Chapter 21: Ethics and Values Nursing School Test Banks

Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The client states that she needs to exercise regularly, watch her weight, and reduce her fat intake. This demonstrates that the client:

a.

Believes she will have a heart attack

b.

Values health promotion activities

c.

Believes she will not become sick

d.

Has unrealistic expectations for herself

ANS: b

b. A value is a personal belief about the worth of a given idea, attitude, custom, or object that sets standards that influence behavior. The client is expressing her value of health-promotion activities.

a. A belief is a conviction of the truth of a thing. The clients statement does not indicate that she believes in, or has fear of, having a heart attack.

c. A belief is a conviction of the truth or reality of a thing. The client does not state that she believes these health-promotion activities will keep her from becoming sick.

d. These are not unrealistic expectations.

REF: Text Reference: p. 393

2. A client has actively picketed for gun control. During a robbery of his business, he was shot in the leg. As the nurse assists him with morning care, which statement would the nurse expect him to make that coincides with his values?

a.

Individuals should arm themselves for protection.

b.

Firearms may have a place in our society.

c.

Prosecution should be the maximum for that felon.

d.

Protection is a necessary evil for the good guy.

ANS: c

c. Individual experience influences what we come to value. The client who experienced a gunshot during a robbery of his business may value gun control and verbalize a desire to have his attacker prosecuted for the violent crime.

a. The individual who has actively picketed for gun control is unlikely to desire the use of guns. The individual would be more likely to believe that if gun control were legislated, no need for guns would exist.

b. The client who has picketed for gun control and who was shot is unlikely to value firearms in our society.

d. The individual who has actively picketed for gun control is unlikely to desire the use of guns. The individual would be more likely to believe that if gun control existed, no guns would be needed.

REF: Text Reference: p. 393

3. A secondary-school teacher with advanced multiple sclerosis insists on teaching from a wheelchair and being treated the same as other colleagues. The teacher is demonstrating which of the following?

a.

Prizing her choice

b.

Choosing from alternatives

c.

Considering all consequences

d.

Acting with a pattern of consistency

ANS: a

a. The teacher is demonstrating prizing her choice. She cherishes her choice of being treated like everyone else despite her medical condition and publicly affirms the choice by teaching from a wheelchair and insisting that she be treated the same as her colleagues.

b. At this point, the teacher is not choosing from alternatives. She could have chosen to quit teaching, but she did not. She has already made her choice.

c. The teacher is not demonstrating considering all consequences. She has already made her choice.

d. At this point, the teacher is not demonstrating acting with a pattern of consistency. She is not repeating a behavior.

REF: Text Reference: p. 394

4. The nurse recognizes that values clarification interventions are beneficial for the client when:

a.

The client and nurse have different beliefs

b.

The client is experiencing a values conflict

c.

The nurse is unsure of a clients values

d.

The client has rejected normal values

ANS: b

b. Values clarification can help clients gain an awareness of personal priorities, identify ambiguities in values, and resolve major conflicts between values and behavior.

a. Values clarification for nurses can help nurses strengthen their ability to advocate for a client because nurses are better able to identify personal values and accurately to identify the values of the client. Values clarification is not necessarily beneficial for the client when the client and nurse have different beliefs.

c. Values clarification for the client will not necessarily help the nurse who is unsure of the clients values. Values clarification interventions for the client and not the nurse to gain awareness.

d. The values that an individual holds reflect cultural and social influences, relationships, and personal needs. Values vary among people and develop and change over time. Therefore, it may be inappropriate to state that a client has rejected normal values when value systems vary among people. What is considered normal to one person may not be to another.

REF: Text Reference: p. 394

5. The nurse is working with the client and trying to clarify the clients values regarding his care. Which of the following statements reflects an example of the type of response a nurse should use in a values clarification situation?

a.

Your questions were pretty blunt.

b.

Tell me what youre thinking right now.

c.

Ive felt that way before; Id be upset, too.

d.

You seem concerned about your tests. Let me explain them.

ANS: b

b. Values clarification is a process of self-discovery that the nurse should assist the client through. The goal of values clarification with a client is effective nurse-client communication. As the client becomes more willing to express problems and feelings, the nurse can better establish an individualized plan of care. The character of a nurses response to a client can motivate the client to examine personal thoughts and actions. When the nurse makes a clarifying response, it should be brief and nonjudgmental.

a. Values clarification is a process of self-discovery that the nurse should assist the client through. The character of a nurses response to a client can motivate the client to examine personal thoughts and actions. When the nurse makes a clarifying response, it should be brief and nonjudgmental. The client is being judgmental in this response.

c. The nurse should not influence the client with his or her own values, even if they are similar.

d. This statement is therapeutic in that it is reflective of a clients feelings and offers information. However, it does not encourage the client to examine his or her values.

REF: Text Reference: p. 393

6. A nurses use of ethical responsibility can best be seen in which of the following ways?

a.

Delivery of competent care

b.

Formation of interpersonal relationships

c.

Application of the nursing process

d.

Evaluation of new computerized technologies

ANS: a

a. The term responsibility refers to the characteristics of reliability and dependability. In professional nursing, responsibility includes a duty to perform actions well and thoughtfully. When the nurse provides competent care, the nurse is demonstrating ethical responsibility.

b. Formation of interpersonal relationships is not an ethical responsibility.

c. Application of the nursing process is not an ethical responsibility.

d. Evaluation of new computerized technologies is not an ethical responsibility.

REF: Text Reference: p. 391

7. A student nurse realizes that she has administered the wrong dose of medication to a patient. She immediately informs her clinical instructor. This student nurse is best described professionally as:

a.

Confident

b.

Trustworthy

c.

Compliant

d.

Accountable

ANS: d

d. Accountability refers to the ability to answer for ones own actions. The goal is the prevention of injury to the client. The student nurse who informs her instructor of an error is being accountable for her actions and has a goal to prevent injury to the client.

a. The student nurse would not be described professionally as confident (i.e., sure of oneself).

b. The student is not best described as trustworthy. To be trustworthy, one is worthy of trust or confidence and is reliable. In this case, the student was not reliable to administer medication correctly.

c. This student nurse is not best described professionally as compliant. The student is not acting in accordance with wishes, commands, or requirements.

REF: Text Reference: p. 391

8. The physician has informed a client that she has cancer. The client tells the nurse and physician that she is not sure if she wants her family to know. The nurse encourages the client to consider sharing the information with her family so they can support her through the decisions she will need to make regarding her care. The nurse is using the principle of:

a.

Confidentiality

b.

Fidelity

c.

Veracity

d.

Justice

ANS: c

c. Veracity in general means accuracy or conformity to truth. The nurse is encouraging the client to be truthful with the clients family.

a. Confidentiality means not to impart private matters.

b. Fidelity refers to the agreement to keep promises.

d. Justice refers to fairness.

REF: Text Reference: p. 392

9. The nurse is investigating the process for resolution of an ethical problem. The correct sequence for resolving ethical problems is:

a.

Examine ones own values, evaluate, identify the problem

b.

Evaluate the outcomes, gather data, consider actions

c.

Gather facts, verbalize the problem, consider actions

d.

Recognize the dilemma, evaluate, gather information

ANS: c

c. The correct sequence for resolving ethical problems is recognizing the dilemma, gathering facts, examining ones own values, verbalizing the problem, considering actions, negotiating the outcome, and evaluating the action.

a. This is not the correct sequence for resolving ethical problems.

b. This is not the correct sequence for resolving ethical problems.

d. This is not the correct sequence for resolving ethical problems.

REF: Text Reference: p. 398, Text Reference: p. 399

10. A nurse is ambivalent as to the need to vigorously suction a terminal client in a comatose state. Which of the following is an appropriate statement by the nurse in regard to processing an ethical dilemma?

a.

I need to know the legalities of the living will of this client.

b.

My spiritual beliefs mandate that I continue to provide all the interventions in my scope of practice.

c.

I cannot figure out whats right in this situation. I need to collect more data.

d.

I just feel as if I should not suction this client.

ANS: c

c. The first step in processing an ethical dilemma is determining whether the problem is an ethical one. The nurse who cannot figure out what is right is stating a characteristic of an ethical dilemma, which is that the problem is perplexing. The next step is to gather as much information as possible that is relevant to the case.

a. The nurse who wants to know the legalities of the living will of a client is collecting some, but not all, data pertaining to the problem.

b. The nurse in this option is stating her own beliefs.

d. The nurse is stating the problem according to her feelings.

REF: Text Reference: p. 398

11. Which of the following statements best illustrates the deontological ethical theory?

a.

I believe this disease was allowed by a supreme being.

b.

He has become a stronger individual through experiencing the loss of his father.

c.

It would never be right for a person to stop cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efforts.

d.

The chemotherapy did not cure this person, but it provided a better life for him.

ANS: c

c. Deontology defines actions as right or wrong based on their right-making characteristics such as fidelity to promises, truthfulness, and justice. Deontology does not look to consequences of actions to determine rightness or wrongness. Fidelity to promises and beneficence may be principles on which this statement is based on determining wrongness.

a. This statement does not reflect the deontological ethical theory. Because it reflects a relation between disease and a supreme being, it follows the feminist ethical theory.

b. This statement does not best illustrate the deontological ethical theory because it is citing a consequence. It follows the utilitarian ethical theory.

d. This statement does not best illustrate the deontological ethical theory because it cites a consequence. It follows the utilitarian ethical theory.

REF: Text Reference: p. 395

12. A nurse stopped at an accident scene and began to provide emergency care for the victims. Her actions are best labeled ethically as:

a.

Respect for persons

b.

Beneficence

c.

Nonmaleficence

d.

Triage

ANS: b

b. Beneficence refers to taking positive actions to help others, as in providing emergency care at an accident scene.

a. Respect for persons has to do with treating people equally despite their social standing, etc.

c. Nonmaleficence is the avoidance of harm or hurt.

d. Triage is the screening and classification of casualties to make optimal use of treatment resources and to maximize the survival and welfare of clients.

REF: Text Reference: p. 390

13. The nurse is aware that an ethics committee in a health care facility serves to:

a.

Interview all persons involved in a case

b.

Illustrate circumstances that demonstrate malpractice

c.

Serve as a resource for specific situations that may occur

d.

Examine similar previous instances for comparison of outcome decisions

ANS: c

c. Ethics committees serve as a resource to support the processing of ethical dilemmas. Ethics committees serve several purposes: education, policy recommendation, and case consultation or review.

a. Although an ethics committee may gather further information, ethics committees do not interview all persons involved in a case; rather, they offer consultation or case review.

b. This is not a purpose of an ethics committee.

d. This may be part of data gathering to help process an ethical dilemma or for policy recommendation, but it is not the purpose of an ethics committee.

REF: Text Reference: p. 400

14. A client in the emergency department believes that she has been waiting longer than the other individuals because she has no insurance. The ethical principle that is involved in this particular situation is:

a.

Justice

b.

Autonomy

c.

Beneficence

d.

Nonmaleficence

ANS: a

a. Justice refers to treating people fairly. Allocation of resources and access to health care involve the ethical principle of justice. The client without medical insurance should not have to wait longer to receive health care than do those with insurance.

b. Autonomy refers to a persons independence. Autonomy represents an agreement to respect anothers right to determine a course of action.

c. Beneficence refers to taking positive actions to help others.

d. Nonmaleficence refers to the avoidance of harm or hurt.

REF: Text Reference: p. 390

15. An example of the nurses use of the specific ethical principle of autonomy in a client situation is:

a.

Learning how to do a procedure safely and effectively

b.

Returning to speak to a client at an agreed on time

c.

Preparing the clients room for comfort and privacy

d.

Supporting a clients right to refuse therapy

ANS: d

d. Following the ethical principle of autonomy, the nurse allows a client to make the decisions regarding care and then supports that decision.

a. Learning how to do a procedure safely and effectively is a nurses use of ethical responsibility.

b. Returning to speak to a client at an agreed on time demonstrates the ethical principle of fidelity.

c. Preparing the clients room for comfort and privacy is a nurses use of ethical responsibility.

REF: Text Reference: p. 390

16. The nurse always tries to maintain ethical principles in clinical practice. Which of the following statements reflects application of the specific ethical principle of confidentiality?

a.

Im concerned that decreased funding may affect the outpatient program.

b.

Im going to make sure that client understands the instructions.

c.

I cannot share that information with you about the client.

d.

I need to get more information about the clients health history.

ANS: c

c. This statement reflects the application of the ethical principle of confidentiality. Information is not to be shared with others without specific client consent.

a. This statement reflects a concern regarding allocation of resources. It is not a confidentiality issue.

b. The nurse who makes sure a client has gained understanding is being ethically responsible.

d. This statement reflects data gathering. Information gathered is to be used for the purpose of providing competent health care. It should not be shared with others without specific consent of the client.

REF: Text Reference: p. 392

17. The client has been diagnosed with malignant bone cancer. Treatment involves chemotherapy on an outpatient basis. Over the course of the treatment, the client becomes very ill, is experiencing tremendous side effects from the therapy, and has a severe reduction in the quality of life. The specific ethical principle that is in question in this situation is:

a.

Veracity

b.

Fidelity

c.

Justice

d.

Nonmaleficence

ANS: d

d. Nonmaleficence is the avoidance of harm or hurt. The discomforts of treatment have to be considered: are they benefiting the client, or are they worse than the disease itself. The health care professional tries to balance the risks and benefits of a plan of care while striving to do the least harm possible.

a. Veracity refers to truthfulness. This situation is not questioning truthfulness.

b. Fidelity refers to the agreement to keep promises. This situation does not question fidelity.

c. Justice refers to fairness. This situation is not a matter of justice.

REF: Text Reference: p. 390

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