Chapter 22: Ethics and Values Nursing School Test Banks

Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 7th Edition

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The client states that she needs to exercise regularly, watch her weight, and reduce her fat intake. This demonstrates that the client:

1.

Values health promotion activities

2.

Believes she will not become sick

3.

Believes she will have a heart attack

4.

Has unrealistic expectations for herself

ANS: 1

A value is a personal belief about the worth of a given idea, attitude, custom, or object that sets standards that influence behavior. The client is expressing her value of health promotion activities. A belief is a conviction of the truth or reality of a thing. The client does not state she believes these health promotion activities will keep her from becoming sick. A belief is a conviction of the truth of a thing. The clients statement does not indicate she believes she will have a heart attack. These are not unrealistic expectations.

DIF: A REF: 315 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

2. A client has actively picketed for gun control. During a robbery of his business, he was shot in the leg. As the nurse assists him with morning care, which statement would the nurse expect him to make that coincides with his values?

1.

Firearms may have a place in our society.

2.

Individuals should arm themselves for protection.

3.

Prosecution should be the maximum for that felon.

4.

Protection is a necessary evil for the good guy of the world.

ANS: 3

Individual experience influences what we come to value. The client who experienced a gunshot during a robbery of his business may value gun control and verbalize a desire to have his attacker prosecuted for the violent crime. The client who has picketed for gun control and who was gunshot is unlikely to value firearms in our society. The individual who has actively picketed for gun control is unlikely to desire the use of guns. The individual would be more likely to believe that if there were gun control, there would be no need for guns. The individual who has actively picketed for gun control is unlikely to desire the use of guns. The individual would be more likely to believe that if there were gun control, there would be no need for guns.

DIF: A REF: 316 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

3. A secondary school teacher with advanced multiple sclerosis insists on teaching from a wheelchair and being treated the same as other colleagues. The teacher is demonstrating which of the following?

1.

Prizing her choice

2.

Choosing from alternatives

3.

Considering all consequences

4.

Acting with a pattern of consistency

ANS: 1

The teacher is demonstrating prizing her choice. She cherishes her choice of being treated like everyone else despite her medical condition and publicly affirms the choice by teaching from a wheelchair and insisting she be treated the same as her colleagues. At this point, the teacher is not choosing from alternatives. She could have chosen to quit teaching, but she did not. She has already made her choice. The teacher is not demonstrating considering all consequences. She has already made her choice. At this point, the teacher is not demonstrating acting with a pattern of consistency. She is not repeating a behavior.

DIF: A REF: 316 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

4. The nurse recognizes that values clarification interventions are beneficial for the client when:

1.

The client and nurse have different beliefs

2.

The client is experiencing a values conflict

3.

The nurse is unsure of a clients personal values

4.

The client has chosen to reject the normal values

ANS: 2

Values clarification can help clients gain an awareness of personal priorities, identify ambiguities in values, and resolve major conflicts between values and behavior. Values clarification for nurses can help nurses strengthen their ability to advocate for a client because nurses are better able to identify personal values and accurately identify the values of the client. Values clarification is not necessarily beneficial for the client when the client and nurse have different beliefs. Values clarification for the client will not necessarily help the nurse who is unsure of the clients values. Values clarification interventions for the client will help the client, not the nurse, gain awareness. The values that an individual holds reflect cultural and social influences, relationships, and personal needs. Values vary among people and develop and change over time. Therefore it may be inappropriate to state a client has rejected normal values when value systems vary among people. What is considered normal to one person may not be to another.

DIF: A REF: 316 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

5. The nurse is working with the client and trying to clarify the clients values regarding his care. Which of the following statements reflects an example of the type of response a nurse should use in a values clarification situation?

1.

Your questions were pretty blunt.

2.

Tell me what youre thinking right now.

3.

Ive felt that way before. Id be upset, too.

4.

You seem concerned about your tests. Let me explain them.

ANS: 2

Tell me what youre thinking right now is correct. Values clarification is a process of self-discovery in which the nurse should assist the client. The goal of values clarification with a client is effective nurse-client communication. As the client becomes more willing to express problems and feelings, the nurse can better establish an individualized plan of care. The character of a nurses response to a client can motivate the client to examine personal thoughts and actions. When the nurse makes a clarifying response, it should be brief and nonjudgmental. Your questions were pretty blunt is incorrect. Values clarification is a process of self-discovery in which the nurse should assist the client. The character of a nurses response to a client can motivate the client to examine personal thoughts and actions. When the nurse makes a clarifying response, it should be brief and nonjudgmental. The client is being judgmental in this response. Ive felt that way before. Id be upset, too is incorrect as well. The nurse should not influence the client with his or her own values, even if they are similar. You seem concerned about your tests. Let me explain them is also incorrect. This statement is therapeutic in that it is reflective of a clients feeling, and offers information. However, it does not encourage the client to examine their values.

DIF: A REF: 316 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

6. A nurses use of ethical responsibility can best be seen in which of the following nursing actions?

1.

Delivery of competent care

2.

Formation of interpersonal relationships

3.

Correct application of the nursing process

4.

Evaluation of new computerized technologies

ANS: 1

The term responsibility refers to the characteristics of reliability and dependability. In professional nursing, responsibility includes a duty to perform actions well and thoughtfully. When the nurse provides competent care, the nurse is demonstrating ethical responsibility. Formation of interpersonal relationships is not an ethical responsibility. Application of the nursing process is not an ethical responsibility. Evaluation of new computerized technologies is not an ethical responsibility.

DIF: A REF: 314-315 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

7. A nursing student that immediately informs her clinical instructor after she realizes that she has administered the wrong dose of medication to a patient is best described professionally as:

1.

Confident

2.

Trustworthy

3.

Compliant

4.

Accountable

ANS: 4

Accountability refers to the ability to answer for ones own actions. The goal is the prevention of injury to the client. The student nurse who informs her instructor of an error is being accountable for her actions and has a goal to prevent injury to the client. The student nurse would not be described professionally as confident (i.e., sure of oneself). The student is not best described as trustworthy. To be trustworthy, one is worthy of trust or confidence and reliable. In this case, the student was not reliable to administer medication correctly. This student nurse is not best described professionally as compliant. The student is not acting in accordance with wishes, commands, or requirements.

DIF: A REF: 315 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

8. A client who is recently diagnosed with cancer is encouraged to consider sharing the information with her family so they can support her through the decisions she will need to make regarding her care. The nurse is using the principle of:

1.

Confidentiality

2.

Fidelity

3.

Veracity

4.

Justice

ANS: 3

Veracity in general means accuracy or conformity to truth. The nurse is encouraging the client to be truthful with the clients family. Confidentiality means to not impart private matters. Fidelity refers to the agreement to keep promises. Justice refers to fairness.

DIF: A OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

9. The correct sequence for attaining the resolution of an ethical problem is:

1.

Examine values, evaluate, and identify the problem

2.

Evaluate the outcomes, gather data, and consider actions

3.

Gather facts, verbalize the problem, and consider actions

4.

Recognize the dilemma, evaluate, and gather information

ANS: 3

The correct sequence for resolving ethical problems is recognizing the dilemma, gathering facts, examining ones own values, verbalizing the problem, considering actions, negotiating the outcome, and evaluating the action.

DIF: A REF: 319 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

10. A nurse is ambivalent as to the need to vigorously suction the secretions of a terminal client in a comatose state. Which of the following is an appropriate statement by the nurse in regard to processing an ethical dilemma?

1.

I just feel like I should not suction this client.

2.

I need to know the legalities of the living will of this client.

3.

I cannot figure out whats right in this situation. I need to collect more data.

4.

My spiritual beliefs mandate that I continue to provide all the interventions in my scope of practice.

ANS: 3

The first step in processing an ethical dilemma is determining whether the problem is an ethical one. The nurse who cannot figure out what is right, is stating a characteristic of an ethical dilemma, which is that the problem is perplexing. The next step is to gather as much information as possible that is relevant to the case. I just feel like I should not suction this client is the nurse is stating the problem according to her feelings. I need to know the legalities of the living will of this client is the nurse who wants to know the legalities of the living will of a client is collecting some, but not all, data pertaining to the problem. My spiritual beliefs mandate that I continue to provide all the interventions in my scope of practice is the nurse stating her own beliefs.

DIF: A REF: 316-317 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

11. Which of the following statements best illustrates the deontological ethical theory?

1.

I believe this disease was allowed by a supreme being.

2.

He has become a stronger individual through experiencing the loss of his father.

3.

Under no circumstances would it ever be right for a person to stop CPR efforts.

4.

The chemotherapy did not cure this person, but it provided a better life for him.

ANS: 3

Under no circumstances would it ever be right for a person to stop CPR efforts is correct. Deontology defines actions as right or wrong based on their right-making characteristics, such as fidelity to promises, truthfulness, and justice. Deontology does not look at consequences of actions to determine rightness or wrongness. Fidelity to promises and beneficence may be principles upon which this statement is based on determining wrongness. I believe this disease was allowed by a supreme being does not reflect the deontological ethical theory. Because it reflects a relationship between disease and a supreme being, it follows the feminist ethical theory. He has become a stronger individual through experiencing the loss of his father does not best illustrate the deontological ethical theory because it is citing a consequence. It follows the utilitarian ethical theory. The chemotherapy did not cure this person, but it provided a better life for him does not best illustrate the deontological ethical theory because it is citing a consequence. It follows the utilitarian ethical theory.

DIF: A REF: 316-317 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

12. On admission to the hospital, a terminal cancer patient says he has a living will. This document functions to state the clients desire to:

1.

Receive all technical assistance to prolong his life

2.

Have his wife make the decisions regarding his care

3.

Be allowed to die without life-prolonging techniques

4.

Have a lethal injection administered to relieve his suffering

ANS: 3

A living will is an advance directive, prepared when the individual is competent and able to make decisions, regarding that persons specific instructions about end-of-life care. Living wills allow people to specify whether they would want to be intubated, treated with pressor drugs, shocked with electricity, and fed or hydrated intravenously. A living will specifies what interventions the client does not want, so that his or her life will not be prolonged. If his wife has power of attorney she would be able to make decisions regarding the clients care. Assisted suicide, such as a lethal injection, is not a function of a living will. A living will defines a clients wishes for withholding treatment that would prolong his or her life.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

13. At an accident scene a nurse stopped and began to provide emergency care for the victims. Her actions are best labeled ethically as:

1.

Triage

2.

Beneficence

3.

Nonmaleficence

4.

Respect for persons

ANS: 2

Beneficence refers to taking positive actions to help others, as in providing emergency care at an accident scene. Triage is the screening and classification of casualties to make optimal use of treatment resources and to maximize the survival and welfare of clients. Nonmaleficence is the avoidance of harm or hurt. Respect for persons has to do with treating people equally despite their social standing, for example.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

14. The nurse is aware that an ethics committee in a health care facility serves to:

1.

Interview all persons involved in a case

2.

Illustrate circumstances that demonstrate malpractice

3.

Serve as a resource for specific situations that may occur

4.

Examine similar previous instances for comparison of outcome decisions

ANS: 3

Ethics committees serve as a resource to support the processing of ethical dilemmas. Ethics committees serve several purposes: education, policy recommendation, and case consultation or review. Although an ethics committee may gather further information, ethics committees do not interview all persons involved in a case. Rather, they offer consultation or case review. Illustrating circumstances that demonstrate malpractice is not a purpose of an ethics committee. Examining similar previous instances for comparison of outcome decisions may be part of data gathering to help process an ethical dilemma or for policy recommendation, but it is not the purpose of an ethics committee.

DIF: A REF: 321 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

15. In the emergency department a client feels that she has been waiting longer than the other individuals due to the fact that she has no insurance. The ethical principle that is involved in this exact situation is:

1.

Justice

2.

Autonomy

3.

Beneficence

4.

Nonmaleficence

ANS: 1

Justice refers to treating people fairly. Allocation of resources and access to health care involves the ethical principle of justice. The client without medical insurance should not have to wait longer to receive health care than those with insurance. Autonomy refers to a persons independence. Autonomy represents an agreement to respect anothers right to determine a course of action. Beneficence refers to taking positive actions to help others. Nonmaleficence refers to the avoidance of harm or hurt.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

16. Regarding the nurses use of the specific ethical principle of autonomy in a client situation, an example would be:

1.

Learning to do a procedure safely and effectively

2.

Returning to speak to a client at an agreed upon time

3.

Preparing the clients room for comfort and privacy

4.

Supporting a clients right to refuse a specific type of therapy

ANS: 4

Following the ethical principle of autonomy, the nurse allows a client to make his or her own decisions regarding care and then supports that decision. Learning how to perform a procedure safely and effectively is a nurses use of ethical responsibility. Returning to speak to a client at an agreed upon time demonstrates the ethical principle of fidelity. Preparing the clients room for comfort and privacy is a nurses use of ethical responsibility.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

17. Which of the following statements reflects application of the specific ethical principle of confidentiality?

1.

Im concerned that funding may affect the outpatient program.

2.

Im going to make sure that the client understands the instructions.

3.

I cannot share that information with you about the clients condition.

4.

I need to get more information about the clients personal health history.

ANS: 3

I cannot share that information with you about the clients condition reflects the application of the ethical principle of confidentiality. Information is not to be shared with others without specific client consent. Im concerned that funding may affect the outpatient program reflects a concern regarding allocation of resources. It is not a confidentiality issue. The nurse who makes sure a client has gained understanding is being ethically responsible. I need to get more information about the clients personal health history reflects data gathering. Information gathered is to be used for the purpose of providing competent health care. It should not be shared with others without specific consent of the client.

DIF: A REF: 315 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

18. The client has been diagnosed with malignant bone cancer and the treatment involves chemotherapy on an outpatient basis. While treating the cancer the client unfortunately becomes very ill, experiences significant side effects from the therapy, and has a severe reduction in the quality of life. The specific ethical principle that is in question in this situation is:

1.

Veracity

2.

Fidelity

3.

Justice

4.

Nonmaleficence

ANS: 4

Nonmaleficence is the avoidance of harm or hurt. Whether the discomforts of treatment are benefiting the client or are worse than the disease itself have to be considered. The health care professional tries to balance the risks and benefits of a plan of care while striving to do the least harm possible. Veracity refers to truthfulness. This situation is not questioning truthfulness. Fidelity refers to the agreement to keep promises. This situation does not question fidelity. Justice refers to fairness. This situation is not a matter of justice.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

19. Which of the following statements best reflects the nurses ethical concern for nonmaleficence regarding the clients treatment plan?

1.

The radiation therapy has not substantially decreased the clients tumor related pain.

2.

The client expressed the idea that this treatment was definitively going to cure her cancer:

3.

The clients family requested that she not be informed of the seriousness of her cardiac condition.

4.

The procedure is quite invasive, and there is little chance that it will improve the clients quality of life.

ANS: 4

Nonmaleficence is the avoidance of harm or hurt. Whether the discomforts of treatment are benefiting the client or are worse than the disease itself have to be considered. The health care professional tries to balance the risks and benefits of a plan of care while striving to do the least harm possible. The remaining options are related to veracity (truthfulness), fidelity (keeping a promise), and possibly fairness.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

20. Which of the following statements related to confidentiality made by a nurse requires immediate follow-up by the nurse manager?

1.

I believe the client is eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid.

2.

The client with pneumonia has tested positive for TB (tuberculosis).

3.

Did you know that the client in Room 45 has a daughter who has type 1 diabetes mellitus?

4.

I arranged for the clients information to be faxed to the assistive living facility she will be transferred to.

ANS: 3

This information is private and the nurse is violating the clients right to confidentiality because the information has no bearing on the care needs of the client. The remaining options are not reflective of an ethical breech because the exchange of that information has a direct bearing on the clients care.

DIF: C REF: 315 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

21. Which of the following nursing actions best reflects a nurses commitment to the ethical principle of fostering autonomy regarding an older client living in an extended care facility?

1.

Providing options regarding the furniture arrangement of the clients room

2.

Supporting a clients decision to adopt a DNR (do not resuscitate) status

3.

Allowing sufficient time for the client to independently accomplish morning hygiene

4.

Consulting the client regarding personal preferences regarding treatment options

ANS: 2

Following the ethical principle of autonomy, the nurse facilitates a clients decision-making process in order to make their own decisions regarding all aspects of life, including their care, and then supports those decisions. The most important and possibly controversial decision is that of DNR status and thus shows the greatest commitment on the nurses part.

DIF: C REF: 314 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

22. Which of the following statements made by a terminally ill client reflects the best understanding of the purpose of a living will?

1.

It will make sure my wishes are respected.

2.

My family wont be burdened with making those hard decisions.

3.

I dont want strangers making those kinds of decisions for me.

4.

I can make my wishes known while I still have the ability to express them.

ANS: 4

A living will is an advance directive, prepared when the individual is competent and able to make and communicate personal decisions, regarding specific instructions about end-of-life care. The remaining options represent motivation for implementing a living will.

DIF: C REF: Chapter 23, 328 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

23. The nurse is showing respect for a clients right to autonomy regarding an invasive procedure by:

1.

Obtaining consent for the procedure

2.

Performing the procedure appropriately

3.

Providing client education regarding the procedure

4.

Being frank when discussing the pros and cons of the procedure

ANS: 1

The signed consent ensures that the nurse obtained the clients permission before proceeding with the procedure. The remaining options are examples of nonmaleficence, client right to be informed, and veracity.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

24. The nurse holds a clients hand during a painful procedure. This action shows a positive act towards the client that is referred to as:

1.

Veracity

2.

Fidelity

3.

Beneficence

4.

Nonmaleficence

ANS: 3

Beneficence refers to taking positive actions to help others. The practice of beneficence encourages the urge to do good for others. The agreement to act with beneficence also requires that the best interests of the client remain more important than self-interest. The remaining options reflect truthfulness, keeping true to a promise, and doing no harm.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

25. When a nurse considers the possible positive effect a treatment will have against the pain it may cause the client, the nurse is displaying:

1.

Justice

2.

Fidelity

3.

Beneficence

4.

Nonmaleficence

ANS: 4

Nonmaleficence is the avoidance of harm or hurt. In health care, ethical practice involves not only the will to do good but also the equal commitment to do no harm. The remaining options refer to fairness, truthfulness, and kindness.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

26. When a client who is in need of a lung transplant is placed on the organ donor registry according to his current health needs, this is an example of ethical:

1.

Justice

2.

Fidelity

3.

Beneficence

4.

Nonmaleficence

ANS: 1

Health care providers agree to strive for fairness in health care. Criteria set by a national multidisciplinary committee make every effort to ensure justice by ranking client organ recipients according to need. The remaining options refer to keeping a promise, kindness, and doing no harm.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

27. Abandoning a client would be an example of a nurses failure to professionally display:

1.

Justice

2.

Fidelity

3.

Beneficence

4.

Nonmaleficence

ANS: 2

Fidelity refers to the agreement to keep promises. A commitment to fidelity supports the reluctance to abandon clients. The remaining options refer to fairness, kindness, and doing no harm.

DIF: A REF: 314 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

28. The nursing professional code of ethics is best defined as:

1.

The criteria for judging nursing professionalism

2.

A benchmark for professional nursing deeds and actions

3.

The nursing professions expectations of its members behavior

4.

A document that holds nurses responsible for professional behavior

ANS: 3

It is a collective statement about the groups expectations and standards of behavior. The remaining options are not accurate or complete descriptions of the nursing professional code of ethics.

DIF: C REF: 314 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

29. The nurse has successfully completed a distance learning class on ECG (electrocardiogram) interpretation. This is an example of the nurse exhibiting the professional principle of:

1.

Advocacy

2.

Responsibility

3.

Accountability

4.

Confidentiality

ANS: 2

The word responsibility refers to a willingness to respect obligations and to follow through on promises. The nurse has a responsibility to remain competent to practice so that he or she is able to reliably follow through on responsibilities. The remaining options are reflective of other professional principles.i

DIF: A REF: 314-315 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

30. The nurse is explaining the rationale for seeking the familys permission to apply a physical restraint to a combative client. This is an example of the nurse exhibiting the professional principle of:

1.

Advocacy

2.

Responsibility

3.

Accountability

4.

Confidentiality

ANS: 3

Accountability refers to the ability to answer for ones own actions. Nurses should ensure that their professional actions are explainable to their clients and to their employer. The remaining options are reflective of other professional principles.

DIF: A REF: 315 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

31. The nurse realizes that sharing ones computer password is a violation of which of the professional nursing principles?

1.

Advocacy

2.

Responsibility

3.

Accountability

4.

Confidentiality

ANS: 4

When medical records are computerized, computer security measures include special access codes for all authorized users; sharing private passwords is a breech of client confidentiality because it allows unauthorized individuals to access client information. The remaining options are reflective of other professional principles.

DIF: A REF: 315 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

32. The belief that all life is sacred and must be preserved regardless of the quality of that life is an example of:

1.

Cultural bias

2.

Personal value

3.

Universal truth

4.

Individual preference

ANS: 2

A value is a personal belief about the worth of a given idea, attitude, custom, or object that sets standards that influence behavior. A cultural bias refers to interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to ones own culture while a universal truth is so overwhelmingly true that all mankind respects and acknowledges the validity of the statement. An individual preference is a personal choice.

DIF: A REF: 315 OBJ: Comprehension

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

33. The nurse realizes that an individual clients value system is most affected by:

1.

Life experiences

2.

Economic status

3.

Spiritual beliefs

4.

Formal education

ANS: 1

Development of values begins in childhood, shaped by experiences within the family unit, especially dramatic events during the formative years. The other options may influence the value system, but not to the same extent.

DIF: C REF: 316 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

34. An older client is experiencing the greatest problem with the concept of autonomy when he has difficulty:

1.

Expressing his need for pain medication

2.

Disagreeing with his health care provider

3.

Participating in discussions regarding his treatment

4.

Discussing his need for assistive living arrangements

ANS: 2

Older people are usually not as familiar with the concept of autonomy as people from younger generations. As a result, older adults are sometimes uncomfortable disagreeing with doctors or nurses. They view assertiveness as a violation of trust. The remaining options reflect autonomy problems but management of personal health issues is the most important issue.

DIF: C REF: 314 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which of the following elements are essential among a group working towards the successful resolution of a conflict of opinion? (Select all that apply.)

1.

Similar value systems

2.

Presumption of good will

3.

Similar cultural background

4.

Client-centered decision making

5.

Strict adherence to confidentiality

6.

Participation of all involved parties

ANS: 2, 4, 5, 6

The resolution of conflicting opinions works best when the following elements are part of the process: the presumption of good will on the part of all participants, strict adherence to confidentiality, client-centered decision making, and the welcome participation of families and primary caregivers. The remaining options represent group characteristics that usually minimize conflict in decision making.

DIF: C REF: 319 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

2. Although the American Nurses Associations (ANAs) code of ethics is reviewed and revised regularly to reflect changes in nursing practice, the basic principles that remain constant are: (Select all that apply)

1.

Advocacy

2.

Reliability

3.

Responsibility

4.

Accountability

5.

Confidentiality

6.

Professionalism

ANS: 1, 3, 4, 5

The American Nurses Association (ANA) established the first code of nursing ethics decades ago. The ANA reviews and revises the Code regularly to reflect changes in practice. Basic principles remain constant; however, responsibility, accountability, advocacy, and confidentiality. Although admirable, the remaining options are not considered core principles of the code.

DIF: C REF: 315 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

3. The nurse knows that when making choices concerning the adoption of evidence-based practice, the literature must be reviewed regarding its: (Select all that apply)

1.

Content

2.

Relevance

3.

Reliability

4.

Ethical soundness

5.

Economic feasibility

6.

Transcultural versatility

ANS: 1, 2, 3, 4

Nurses make choices regarding evidence-based practice proposals based on content, relevance, reliability, and the ethical implications to their practice. The remaining options are not typically considered when evaluating the global usefulness of research findings.

DIF: C REF: 317 OBJ: Analysis

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: NCLEX test plan designation: Safe, Effective Care Environment

Mosby items and derived items 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Leave a Reply