Chapter 20: Promoting Health Through Healthy Communities and Cities Nursing School Test Banks

Stanhope: Public Health Nursing, 8th Edition

Chapter 20: Promoting Health Through Healthy Communities and Cities

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The goal of the Healthy Communities and Cities initiative is to:
a. Promote health through community participation.
b. Reorganize the current health care system.
c. Maximize the cost-benefit ratio of health care.
d. Improve the quality of care in communities.
ANS: A
This leads to addressing the health and quality of life for all through a process that includes diverse citizen participation, mobilization of all sections of the community, and community ownership.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 448 OBJ: 1

2. The Healthy Communities and Cities initiative supports the idea that:
a. Healthy cities and communities must be both environmentally and socially sustainable.
b. Health public policy is the responsibility of elected officials.
c. Physical environments cannot be changed, thus strategies must be developed in order to cope with them.
d. The World Health Organization is the primary source of information for cities.
ANS: A
Healthy cities and communities must be both environmentally and socially sustainable through a strategy of primary care.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 449 OBJ: 1

3. When the Healthy Communities and Cities concept was brought to the United States:
a. The cities chosen for the initial work were Los Angeles and New York City.
b. Canada adopted the program at the same time for continuity across borders.
c. The same strict guidelines that were implemented in Europe were used.
d. Smaller communities and localities were targeted instead of large cities.
ANS: D
The concept of Healthy Communities was used to incorporate localities that were not necessarily cities.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 448 OBJ: 1

4. When utilizing the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Healthy Communities Program, a nurse recognizes that a factor that will influence the continuance of this program is:
a. Time
b. Community participation
c. Federal involvement
d. Technology
ANS: B
Community participation can influence the continuance of the Healthy Communities and Cities movement.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 449 OBJ: 2

5. Healthy Communities and Cities is based on which of the following premises?
a. When people have the opportunity to work out their own locally defined health problems, they will find sustainable solutions to those problems.
b. When the health of a community is improved, the focus will be on life expectancy rather than quality of life.
c. When health professionals assume a leadership role, the health of the community will improve.
d. When cities recruit enough health professionals to care for those needing medical care, the cities health will improve.
ANS: A
Healthy Cities is based on the premise that when people have the opportunity to work out their own locally defined health problems, they will find sustainable solutions to those problems.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 449 OBJ: 3

6. Which approach should a nurse take when implementing interventions to improve the health of a community?
a. A top-down approach with rational-empirical problem solving
b. A top-down approach with community practice planned by experts
c. A bottom-up approach with facilitation of communication
d. A bottom-up approach with multi-sectoral planning and action for health
ANS: D
A bottom-up approach with multi-sectoral planning and action for health incorporates community participation. A bottom-up approach uses broad-based community problem solving that includes health professionals, local officials, service providers, and other community members, including those at risk for health problems.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 450 OBJ: 3

7. A nurse is leading a team responsible for evaluating the health of a community using the Community Health Promotion Model. Based on this model, which step would you expect the nurse to complete?
a. Ensuring high technological access before the plan can be implemented
b. Soliciting the consent of every member of the community
c. Assessing the community
d. Restructuring the public health policy in the community
ANS: C
Assessing the community is one of the steps in the nine-steps of the Community Health Promotion Model.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 456 OBJ: 4

8. Why would a nurse perform a community assessment as part of the Community Health Promotion Model?
a. To become more acquainted with the multiple factors that influence health status
b. To survey the people in the community about their wants and needs
c. To allow special interest groups a say in health policy
d. To provide a narrow focus for the committee work
ANS: A
The purpose of including a community assessment in the implementation of the Community Health Promotion Model is to become more acquainted with the multiple biological, behavioral, social and physical factors that describe and influence health status of residence. The assessment provides the frame of reference for identifying the communitys strengths, needs, and resources.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 456 OBJ: 4

9. When implementing the Community Health Promotion Model, which underlying principle should the nurse use in order to facilitate active participation?
a. Individuals should work in groups to complete necessary tasks.
b. Individuals participating should represent all segments of the population.
c. People will work together if they like the leadership.
d. People will participate when they see the issues as worthy of their time.
ANS: D
People participate when they feel a sense of community and see their involvement in the issues as relevant and worthy of their time.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 455 OBJ: 5

10. The steps of the Community Health Promotion Model resemble the:
a. Collaboration process
b. WHOs Ottawa Charter
c. Nursing process
d. CDCs monitoring program
ANS: C
The steps of the Community Health Promotion Model are very similar to the nursing process. The steps include assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation.

DIF: COG: Evaluating REF: 456-457 OBJ: 5

11. A nurse involved in the initial implementation of the Healthy Communities and Cities initiative in the United States would have likely addressed which problem?
a. Reduction to the amount of pollutants released into the environment
b. Provision of fire and police protection
c. Creation of a coalition to address health disparities
d. Elimination of crime and violence from the community
ANS: C
The concept of a healthy community or city is based on the belief that the health of the community is largely influenced by the environment in which people live and that health problems have multiple causes: social, economic, political, environmental, and behavioral. Creation of a coalition engages residents in addressing the problem which is impacted by multiple factors. The initial activities focused on the problems of diverse populations.

DIF: COG: Evaluating REF: 449|453 OBJ: 5

12. Which nursing action demonstrates a nurses involvement in the Community Health Promotion Model?
a. Changing public policy
b. Establishing a team to conduct evaluation research
c. Providing nursing diagnoses for the community
d. Revising an objective for Healthy People 2020
ANS: B
Nurses may make a contribution to short-term impact evaluation and long-term outcome evaluation to create a knowledge base for community health promotion.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 458 OBJ: 6

13. A nurse who is designing interventions and evaluating results of Healthy Municipalities and Cities should consider the:
a. Influence of individual actions
b. Acute care hospital services in the community
c. Social results and endorsement of law makers for policy changes
d. Effectiveness of health services including delivery of preventive services
ANS: D
The effectiveness of health services, including the delivery of preventive services, should be considered when designing interventions and evaluating the results of Healthy Municipalities and Cities.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 456 OBJ: 6

14. The wearing of seat belts is required in many communities. Children of a certain age must be restrained in a car seat or seat belt when riding in a car. This is an example of:
a. Unilateral action of lawmakers
b. Participation in health fairs
c. Healthy public policy
d. Media interest in protecting the public
ANS: C
Examples of healthy public policy are seat belt legislation, nonsmoking policies, and immunization policies for school-age children.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 448|456 OBJ: 6

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. What principle(s) were used in the creation of the Healthy Cities movement? Select all that apply.
a. Primary care
b. Equity in health promotion
c. Community participation
d. High technologic environments
ANS: A, B, C
The Healthy Cities movement was based upon the principles of primary care, equity, health promotion, and community participation.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 449 OBJ: 1

2. According to the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, the areas for health promotion action include (select all that apply):
a. Creating supportive environments
b. Developing personal skills
c. Building healthy public policy
d. Reorienting health services
ANS: A, B, C, D
Creating supportive environments, developing personal skills, building healthy public policy, and reorienting health services are all areas for health promotion action identified by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in 1986.

DIF: COG: Understanding REF: 448|456 OBJ: 3

3. When using the Community Health Promotion Model to address the problem of increasing teenage pregnancy rates in the community, the nurse would use which steps? Select all that apply.
a. Identifying interest by community forums
b. Building the partnership
c. Counseling teenagers about effective birth control methods
d. Contacting other cities with similar problems and issues
ANS: A, B
The implementation of the Community Health Promotion Model includes identifying interest by community forums and building the partnership.

DIF: COG: Applying REF: 455 OBJ: 4

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