur less often in children.
ANS: C
Anorexiants should not be given to children under age 12 years.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 288
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention: Patient Teaching
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

12. The nurse is working in a neonatal intensive care unit and is caring for an infant who is experiencing multiple periods of apnea and bradycardia. Which drug will the nurse expect to administer?
a. Albuterol (Proventil)
b. Caffeine (Cafcit)
c. Doxapram (Dopram)
d. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
ANS: B
Caffeine is given to newborns that are experiencing apnea spells. The other drugs are not used for this purpose.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 288
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

13. A college-age student is brought to the emergency department by friends after consuming NoDoz tablets along with several cups of coffee and a few energy drinks. The patient is complaining of nausea and diarrhea and appears restless. The nurse understands that
a. arrhythmias and convulsions may occur.
b. caffeine dependence does not occur.
c. effects of the substances will wear off shortly.
d. severe adverse effects do not occur.
ANS: A
Caffeine and other stimulants can cause cardiac arrhythmias and seizures. Caffeine dependence may occur.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 288
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

14. A patient is brought to the emergency department with a drug overdose causing respiratory depression. Which drug will the nurse expect to administer?
a. Albuterol (Proventil)
b. Caffeine (Cafcit)
c. Doxapram (Dopram)
d. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
ANS: C
Doxapram is given to treat respiratory depression caused by drug overdose.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 289
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

15. A patient reports difficulty staying awake during the daytime in spite of getting adequate sleep every night. Which medication will the nurse expect the provider to order for this patient?
a. Caffeine (NoDoz)
b. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
c. Modafinil (Provigil)
d. Theophylline
ANS: C
Modafinil is given to treat narcolepsy.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 285
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

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