Chapter 23: The Child with Respiratory Dysfunction Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 23: The Child with Respiratory Dysfunction

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse is teaching nursing students about normal physiologic changes in the respiratory system of toddlers. Which best describes why toddlers have fewer respiratory tract infections as they grow older?
a. The amount of lymphoid tissue decreases.
b. Repeated exposure to organisms causes increased immunity.
c. Viral organisms are less prevalent in the population.
d. Secondary infections rarely occur after viral illnesses.
ANS: B
Children have increased immunity after exposure to a virus. The amount of lymphoid tissue increases as children grow older. Viral organisms are not less prevalent, but older children have the ability to resist invading organisms. Secondary infections after viral illnesses include Mycoplasma pneumoniae and group A b-hemolytic streptococcal infections.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 707
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

2. A nurse is charting that a hospitalized child has labored breathing. Which describes labored breathing?
a. Dyspnea
b. Tachypnea
c. Hypopnea
d. Orthopnea
ANS: A
Dyspnea is labored breathing. Tachypnea is rapid breathing. Hypopnea is breathing that is too shallow. Orthopnea is difficulty breathing except in upright position.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 709
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

3. Which explains why cool-mist vaporizers rather than steam vaporizers are recommended in home treatment of childhood respiratory tract infections?
a. They are safer.
b. They are less expensive.
c. Respiratory secretions are dried.
d. A more comfortable environment is produced.
ANS: A
Cool-mist vaporizers are safer than steam vaporizers, and little evidence exists to show any advantages to steam. The cost of cool-mist and steam vaporizers is comparable. Steam loosens secretions, not dries them. Both may promote a more comfortable environment, but cool-mist vaporizers present decreased risk for burns and growth of organisms.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 708
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

4. Decongestant nose drops are recommended for a 10-month-old infant with an upper respiratory tract infection. Instructions for nose drops should include which action?
a. Avoid using for more than 3 days.
b. Keep drops to use again for nasal congestion.
c. Administer drops until nasal congestion subsides.
d. Administer drops after feedings and at bedtime.
ANS: A
Vasoconstrictive nose drops such as phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine) should not be used for more than 3 days to avoid rebound congestion. Drops should be discarded after one illness because they may become contaminated with bacteria. Vasoconstrictive nose drops can have a rebound effect after 3 days of use. Drops administered before feedings are more helpful.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 709
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

5. Which is an appropriate nursing intervention when caring for an infant with an upper respiratory tract infection and elevated temperature?
a. Give tepid water baths to reduce fever.
b. Encourage food intake to maintain caloric needs.
c. Have child wear heavy clothing to prevent chilling.
d. Give small amounts of favorite fluids frequently to prevent dehydration.
ANS: D
Preventing dehydration by small frequent feedings is an important intervention in the febrile child. Tepid water baths may induce shivering, which raises temperature. Food should not be forced; it may result in the child vomiting. The febrile child should be dressed in light, loose clothing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 710
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

6. The parent of an infant with nasopharyngitis should be instructed to notify the health professional if the infant displays which clinical manifestation?
a. Fussiness
b. Coughing
c. A fever over 99 F
d. Signs of an earache
ANS: D
If an infant with nasopharyngitis shows signs of an earache, it may mean a secondary bacterial infection is present and the infant should be referred to a practitioner for evaluation. Irritability is common in an infant with a viral illness. Cough can be a sign of nasopharyngitis. Fever is common in viral illnesses.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 714
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

7. It is generally recommended that a child with acute streptococcal pharyngitis can return to school:
a. when sore throat is better.
b. if no complications develop.
c. after taking antibiotics for 24 hours.
d. after taking antibiotics for 3 days.
ANS: C
After children have taken antibiotics for 24 hours, they are no longer contagious to other children. Sore throat may persist longer than 24 hours after beginning antibiotic therapy, but the child is no longer considered contagious. Complications may take days to weeks to develop.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 715
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

8. A child is diagnosed with influenza, probably type A disease. Management includes which recommendation?
a. Clear liquid diet for hydration
b. Aspirin to control fever
c. Amantadine hydrochloride (Symmetrel) to reduce symptoms
d. Antibiotics to prevent bacterial infection
ANS: C
Amantadine hydrochloride may reduce symptoms related to influenza A if administered within 24 to 48 hours of onset. It is ineffective against type B or C. A clear liquid diet is not necessary for influenza, but maintaining hydration is important. Aspirin is not recommended in children because of increased risk of Reye syndrome. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen is a better choice. Preventive antibiotics are not indicated for influenza unless there is evidence of a secondary bacterial infection.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 717
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

9. Chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) is differentiated from acute otitis media (AOM) because it is usually characterized by:
a. a fever as high as 40 C (104 F).
b. severe pain in the ear.
c. nausea and vomiting.
d. a feeling of fullness in the ear.
ANS: D
OME is characterized by feeling of fullness in the ear or other nonspecific complaints. Fever is a sign of AOM. OME does not cause severe pain. This may be a sign of AOM. Nausea and vomiting are associated with otitis media.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 718
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

10. Parents have understood teaching about prevention of childhood otitis media if they make which statement?
a. We will only prop the bottle during the daytime feedings.
b. Breastfeeding will be discontinued after 4 months of age.
c. We will place the child flat right after feedings.
d. We will be sure to keep immunizations up to date.
ANS: D
Parents have understood the teaching about preventing childhood otitis media if they respond they will keep childhood immunizations up to date. The child should be maintained upright during feedings and after. Otitis media can be prevented by exclusively breastfeeding until at least 6 months of age. Propping bottles is discouraged to avoid pooling of milk while the child is in the supine position.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 719
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. An 18-month-old child is seen in the clinic with AOM. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) is prescribed. Which statement made by the parent indicates a correct understanding of the instructions?
a. I should administer all the prescribed medication.
b. I should continue medication until the symptoms subside.
c. I will immediately stop giving medication if I notice a change in hearing.
d. I will stop giving medication if fever is still present in 24 hours.
ANS: A
Antibiotics should be given for their full course to prevent recurrence of infection with resistant bacteria. Symptoms may subside before the full course is given. Hearing loss is a complication of AOM. Antibiotics should continue to be given. Medication may take 24 to 48 hours to make symptoms subside. It should be continued.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 718
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

12. An infants parents ask the nurse about preventing OM. Which should be recommended?
a. Avoid tobacco smoke.
b. Use nasal decongestant.
c. Avoid children with OM.
d. Bottle-feed or breastfeed in supine position.
ANS: A
Eliminating tobacco smoke from the childs environment is essential for preventing OM and other common childhood illnesses. Nasal decongestants are not useful in preventing OM. Children with uncomplicated OM are not contagious unless they show other upper respiratory tract infection (URI) symptoms. Children should be fed in an upright position to prevent OM.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 719
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

13. The nurse is assessing a child with acute epiglottitis. Examining the childs throat by using a tongue depressor might precipitate which symptom or condition?
a. Inspiratory stridor
b. Complete obstruction
c. Sore throat
d. Respiratory tract infection
ANS: B
If a child has acute epiglottitis, examination of the throat may cause complete obstruction and should be performed only when immediate intubation can take place. Stridor is aggravated when a child with epiglottitis is supine. Sore throat and pain on swallowing are early signs of epiglottitis. Epiglottitis is caused by H. influenzae in the respiratory tract.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 721
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

14. Which type of croup is always considered a medical emergency?
a. Laryngitis
b. Epiglottitis
c. Spasmodic croup
d. Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
ANS: B
Epiglottitis is always a medical emergency needing antibiotics and airway support for treatment. Laryngitis is a common viral illness in older children and adolescents, with hoarseness and URI symptoms. Spasmodic croup is treated with humidity. LTB may progress to a medical emergency in some children.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 721
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

15. The nurse encourages the mother of a toddler with acute laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB) to stay at the bedside as much as possible. The nurses rationale for this action is described primarily in which statement?
a. Mothers of hospitalized toddlers often experience guilt.
b. The mothers presence will reduce anxiety and ease childs respiratory efforts.
c. Separation from mother is a major developmental threat at this age.
d. The mother can provide constant observations of the childs respiratory efforts.
ANS: B
The familys presence will decrease the childs distress. It is true that mothers of hospitalized toddlers often experience guilt but this is not the best answer. The main reason to keep parents at the childs bedside is to ease anxiety and therefore respiratory effort. The child should have constant monitoring by cardiorespiratory monitor and noninvasive oxygen saturation monitoring, but the parent should not play this role in the hospital.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 723
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Psychosocial Adaptation

16. A school-age child had an upper respiratory tract infection for several days and then began having a persistent dry, hacking cough that was worse at night. The cough has become productive in the past 24 hours. This is most suggestive of which diagnosis?
a. Bronchitis
b. Bronchiolitis
c. Viral-induced asthma
d. Acute spasmodic laryngitis
ANS: A
Bronchitis is characterized by these symptoms and occurs in children older than 6 years. Bronchiolitis is rare in children older than 2 years. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways that may be exacerbated by a virus. Acute spasmodic laryngitis occurs in children between 3 months and 3 years.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 723
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

17. Which frequency is recommended for childhood skin testing for tuberculosis (TB) using the Mantoux test?
a. Every year for all children older than 2 years
b. Every year for all children older than 10 years
c. Every 2 years for all children starting at age 1 year
d. Periodically for children who reside in high-prevalence regions
ANS: D
Children who reside in high-prevalence regions for TB should be tested every 2 to 3 years. Annual testing is not necessary. Testing is not necessary unless exposure is likely or an underlying medical risk factor is present.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember REF: 729
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

18. Which consideration is the most important in managing tuberculosis (TB) in children?
a. Skin testing annually
b. Pharmacotherapy
c. Adequate nutrition
d. Adequate hydration
ANS: B
Drug therapy for TB includes isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide daily for 2 months and two or three times a week for the remaining 4 months. Pharmacotherapy is the most important intervention for TB.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 730
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

19. The mother of a toddler yells to the nurse, Help! He is choking to death on his food. The nurse determines that lifesaving measures are necessary based on which symptom?
a. Gagging
b. Coughing
c. Pulse over 100 beats/min
d. Inability to speak
ANS: D
The inability to speak is indicative of a foreign-body airway obstruction of the larynx. Abdominal thrusts are needed for treatment of the choking child. Gagging indicates irritation at the back of the throat, not obstruction. Coughing does not indicate a complete airway obstruction. Tachycardia may be present for many reasons.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 732
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

20. The nurse is caring for a child with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with sepsis. Nursing actions should include:
a. forcing fluids.
b. monitoring pulse oximetry.
c. instituting seizure precautions.
d. encouraging a high-protein diet.
ANS: B
Monitoring cardiopulmonary status is an important evaluation tool in the care of the child with ARDS. Maintenance of vascular volume and hydration is important and should be done parenterally. Seizures are not a side effect of ARDS. Adequate nutrition is necessary, but a high-protein diet is not helpful.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 734
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

21. The nurse is caring for a child with carbon monoxide poisoning associated with smoke inhalation. Which is essential in this childs care?
a. Monitor pulse oximetry.
b. Monitor arterial blood gases.
c. Administer oxygen if respiratory distress develops.
d. Administer oxygen if childs lips become bright, cherry red.
ANS: B
Arterial blood gases are the best way to monitor carbon monoxide poisoning. Pulse oximetry is contraindicated in the case of carbon monoxide poisoning because the PaO2 may be normal. The child should receive 100% oxygen as quickly as possible, not only if respiratory distress or other symptoms develop.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 735
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

22. A nurse is admitting an infant with asthma. The nurse understands that asthma in infants is usually triggered by:
a. medications.
b. a viral infection.
c. exposure to cold air.
d. allergy to dust or dust mites.
ANS: B
Viral illnesses cause inflammation that causes increased airway reactivity in asthma. Medications such as aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and antibiotics may aggravate asthma, but not frequently in infants. Exposure to cold air may exacerbate already existing asthma. Allergy is associated with asthma, but 20% to 40% of children with asthma have no evidence of allergic disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 737
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

23. A nurse is conducting an in-service on asthma. Which statement is the most descriptive of bronchial asthma?
a. There is heightened airway reactivity.
b. There is decreased resistance in the airway.
c. The single cause of asthma is an allergic hypersensitivity.
d. It is inherited.
ANS: A
In bronchial asthma, spasm of the smooth muscle of the bronchi and bronchioles causes constriction, producing impaired respiratory function. In bronchial asthma, there is increased resistance in the airway. There are multiple causes of asthma, including allergens, irritants, exercise, cold air, infections, medications, medical conditions, and endocrine factors. Atopy or development of an immunoglobulin E (IgE)mediated response is inherited but is not the only cause of asthma.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 737
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

24. A child is admitted to the hospital with asthma. Which assessment findings support this diagnosis?
a. Nonproductive cough, wheezing
b. Fever, general malaise
c. Productive cough, rales
d. Stridor, substernal retractions
ANS: A
Asthma presents with a nonproductive cough and wheezing. Pneumonia appears with an acute onset, fever, and general malaise. A productive cough and rales would be indicative of pneumonia. Stridor and substernal retractions are indicative of croup.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 738
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

25. It is now recommended that children with asthma who are taking long-term inhaled steroids should be assessed frequently because which disease or assessment findings may develop?
a. Cough
b. Osteoporosis
c. Slowed growth
d. Cushing syndrome
ANS: C
The growth of children on long-term inhaled steroids should be assessed frequently to assess for systemic effects of these drugs. Cough is prevented by inhaled steroids. No evidence exists that inhaled steroids cause osteoporosis. Cushing syndrome is caused by long-term systemic steroids.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 739-740
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Problem Identification
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

26. b-Adrenergic agonists and methylxanthines are often prescribed for a child with an asthma attack. Which describes their action?
a. Liquefy secretions.
b. Dilate the bronchioles.
c. Reduce inflammation of the lungs.
d. Reduce infection.
ANS: B
b-Adrenergic agonists and methylxanthines work to dilate the bronchioles in acute exacerbations. These medications do not liquefy secretions or reduce infection. Corticosteroids and mast cell stabilizers reduce inflammation in the lungs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 740
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

27. Parents of two school-age children with asthma ask the nurse, What sports can our children participate in? The nurse should recommend which sport?
a. Soccer
b. Running
c. Swimming
d. Basketball
ANS: C
Swimming is well tolerated in children with asthma because they are breathing air fully saturated with moisture and because of the type of breathing required in swimming. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is more common in sports that involve endurance, such as soccer. Prophylaxis with medications may be necessary.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 740
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

28. Which drug is usually given first in the emergency treatment of an acute, severe asthma episode in a young child?
a. Ephedrine
b. Theophylline
c. Aminophylline
d. Short-acting b2 agonists
ANS: D
Short-acting b2 agonists are the first treatment in an acute asthma exacerbation. Ephedrine is not helpful in acute asthma exacerbations. Theophylline is unnecessary for treating asthma exacerbations. Aminophylline is not helpful for acute asthma exacerbation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 741
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

29. Parents of a child with cystic fibrosis ask the nurse about genetic implications of the disorder. Which statement, made by the nurse, expresses accurately the genetic implications?
a. If it is present in a child, both parents are carriers of this defective gene.
b. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
c. It is a genetic defect found primarily in non-Caucasian population groups.
d. There is a 50% chance that siblings of an affected child also will be affected.
ANS: A
CF is an autosomal recessive gene inherited from both parents and is inherited as an autosomal recessive, not autosomal dominant, trait. CF is found primarily in Caucasian populations. An autosomal recessive inheritance pattern means that there is a 25% chance a sibling will be infected but a 50% chance a sibling will be a carrier.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 747
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

30. A nurse is teaching nursing students about clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF). Which is/are the earliest recognizable clinical manifestation(s) of CF?
a. Meconium ileus
b. History of poor intestinal absorption
c. Foul-smelling, frothy, greasy stools
d. Recurrent pneumonia and lung infections
ANS: A
The earliest clinical manifestation of CF is a meconium ileus, which is found in about 10% of children with CF. Clinical manifestations include abdominal distention, vomiting, failure to pass stools, and rapid development of dehydration. History of malabsorption is a later sign that manifests as failure to thrive. Foul-smelling stools are a later manifestation of CF. Recurrent respiratory tract infections are a later sign of CF.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 747
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

31. A child is being admitted to the hospital to be tested for cystic fibrosis (CF). Which tests should the nurse expect?
a. Sweat chloride test, stool for fat, chest radiograph films
b. Stool test for fat, gastric contents for hydrochloride, chest radiograph films
c. Sweat chloride test, bronchoscopy, duodenal fluid analysis
d. Sweat chloride test, stool for trypsin, biopsy of intestinal mucosa
ANS: A
A sweat test result of greater than 60 mEq/L is diagnostic of CF, a high level of fecal fat is a gastrointestinal (GI) manifestation of CF, and a chest radiograph showing patchy atelectasis and obstructive emphysema indicates CF. Gastric contents contain hydrochloride normally; it is not diagnostic. Bronchoscopy and duodenal fluid are not diagnostic. Stool test for trypsin and intestinal biopsy are not helpful in diagnosing CF.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 748-749
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

32. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is suspected in a toddler. Which test is essential in establishing this diagnosis?
a. Bronchoscopy
b. Serum calcium
c. Urine creatinine
d. Sweat chloride test
ANS: D
A sweat chloride test result greater than 60 mEq/L is diagnostic of CF. Bronchoscopy, although helpful for identifying bacterial infection in children with CF, is not diagnostic. Serum calcium is normal in children with CF. Urine creatinine is not diagnostic of CF.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 749
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

33. A child with cystic fibrosis (CF) receives aerosolized bronchodilator medication. When should this medication be administered?
a. Before chest physiotherapy (CPT)
b. After CPT
c. Before receiving 100% oxygen
d. After receiving 100% oxygen
ANS: A
Bronchodilators should be given before CPT to open bronchi and make expectoration easier. Aerosolized bronchodilator medications are not helpful when used after CPT. Oxygen administration is necessary only in acute episodes with caution because of chronic carbon dioxide retention.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 750
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

34. A child with cystic fibrosis (CF) is receiving recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (DNase). Which is an adverse effect of this medication?
a. Mucus thickens
b. Voice alters
c. Tachycardia
d. Jitteriness
ANS: B
One of the only adverse effects of DNase is voice alterations and laryngitis. DNase decreases viscosity of mucus, is given in an aerosolized form, and is safe for children younger than 12 years. b2 agonists can cause tachycardia and jitteriness.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 750
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

35. Pancreatic enzymes are administered to the child with cystic fibrosis (CF). Nursing considerations should include to:
a. not administer pancreatic enzymes if child is receiving antibiotics.
b. decrease dose of pancreatic enzymes if child is having frequent, bulky stools.
c. administer pancreatic enzymes between meals if at all possible.
d. pancreatic enzymes can be swallowed whole or sprinkled on a small amount of food taken at the beginning of a meal.
ANS: D
Enzymes may be administered in a small amount of cereal or fruit at the beginning of a meal or swallowed whole. Pancreatic enzymes are not a contraindication for antibiotics. The dosage of enzymes should be increased if child is having frequent, bulky stools. Enzymes should be given just before meals and snacks.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 751
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

36. In providing nourishment for a child with cystic fibrosis (CF), which factor should the nurse keep in mind?
a. Diet should be high in carbohydrates and protein.
b. Diet should be high in easily digested carbohydrates and fats.
c. Most fruits and vegetables are not well tolerated.
d. Fats and proteins must be greatly curtailed.
ANS: A
Children with CF require a well-balanced, high-protein, high-calorie diet because of impaired intestinal absorption. Enzyme supplementation helps digest foods; other modifications are not necessary. A well-balanced diet containing fruits and vegetables is important. Fats and proteins are a necessary part of a well-balanced diet.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 751
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

37. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is begun on a toddler. Which pulse is usually palpated because it is the most central and accessible?
a. Radial
b. Carotid
c. Femoral
d. Brachial
ANS: B
In a toddler, the carotid pulse is palpated. The radial pulse is not considered a central pulse. The femoral pulse is not the most central and accessible. Brachial pulse is felt in infants younger than 1 year.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 757
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

38. Which drug is considered the most useful in treating childhood cardiac arrest?
a. Bretylium tosylate (Bretylium)
b. Lidocaine hydrochloride (Lidocaine)
c. Epinephrine hydrochloride (Adrenaline)
d. Naloxone (Narcan)
ANS: C
Epinephrine works on alpha and beta receptors in the heart and is the most useful drug in childhood cardiac arrest. Bretylium is no longer used in pediatric cardiac arrest management. Lidocaine is used for ventricular arrhythmias only. Naloxone is useful only to reverse effects of opioids.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 758
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies

39. Effective lone-rescuer CPR on a 5-year-old child should include
a. two breaths to every 30 chest compressions.
b. two breaths to every 15 chest compressions.
c. reassessment of child after 50 cycles of compression and ventilation.
d. reassessment of child every 10 minutes that CPR continues.
ANS: A
Lone-rescuer CPR is two breaths to 30 compressions for all ages until signs of recovery occur. Reassessment of the child should take place after 20 cycles or 1 minute.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 758
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

40. The Heimlich maneuver is recommended for airway obstruction in children older than _____ year(s).
a. 1
b. 4
c. 8
d. 12
ANS: A
The Heimlich maneuver is recommended for airway obstruction in children older than 1 year. Younger than 1 year, back blows and chest thrusts are administered. The Heimlich maneuver can be used in children older than 1 year.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 759
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

41. A nurse is caring for a child in acute respiratory failure. Which blood gas analysis indicates the child is still in respiratory acidosis?
a. pH 7.50, CO2 48
b. pH 7.30, CO2 30
c. pH 7.32, CO2 50
d. pH 7.48, CO2 33
ANS: C
Respiratory failure is a process that involves pulmonary dysfunction generally resulting in impaired alveolar gas exchange, which can lead to hypoxemia or hypercapnia. Acidosis indicates the pH is less than 7.35 and the CO2 is greater than 45. If the pH is less than 7.35 but the CO2 is low, it is metabolic acidosis. Alkalosis is when the pH is greater than 7.45. If the pH is high and the CO2 is high, it is metabolic alkalosis. When the pH is high and the CO2 is low, it is respiratory alkalosis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 754
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

42. A nurse is teaching an adolescent how to use the peak expiratory flowmeter. The adolescent has understood the teaching if which statement is made?
a. I will record the average of the readings.
b. I should be sitting comfortably when I perform the readings.
c. I will record the readings at the same time every day.
d. I will repeat the routine two times.
ANS: C
Instructions for use of a peak flowmeter include standing up straight before performing the reading, recording the highest of the three readings (not the average), measuring the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) close to the same time each day, and repeating the entire routine three times, waiting 30 seconds between each routine.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 744
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

43. A school-age child has been admitted with an acute asthma episode. The child is receiving oxygen by nasal prongs at 2 liters. How often should the nurse plan to monitor the childs pulse oximetry status?
a. Continuous
b. Every 30 minutes
c. Every hour
d. Every 2 hours
ANS: A
The child on supplemental oxygen requires intermittent or continuous oxygenation monitoring, depending on severity of respiratory compromise and initial oxygenation status. The child in status asthmaticus should be placed on continuous cardiorespiratory (including blood pressure) and pulse oximetry monitoring.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 743
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

44. A nurse is interpreting the results of a tuberculin skin test (TST) on an adolescent who is HIV positive. Which induration size indicates a positive result for this child 4872 hours after the test?
a. 5 mm
b. 10 mm
c. 15 mm
d. 20 mm
ANS: A
Clinical evidence of a positive TST in children receiving immunosuppressive therapy, including immunosuppressive doses of steroids or who have immunosuppressive conditions, including HIV infection is an induration of 5 mm. Children younger than 4 years of age with: (a) other medical risk conditions, including Hodgkin disease, lymphoma, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, or malnutrition; (b) born or whose parents were born in high-prevalence (TB) regions of the world; (c) frequently exposed to adults who are HIV infected, homeless, users of illicit drugs, residents of nursing homes, incarcerated or institutionalized, or migrant farm workers; and (d) who travel to high-prevalence (TB) regions of the world are positive when the induration is 10 mm. Children 4 years of age or older without any risk factors are positive when the induration is 20 mm.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand REF: 729
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. An infant has developed staphylococcal pneumonia. Nursing care of the child with pneumonia includes which interventions? (Select all that apply.)
a. Cluster care to conserve energy
b. Round-the-clock administration of antitussive agents
c. Strict intake and output to avoid congestive heart failure
d. Administration of antibiotics
ANS: A, D
Antibiotics are indicated for a bacterial pneumonia. Often the child will have decreased pulmonary reserve, and the clustering of care is essential. Antitussive agents are used sparingly. It is desirable for the child to cough up some of the secretions. Fluids are essential to kept secretions as liquefied as possible.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 726
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

2. The nurse is caring for a 10-month-old infant with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. Which intervention should be included in the childs care? (Select all that apply.)
a. Place in a mist tent.
b. Administer antibiotics.
c. Administer cough syrup.
d. Encourage to drink 8 ounces of formula every 4 hours.
e. Cluster care to encourage adequate rest.
f. Place on noninvasive oxygen monitoring.
ANS: D, E, F
Hydration is important in children with RSV bronchiolitis to loosen secretions and prevent shock. Clustering of care promotes periods of rest. The use of noninvasive oxygen monitoring is recommended. Mist tents are no longer used. Antibiotics do not treat illnesses with viral causes. Cough syrup suppresses clearing of respiratory secretions and is not indicated for young children.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 723
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

3. The nurse is caring for a 5-year-old child who is scheduled for a tonsillectomy in 2 hours. Which action should the nurse include in the childs postoperative care plan? (Select all that apply.)
a. Notify the surgeon if the child swallows frequently.
b. Apply a heat collar to the child for pain relief.
c. Place the child on the abdomen until fully wake.
d. Allow the child to have diluted juice after the procedure.
e. Encourage the child to cough frequently.
ANS: A, C, D
Frequent swallowing is a sign of bleeding in children after a tonsillectomy. The child should be placed on the abdomen or the side to facilitate drainage. The child can drink diluted juice, cool water, or popsicles after the procedure. An ice collar should be used after surgery. Frequent coughing and nose blowing should be avoided.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 715
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

4. A nurse is caring for a school-age child with left unilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion. A chest tube has been inserted to promote continuous closed chest drainage. Which interventions should the nurse implement when caring for this child? (Select all that apply.)
a. Positioning child on the right side
b. Assessing the chest tube and drainage device for correct settings
c. Administering prescribed doses of analgesia
d. Clamping the chest tube when child ambulates
e. Monitoring for need of supplemental oxygen
ANS: B, C, E
Nursing care of the child with a chest tube requires close attention to respiratory status; the chest tube and drainage device used are monitored for proper function (i.e., drainage is not impeded, vacuum setting is correct, tubing is free of kinks, dressing covering chest tube insertion site is intact, water seal is maintained, and chest tube remains in place). Movement in bed and ambulation with a chest tube are encouraged according to the childs respiratory status, but children require frequent doses of analgesia. Supplemental oxygen may be required in the acute phase of the illness and may be administered by nasal cannula, face mask, flow-by, or face tent. The child should be positioned on the left side, not the right. Lying on the affected side if the pneumonia is unilateral (good lung up) splints the chest on that side and reduces the pleural rubbing that often causes discomfort. The chest tube should never be clamped; this can cause a pneumothorax. The chest tube should be maintained to the underwater seal at all times.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply REF: 728
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

SHORT ANSWER

1. A nurse is interpreting the results of a childs peak expiratory flow rate. Which percentage, either at this number or less than this number, is considered to be a red zone? (Record your answer in a whole number.)

ANS:
50
A peak expiratory flow rate of red (<50% of personal best) signals a medical alert. Severe airway narrowing may be occurring. A short-acting bronchodilator should be administered. Notify the practitioner if the peak expiratory flow rate does not return immediately and stay in yellow or green zones.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 738
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

ESSAY

1. The nurse enters a room and finds a 6-year-old child who is unconscious. After calling for help and before being able to use an automatic external defibrillator, which steps should the nurse take? Place in correct order. Provide answer using lowercase letters separated by commas (e.g.,  a, b, c, d, e, f).
a. Place on a hard surface.
b. Administer 30 chest compressions with two breaths.
c. Feel carotid pulse while maintaining head tilt with the other hand.
d. Use the head tiltchin lift maneuver and check for breathing.
e. Place heel of one hand on lower half of sternum with other hand on top.
f. Give two rescue breaths.

ANS:
a, d, f, c, e, b

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze REF: 756-757
TOP: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Area of Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

Leave a Reply