Chapter 21: Postpartum Complications Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 21: Postpartum Complications

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The perinatal nurse is caring for a woman in the immediate postbirth period. Assessment reveals that the woman is experiencing profuse bleeding. The most likely etiology for the bleeding is:

a.

Uterine atony.

c.

Vaginal hematoma.

b.

Uterine inversion.

d.

Vaginal laceration.

ANS: A

Uterine atony is marked hypotonia of the uterus. It is the leading cause of postpartum hemorrhage. Uterine inversion may lead to hemorrhage, but it is not the most likely source of this clients bleeding. Furthermore, if the woman were experiencing a uterine inversion, it would be evidenced by the presence of a large, red, rounded mass protruding from the introitus. A vaginal hematoma may be associated with hemorrhage. However, the most likely clinical finding would be pain, not the presence of profuse bleeding. A vaginal laceration may cause hemorrhage, but it is more likely that profuse bleeding would result from uterine atony. A vaginal laceration should be suspected if vaginal bleeding continues in the presence of a firm, contracted uterine fundus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 531

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. A primary nursing responsibility when caring for a woman experiencing an obstetric hemorrhage associated with uterine atony is to:

a.

Establish venous access.

b.

Perform fundal massage.

c.

Prepare the woman for surgical intervention.

d.

Catheterize the bladder.

ANS: B

The initial management of excessive postpartum bleeding is firm massage of the uterine fundus. Although establishing venous access may be a necessary intervention, the initial intervention would be fundal massage. The woman may need surgical intervention to treat her postpartum hemorrhage, but the initial nursing intervention would be to assess the uterus. After uterine massage the nurse may want to catheterize the client to eliminate any bladder distention that may be preventing the uterus from contracting properly.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 532

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

3. The perinatal nurse caring for the postpartum woman understands that late postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is most likely caused by:

a.

Subinvolution of the placental site.

c.

Cervical lacerations.

b.

Defective vascularity of the decidua.

d.

Coagulation disorders.

ANS: A

Late PPH may be the result of subinvolution of the uterus, pelvic infection, or retained placental fragments. Late PPH is not typically a result of defective vascularity of the decidua, cervical lacerations, or coagulation disorders.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 531

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. Which woman is at greatest risk for early postpartum hemorrhage (PPH)?

a.

A primiparous woman (G 2 P 1 0 0 1) being prepared for an emergency cesarean birth for fetal distress

b.

A woman with severe preeclampsia who is receiving magnesium sulfate and whose labor is being induced

c.

A multiparous woman (G 3 P 2 0 0 2) with an 8-hour labor

d.

A primigravida in spontaneous labor with preterm twins

ANS: B

Magnesium sulfate administration during labor poses a risk for PPH. Magnesium acts as a smooth muscle relaxant, thereby contributing to uterine relaxation and atony. Although many causes and risk factors are associated with PPH, the primiparous woman being prepared for an emergency C-section, the multiparous woman with 8-hour labor, and the primigravida in spontaneous labor do not pose risk factors or causes of early PPH.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 531

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

5. The first and most important nursing intervention when a nurse observes profuse postpartum bleeding is to:

a.

Call the womans primary health care provider.

b.

Administer the standing order for an oxytocic.

c.

Palpate the uterus and massage it if it is boggy.

d.

Assess maternal blood pressure and pulse for signs of hypovolemic shock.

ANS: C

The initial management of excessive postpartum bleeding is firm massage of the uterine fundus. Although calling the health care provider, administering an oxytocic, and assessing maternal BP are appropriate interventions, the primary intervention should be to assess the uterus. Uterine atony is the leading cause of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 532

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

6. When caring for a postpartum woman experiencing hemorrhagic shock, the nurse recognizes that the most objective and least invasive assessment of adequate organ perfusion and oxygenation is:

a.

Absence of cyanosis in the buccal mucosa.

b.

Cool, dry skin.

c.

Diminished restlessness.

d.

Urinary output of at least 30 mL/hr.

ANS: D

Hemorrhage may result in hemorrhagic shock. Shock is an emergency situation in which the perfusion of body organs may become severely compromised and death may occur. The presence of adequate urinary output indicates adequate tissue perfusion. The assessment of the buccal mucosa for cyanosis can be subjective. The presence of cool, pale, clammy skin would be an indicative finding associated with hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with lethargy, not restlessness.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 536

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

7. One of the first symptoms of puerperal infection to assess for in the postpartum woman is:

a.

Fatigue continuing for longer than 1 week.

b.

Pain with voiding.

c.

Profuse vaginal bleeding with ambulation.

d.

Temperature of 38 C (100.4 F) or higher on 2 successive days starting 24 hours after birth.

ANS: D

Postpartum or puerperal infection is any clinical infection of the genital canal that occurs within 28 days after miscarriage, induced abortion, or childbirth. The definition used in the United States continues to be the presence of a fever of 38 C (100.4 F) or higher on 2 successive days of the first 10 postpartum days, starting 24 hours after birth. Fatigue would be a late finding associated with infection. Pain with voiding may indicate a urinary tract infection, but it is not typically one of the earlier symptoms of infection. Profuse lochia may be associated with endometritis, but it is not the first symptom associated with infection.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 540

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. The perinatal nurse assisting with establishing lactation is aware that acute mastitis can be minimized by:

a.

Washing the nipples and breasts with mild soap and water once a day.

b.

Using proper breastfeeding techniques.

c.

Wearing a nipple shield for the first few days of breastfeeding.

d.

Wearing a supportive bra 24 hours a day.

ANS: B

Almost all instances of acute mastitis can be avoided by proper breastfeeding technique to prevent cracked nipples. Washing the nipples and breasts daily is no longer indicated. In fact, this can cause tissue dryness and irritation, which can lead to tissue breakdown and infection. Wearing a nipple shield does not prevent mastitis. Wearing a supportive bra 24 hours a day may contribute to mastitis, especially if an underwire bra is worn, because it may put pressure on the upper, outer area of the breast, thus contributing to blocked ducts and mastitis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 551

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. Nurses need to know the basic definitions and incidence data about postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). For instance:

a.

PPH is easy to recognize early; after all, the woman is bleeding.

b.

Traditionally it takes more than 1000 mL of blood after vaginal birth and 2500 mL after cesarean birth to define the condition as PPH.

c.

If anything, nurses and doctors tend to overestimate the amount of blood loss.

d.

Traditionally PPH has been classified as early or late with respect to birth.

ANS: D

Early PPH is also known as primary, or acute, PPH; late PPH is known as secondary PPH. Unfortunately PPH can occur with little warning and often is recognized only after the mother has profound symptoms. Traditionally a 500-mL blood loss after a vaginal birth and a 1000-mL blood loss after a cesarean birth constitute PPH. Medical personnel tend to underestimate blood loss by as much as 50% in their subjective observations.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 530

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

10. A woman who has recently given birth complains of pain and tenderness in her leg. On physical examination the nurse notices warmth and redness over an enlarged, hardened area. The nurse should suspect __________ and should confirm the diagnosis by ___________.

a.

Disseminated intravascular coagulation; asking for laboratory tests

b.

von Willebrand disease; noting whether bleeding times have been extended

c.

Thrombophlebitis; using real-time and color Doppler ultrasound

d.

Coagulopathies; drawing blood for laboratory analysis

ANS: C

Pain and tenderness in the extremities, which show warmth, redness, and hardness, likely indicate thrombophlebitis. Doppler ultrasound is a common noninvasive way to confirm diagnosis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 539

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. What PPH conditions are considered medical emergencies that require immediate treatment?

a.

Inversion of the uterus and hypovolemic shock

b.

Hypotonic uterus and coagulopathies

c.

Subinvolution of the uterus and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

d.

Uterine atony and disseminated intravascular coagulation

ANS: A

Inversion of the uterus and hypovolemic shock are considered medical emergencies. Although hypotonic uterus and coagulopathies, subinvolution of the uterus and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and uterine atony and disseminated intravascular coagulation are serious conditions, they are not necessarily medical emergencies that require immediate treatment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 534

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

12. What infection is contracted mostly by first-time mothers who are breastfeeding?

a.

Endometritis

c.

Mastitis

b.

Wound infections

d.

Urinary tract infections

ANS: C

Mastitis is infection in a breast, usually confined to a milk duct. Most women who suffer this are primiparas who are breastfeeding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 540

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. Despite popular belief, there is a rare type of hemophilia that affects women of childbearing age. von Willebrand disease is the most common of the hereditary bleeding disorders and can affect males and females alike. It results from a factor VIII deficiency and platelet dysfunction. Although factor VIII levels increase naturally during pregnancy, there is an increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage from birth until 4 weeks after delivery as levels of von Willebrand factor (vWf) and factor VIII decrease. The treatment that should be considered first for the client with von Willebrand disease who experiences a postpartum hemorrhage is:

a.

Cryoprecipitate.

c.

Desmopressin.

b.

Factor VIII and vWf.

d.

Hemabate.

ANS: C

Desmopressin is the primary treatment of choice. This hormone can be administered orally, nasally, and intravenously. This medication promotes the release of factor VIII and vWf from storage. Cryoprecipitate may be used; however, because of the risk of possible donor viruses, other modalities are considered safer. Treatment with plasma products such as factor VIII and vWf is an acceptable option for this client. Because of the repeated exposure to donor blood products and possible viruses, this is not the initial treatment of choice. Although the administration of this prostaglandin is known to promote contraction of the uterus during postpartum hemorrhage, it is not effective for the client who presents with a bleeding disorder.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 538

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

14. The nurse should be aware that a pessary would be most effective in the treatment of what disorder?

a.

Cystocele

c.

Rectocele

b.

Uterine prolapse

d.

Stress urinary incontinence

ANS: B

A fitted pessary may be inserted into the vagina to support the uterus and hold it in the correct position. A pessary is not used for a cystocele, a rectocele, or stress urinary incontinence.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 544

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. A mother in late middle age who is certain she is not pregnant tells the nurse during an office visit that she has urinary problems and sensations of bearing down and of something in her vagina. The nurse would realize that the client most likely is suffering from:

a.

Pelvic relaxation.

c.

Uterine displacement.

b.

Cystoceles and/or rectoceles.

d.

Genital fistulas.

ANS: B

Cystoceles are protrusions of the bladder downward into the vagina; rectoceles are herniations of the anterior rectal wall through a relaxed or ruptured vaginal fascia. Both can manifest as a bearing down sensation with urinary dysfunction. They occur more often in older women who have borne children.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 543

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. The prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) increases as women age, with more than one third of women in the United States suffering from some form of this disorder. The symptoms of mild to moderate UI can be successfully decreased by a number of strategies. Which of these should the nurse instruct the client to use first?

a.

Pelvic floor support devices

b.

Bladder training and pelvic muscle exercises

c.

Surgery

d.

Medications

ANS: B

Pelvic muscle exercises, known as Kegel exercises, along with bladder training can significantly decrease or entirely relieve stress incontinence in many women. Pelvic floor support devices, also known as pessaries, come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Pessaries may not be effective for all women and require scrupulous cleaning to prevent infection. Anterior and posterior repairs and even a hysterectomy may be performed. If surgical repair is performed, the nurse must focus her care on preventing infection and helping the woman avoid putting stress on the surgical site. Pharmacologic therapy includes serotonin-norepinephrine uptake inhibitors or vaginal estrogen therapy. These are not the first action a nurse should recommend.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 545

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

17. When a woman is diagnosed with postpartum depression (PPD) with psychotic features, one of the main concerns is that she may:

a.

Have outbursts of anger.

c.

Harm her infant.

b.

Neglect her hygiene.

d.

Lose interest in her husband.

ANS: C

Thoughts of harm to oneself or the infant are among the most serious symptoms of PPD and require immediate assessment and intervention. Although outbursts of anger, hygiene neglect, and loss of interest in her husband are attributable to PPD, the major concern would be the potential to harm herself or her infant.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 547

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

18. According to Becks studies, what risk factor for postpartum depression is likely to have the greatest effect on the womans condition?

a.

Prenatal depression

c.

Low socioeconomic status

b.

Single-mother status

d.

Unplanned or unwanted pregnancy

ANS: A

Prenatal depression has been found by Beck to have the greatest likely effect. Single-mother status and low socioeconomic status are small-relation predictors, as is an unwanted pregnancy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 549

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

19. To provide adequate postpartum care, the nurse should be aware that postpartum depression (PPD) without psychotic features:

a.

Means that the woman is experiencing the baby blues. In addition she has a visit with a counselor or psychologist.

b.

Is more common among older, Caucasian women because they have higher expectations.

c.

Is distinguished by irritability, severe anxiety, and panic attacks.

d.

Will disappear on its own without outside help.

ANS: C

PPD is also characterized by spontaneous crying long after the usual duration of the baby blues. PPD, even without psychotic features, is more serious and persistent than postpartum baby blues. It is more common among younger mothers and African-American mothers. Most women need professional help to get through PPD, including pharmacologic intervention.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 546

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

20. To provide adequate postpartum care, the nurse should be aware that postpartum depression (PPD) with psychotic features:

a.

Is more likely to occur in women with more than two children.

b.

Is rarely delusional and then is usually about someone trying to harm her (the mother).

c.

Although serious, is not likely to need psychiatric hospitalization.

d.

May include bipolar disorder (formerly called manic depression).

ANS: D

Manic mood swings are possible. PPD is more likely to occur in first-time mothers. Delusions may be present in 50% of women with PPD, usually about something being wrong with the infant. PPD with psychosis is a psychiatric emergency that requires hospitalization.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 551

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

21. With shortened hospital stays, new mothers are often discharged before they begin to experience symptoms of the baby blues or postpartum depression. As part of the discharge teaching, the nurse can prepare the mother for this adjustment to her new role by instructing her regarding self-care activities to help prevent postpartum depression. The most accurate statement as related to these activities is to:

a.

Stay home and avoid outside activities to ensure adequate rest.

b.

Be certain that you are the only caregiver for your baby, to facilitate infant attachment.

c.

Keep feelings of sadness and adjustment to your new role to yourself.

d.

Realize that this is a common occurrence that affects many women.

ANS: D

Should the new mother experience symptoms of the baby blues, it is important that she be aware that this is nothing to be ashamed of. Up to 80% of women experience this type of mild depression after the birth of their infant. Although it is important for the mother to obtain enough rest, she should not distance herself from family and friends. Her spouse or partner can communicate the best visiting times so the new mother can obtain adequate rest. It is also important that she not isolate herself at home during this time of role adjustment. Even if breastfeeding, other family members can participate in the infants care. If depression occurs, the symptoms can often interfere with mothering functions, and this support will be essential. The new mother should share her feelings with someone else. It is also important that she not overcommit herself or think she has to be superwoman. A telephone call to the hospital warm line may provide reassurance with lactation issues and other infant care questions. Should symptoms continue, a referral to a professional therapist may be necessary.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 546

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

22. A newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is dying as a result of a massive infection. The parents speak to the neonatologist, who informs them of their sons prognosis. When the father sees his son, he says, He looks just fine to me. I cant understand what all this is about. The most appropriate response by the nurse would be:

a.

Didnt the doctor tell you about your sons problems?

b.

This must be a difficult time for you. Tell me how youre doing.

c.

To stand beside him quietly.

d.

Youll have to face up to the fact that he is going to die sooner or later.

ANS: B

The grief phase can be very difficult, especially for fathers. Parents should be encouraged to share their feelings as the initial steps in the grieving process. This father is in a phase of acute distress and is reaching out to the nurse as a source of direction in his grieving process. Shifting the focus is not in the best interest of the parent. Nursing actions may help the parents actualize the loss of their infant through sharing and verbalization of feelings of grief. Youll have to face up to the fact that he is going to die sooner or later is a dispassionate and inappropriate statement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 534

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

23. After giving birth to a stillborn infant, the woman turns to the nurse and says, I just finished painting the babys room. Do you think that caused my baby to die? The nurses best response to this woman is:

a.

Thats an old wives tale; lots of women are around paint during pregnancy, and this doesnt happen to them.

b.

Thats not likely. Paint is associated with elevated pediatric lead levels.

c.

Silence.

d.

I can understand your need to find an answer to what caused this. What else are you thinking about?

ANS: D

The statement, I can understand your need to find an answer to what caused this. What else are you thinking about? is very appropriate for the nurse. It demonstrates caring and compassion and allows the mother to vent her thoughts and feelings, which is therapeutic in the process of grieving. The nurse should resist the temptation to give advice or to use clichs in offering support to the bereaved. In addition, trying to give bereaved parents answers when no clear answers exist or trying to squelch their guilt feeling does not help the process of grief. Silence probably would increase the mothers feelings of guilt. One of the most important goals of the nurse is to validate the experience and feelings of the parents by encouraging them to tell their stories and listening with care. The nurse should encourage the mother to express her ideas.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 550

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

24. Which options for saying goodbye would the nurse want to discuss with a woman who is diagnosed with having a stillborn girl?

a.

The nurse shouldnt discuss any options at this time; there is plenty of time after the baby is born.

b.

Would you like a picture taken of your baby after birth?

c.

When your baby is born, would you like to see and hold her?

d.

What funeral home do you want notified after the baby is born?

ANS: C

Mothers and fathers may find it helpful to see the infant after delivery. The parents wishes should be respected. Interventions and support from the nursing and medical staff after a prenatal loss are extremely important in the healing of the parents. Although this may be an intervention, the initial intervention should be related directly to the parents wishes with regard to seeing or holding their dead infant. Although information about funeral home notification may be relevant, it is not the most appropriate option at this time. Burial arrangements can be discussed after the infant is born.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 553

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

25. A woman experienced a miscarriage at 10 weeks of gestation and had a dilation and curettage (D&C). She states that she is just fine and wants to go home as soon as possible. While you are assessing her responses to her loss, she tells you that she had purchased some baby things and had picked out a name. On the basis of your assessment of her responses, what nursing intervention would you use first?

a.

Ready her for discharge.

b.

Notify pastoral care to offer her a blessing.

c.

Ask her whether she would like to see what was obtained from her D&C.

d.

Ask her what name she had picked out for her baby.

ANS: D

One way of actualizing the loss is to allow parents to name the infant. The nurse should follow this clients cues and inquire about naming the infant. The client is looking for an opportunity to express her feelings of loss. The nurse should take this opportunity to offer support by allowing the woman to talk about her feelings. Furthermore, one way of actualizing the loss is to allow parents to name the infant. The nurse should follow this clients cues and inquire about naming the infant. Although it may be therapeutic to offer religious support, the nurse should take this opportunity to offer support by allowing the woman to talk about her feelings. Furthermore, one way of actualizing the loss is to allow parents to name the infant. Asking the woman whether she would like to see what was obtained from her D&C is completely inappropriate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 532

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

26. A woman is diagnosed with having a stillborn. At first, she appears stunned by the news, cries a little, and then asks you to call her mother. The phase of bereavement the woman is experiencing is called:

a.

Anticipatory grief.

c.

Intense grief.

b.

Acute distress.

d.

Reorganization.

ANS: B

The immediate reaction to news of a perinatal loss or infant death encompasses a period of acute distress. Disbelief and denial can occur. However, parents also feel very sad and depressed. Intense outbursts of emotion and crying are normal. However, lack of affect, euphoria, and calmness may occur and may reflect numbness, denial, or personal ways of coping with stress. Anticipatory grief applies to the grief related to a potential loss of an infant. The parent grieves in preparation of the infants possible death, although he or she clings to the hope that the child will survive. Intense grief occurs in the first few months after the death of the infant. This phase encompasses many different emotions, including loneliness, emptiness, yearning, guilt, anger, and fear. Reorganization occurs after a long and intense search for meaning. Parents are better able to function at work and home, experience a return of self-esteem and confidence, can cope with new challenges, and have placed the loss in perspective.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 546

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

27. During the initial acute distress phase of grieving, parents still must make unexpected and unwanted decisions about funeral arrangements and even naming the baby. The nurses role should be to:

a.

Take over as much as possible to relieve the pressure.

b.

Encourage grandparents to take over.

c.

Make sure the parents themselves approve the final decisions.

d.

Let them alone to work things out.

ANS: C

The nurse is always the clients advocate. Nurses can offer support and guidance and leave room for the same from grandparents. However, in the end nurses should strive to let the parents make the final decisions.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 553

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

28. The nurse caring for a family during a loss may notice that survival guilt sometimes is felt at the death of an infant by the childs:

a.

Siblings.

c.

Father.

b.

Mother.

d.

Grandparents.

ANS: D

Survival guilt sometimes is felt by grandparents because they believe that the death upsets the natural order of things. They are angry that they are alive and their grandchild is not.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 553

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

29. Complicated bereavement:

a.

Occurs when, in multiple births, one child dies, and the other or others live.

b.

Is a state in which the parents are ambivalent, as with an abortion.

c.

Is an extremely intense grief reaction that persists for a long time.

d.

Is felt by the family of adolescent mothers who lose their babies.

ANS: C

Parents showing signs of complicated grief should be referred for counseling. Multiple births in which not all the babies survive creates a complicated parenting situation, but this is not complicated bereavement. Abortion can generate complicated emotional responses, but they do not constitute complicated bereavement. Families of lost adolescent pregnancies may have to deal with complicated issues, but this is not complicated bereavement.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 553

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

30. Early postpartum hemorrhage is defined as a blood loss greater than:

a.

500 mL in the first 24 hours after vaginal delivery.

b.

750 mL in the first 24 hours after vaginal delivery.

c.

1000 mL in the first 48 hours after cesarean delivery.

d.

1500 mL in the first 48 hours after cesarean delivery.

ANS: A

The average amount of bleeding after a vaginal birth is 500 mL. Blood loss after a cesarean birth averages 1000 mL. Early postpartum hemorrhage occurs in the first 24 hours, not 48 hours. Late postpartum hemorrhage is 48 hours and later.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 530

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

31. A woman delivered a 9-lb, 10-oz baby 1 hour ago. When you arrive to perform her 15-minute assessment, she tells you that she feels all wet underneath. You discover that both pads are completely saturated and that she is lying in a 6-inch-diameter puddle of blood. What is your first action?

a.

Call for help.

c.

Take her blood pressure.

b.

Assess the fundus for firmness.

d.

Check the perineum for lacerations.

ANS: B

Firmness of the uterus is necessary to control bleeding from the placental site. The nurse should first assess for firmness and massage the fundus as indicated. Assessing blood pressure is an important assessment with a bleeding patient; however, the top priority is to control the bleeding. If bleeding continues in the presence of a firm fundus, lacerations may be the cause.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 530

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

32. A steady trickle of bright red blood from the vagina in the presence of a firm fundus suggests:

a.

Uterine atony.

c.

Perineal hematoma.

b.

Lacerations of the genital tract.

d.

Infection of the uterus.

ANS: B

Undetected lacerations will bleed slowly and continuously. Bleeding from lacerations is uncontrolled by uterine contraction. The fundus is not firm in the presence of uterine atony. A hematoma would develop internally. Swelling and discoloration would be noticeable; however, bright bleeding would not be. With an infection of the uterus there would be an odor to the lochia and systemic symptoms such as fever and malaise.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 531

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

33. Which instructions should be included in the discharge teaching plan to assist the patient in recognizing early signs of complications?

a.

Palpate the fundus daily to ensure that it is soft.

b.

Notify the physician of any increase in the amount of lochia or a return to bright red bleeding.

c.

Report any decrease in the amount of brownish red lochia.

d.

The passage of clots as large as an orange can be expected.

ANS: B

An increase in lochia or a return to bright red bleeding after the lochia has become pink indicates a complication. The fundus should stay firm. The lochia should decrease in amount over time. Large clots after discharge are a sign of complications and should be reported.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 532

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

34. If nonsurgical treatment for late postpartum hemorrhage is ineffective, which surgical procedure is appropriate to correct the cause of this condition?

a.

Hysterectomy

c.

Laparotomy

b.

Laparoscopy

d.

D&C

ANS: D

D&C allows examination of the uterine contents and removal of any retained placental fragments or blood clots. Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus and is not indicated for this condition. A laparoscopy is the insertion of an endoscope through the abdominal wall to examine the peritoneal cavity. It is not the appropriate treatment for this condition. A laparotomy is also not indicated for this condition. A laparotomy is a surgical incision into the peritoneal cavity to explore it.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 532

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

35. A mother with mastitis is concerned about breastfeeding while she has an active infection. The nurse should explain that:

a.

The infant is protected from infection by immunoglobulins in the breast milk.

b.

The infant is not susceptible to the organisms that cause mastitis.

c.

The organisms that cause mastitis are not passed to the milk.

d.

The organisms will be inactivated by gastric acid.

ANS: C

The organisms are localized in the breast tissue and are not excreted in the breast milk.

The mother is just producing the immunoglobulin from this infection, so it is not available for the infant. Because of an immature immune system, infants are susceptible to many infections; however, this infection is in the breast tissue and is not excreted in the breast milk. The organism will not enter the infants gastrointestinal system. This patient should be encouraged to empty her breasts fully every 2 hours, either by pumping or by breastfeeding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 540

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

36. Which condition is a transient, self-limiting mood disorder that affects new mothers after childbirth?

a.

Postpartum depression

c.

Postpartum bipolar disorder

b.

Postpartum psychosis

d.

Postpartum blues

ANS: D

Postpartum blues or baby blues is a transient self-limiting disease that is believed to be related to hormonal fluctuations after childbirth. Postpartum depression is not the normal worries (blues) that many new mothers experience. Many caregivers believe that postpartum depression is underdiagnosed and underreported. Postpartum psychosis is a rare condition that usually surfaces within 3 weeks of delivery. Hospitalization of the woman is usually necessary for treatment of this disorder. Bipolar disorder is one of the two categories of postpartum psychosis, characterized by both manic and depressive episodes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 546

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

37. Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders that affect women. While providing care to the maternity patient, the nurse should be aware that one of these disorders is likely to be triggered by the process of labor and birth. This disorder is:

a.

Phobias.

b.

Panic disorder.

c.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

d.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

ANS: C

In PTSD, women perceive childbirth as a traumatic event. They have nightmares and flashbacks about the event, anxiety, and avoidance of reminders of the traumatic event.

Phobias are irrational fears that may lead a person to avoid certain objects, events, or situations. Panic disorders include episodes of intense apprehension, fear, and terror. Symptoms may manifest themselves as palpitations, chest pain, choking, or smothering.

OCD symptoms include recurrent, persistent, and intrusive thoughts. The mother may repeatedly check and recheck her infant once he or she is born, even though she realizes that this is irrational. OCD is best treated with medications.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: 552

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

38. Medications used to manage postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) include (Select all that apply):

a.

Pitocin.

d.

Hemabate.

b.

Methergine.

e.

Magnesium sulfate.

c.

Terbutaline.

ANS: A, B, D

Pitocin, Methergine, and Hemabate are all used to manage PPH. Terbutaline and magnesium sulfate are tocolytics; relaxation of the uterus causes or worsens PPH.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 533

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

39. Possible alternative and complementary therapies for postpartum depression (PPD) for breastfeeding mothers include (Select all that apply):

a.

Acupressure.

d.

Wine consumption.

b.

Aromatherapy.

e.

Yoga.

c.

St. Johns wort.

ANS: A, B, E

Possible alternative/complementary therapies for postpartum depression include acupuncture, acupressure, aromatherapy, therapeutic touch, massage, relaxation techniques, reflexology, and yoga. St. Johns wort has not been proven to be safe for women who are breastfeeding. Women who are breastfeeding and/or have a history of PPD should not consume alcohol.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 547

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

MATCHING

PPH may be sudden and result in rapid blood loss. The nurse must be alert to the symptoms of hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock and be prepared to act quickly to minimize blood loss. Astute assessment of circulatory status can be done with noninvasive monitoring. Please match the type of noninvasive assessment that the RN would perform with the appropriate clinical manifestation or body system.

a.

Palpation

d.

Observation

b.

Auscultation

e.

Measurement

c.

Inspection

40. Pulse oximetry

41. Heart sounds

42. Arterial pulses

43. Skin color, temperature, turgor

44. Presence or absence of anxiety

40. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 536 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: To perform a complete noninvasive assessment of circulatory status in postpartum patients who are bleeding, the nurse must perform the following: palpation (rate, quality, equality) of arterial pulses; auscultation of heart sounds/murmurs and breath sounds; inspection of skin color, temperature, and turgor, level of consciousness, capillary refill, neck veins, and mucous membranes; observation of either the presence or absence of anxiety, apprehension, restlessness, and disorientation; and measurement of blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and urinary output.

41. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 536 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: To perform a complete noninvasive assessment of circulatory status in postpartum patients who are bleeding, the nurse must perform the following: palpation (rate, quality, equality) of arterial pulses; auscultation of heart sounds/murmurs and breath sounds; inspection of skin color, temperature, and turgor, level of consciousness, capillary refill, neck veins, and mucous membranes; observation of either the presence or absence of anxiety, apprehension, restlessness, and disorientation; and measurement of blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and urinary output.

42. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 536 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: To perform a complete noninvasive assessment of circulatory status in postpartum patients who are bleeding, the nurse must perform the following: palpation (rate, quality, equality) of arterial pulses; auscultation of heart sounds/murmurs and breath sounds; inspection of skin color, temperature, and turgor, level of consciousness, capillary refill, neck veins, and mucous membranes; observation of either the presence or absence of anxiety, apprehension, restlessness, and disorientation; and measurement of blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and urinary output.

43. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 536 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: To perform a complete noninvasive assessment of circulatory status in postpartum patients who are bleeding, the nurse must perform the following: palpation (rate, quality, equality) of arterial pulses; auscultation of heart sounds/murmurs and breath sounds; inspection of skin color, temperature, and turgor, level of consciousness, capillary refill, neck veins, and mucous membranes; observation of either the presence or absence of anxiety, apprehension, restlessness, and disorientation; and measurement of blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and urinary output.

44. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 536 OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: To perform a complete noninvasive assessment of circulatory status in postpartum patients who are bleeding, the nurse must perform the following: palpation (rate, quality, equality) of arterial pulses; auscultation of heart sounds/murmurs and breath sounds; inspection of skin color, temperature, and turgor, level of consciousness, capillary refill, neck veins, and mucous membranes; observation of either the presence or absence of anxiety, apprehension, restlessness, and disorientation; and measurement of blood pressure, pulse oximetry, and urinary output.

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