Chapter 26- Cardiac Function Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

A patient planning air travel for lengthy periods should be advised to do which of the following to prevent complications such as blood clots? Select all that apply.

A)

Sit as far back in the seat as possible to reduce venous pooling.

B)

Perform leg pump exercises frequently.

C)

Avoid crossing legs at the ankles.

D)

Rest calves against the back of the chair when possible to promote venous exchange.

E)

Ambulate as much as possible.

Ans:

B, C, E

Feedback:

Limitations in movement as in during air travel may increase the patients risk for the development of DVT. Efforts to reduce this include the performance of leg pumping, avoiding sitting with legs crossed, and ambulation. Sitting with the legs against the back of the seat may compress vessels and be a complication.

2.

A nurse has been assigned to work on a pediatric care unit. When performing shift assessments, the nurse recognizes which of the following about patients in this age group? Select all that apply.

A)

In the weeks after birth, the infants heart rate will normally be between 70 and 90 beats per minute.

B)

Blood pressure assessments are not routinely performed on children under the age of 5.

C)

As children grow and mature physiologically, their heart rates will decrease.

D)

Boys will typically have a higher blood pressure reading than girls of the same age.

E)

Toddlers may normally have heart rates below 100 beats per minute.

Ans:

C, D, E

Feedback:

The heart rate of infants may range from 110 to 130 beats per minute. Rates below 100 beats per minute in the infant should be reported. Blood pressure readings in children under the age of 3 are not routinely performed. After the age of 3, blood pressure readings are evaluated annually. Heart rates will decline with aging until the age of 19 years, at which time they normalize to adult readings.

3.

The nurse is caring for a patient admitted for observation after having experienced a transient ischemic attack. What statement by the patient indicates the need for further teaching concerning the condition?

A)

I will recover from the attack.

B)

Experiencing another attack is not uncommon.

C)

This is a wake-up call because I am at an increased risk for a stroke.

D)

Once I have completely recovered from this I will not have further problems.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Transient ischemic attacks are warnings of an increased risk for a stroke and should be taken seriously.

4.

The nurse is caring for a patient who is suspected of having a rupturing abdominal aortic aneurysm. What manifestations are consistent with early onset of the phenomena? Select all that apply.

A)

Elevated temperature

B)

Complaints of leg pain

C)

Abdominal pain

D)

Low back pain

E)

Pulsating, palpable abdominal mass

Ans:

C, D

Feedback:

Abdominal or low back pain may signal the beginning of rupture. Sudden severe back pain, shock, and pulsatile palpable abdominal mass are classic symptoms during rupture.

5.

The nurse is reviewing the medication listing of a patient recently admitted to the acute care facility. The patient reports taking Ephedrine. Which other medication, if noted, will need to be reported to the physician?

A)

Iron supplements

B)

Diuretics

C)

Anticoagulant medications

D)

Antihypertensive medications

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Ephedrine can interact with BP medications or antidepressants to dangerously elevate BP and heart rate.

6.

The nurse is reviewing the patients medical history and notes he takes herbal supplements to help in the management of his hypertension. Which of the following supplements does he most likely take?

A)

Garlic

B)

Ginseng

C)

Soy

D)

Rosemary

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Herbal remedies, such as garlic, may be used by some to lower cholesterol and BP.

7.

A 24-year-old female in good health has begun an exercise program. The patient correctly recognizes that to promote cardiac health, the following regimen is needed:

A)

Mild intensity aerobic exercise lasting 45 minutes at least three days per week

B)

Moderate intensity aerobic exercise lasting 30 minutes five times per week

C)

Moderate intensity aerobic exercise lasting 1 hour four times per week

D)

High-intensity aerobic exercise lasting 30 minutes at least five times per week

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The AHA recommends that individuals between the ages of 18 and 65 engage in aerobic activity of moderate intensity for a duration of 30 minutes five times a week.

8.

A patient who is planning a diet questions the nurse about the role of sugar in the development of heart disease. What response by the nurse is most appropriate?

A)

Salt and not sugar is a dietary culprit in the development of cardiovascular disease.

B)

Sugar is associated with the development of diabetes and not cardiovascular disease.

C)

Increased intake of sugar is associated with elevated cholesterol levels.

D)

The only way that sugar will cause heart disease is if you gain too much weight.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Sugar consumption exists in epidemic proportions in the United States. High amounts of sugar consumption increase the risk of coronary artery disease by increasing triglyceride levels. Increased sugar consumption has also been linked to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.

9.

The nurse is reviewing the history of a patient who has been diagnosed with hypertension. When planning care for the patient, which of the following risk factors are nonmodifiable? Select all that apply.

A)

Weight

B)

Age

C)

Family history

D)

Sedentary lifestyle

E)

History of type 1 diabetes

Ans:

B, C, E

Feedback:

Nonmodifiable risk factors are those elements of the patients history that cannot be changed. Age, family history, and a diagnosis of diabetes are permanent factors and cannot be modified. Weight and level of activity can be changed.

10.

Which of the following statements is an appropriate nursing diagnosis for the homebound cardiac patient who has become fatigued upon minimal exertion?

A)

Activity intolerance related to decreased cardiac output as evidenced by fatigue

B)

Decreased cardiac output related to advanced cardiac disease

C)

Fluid volume excess related to immobility and fatigue

D)

Immobility related to advanced cardiac disease and frequent fatigue.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Activity intolerance is a significant problem for patients with cardiovascular dysfunction, although it is not exclusively a cardiovascular problem.

11.

The nurse explains to the patient scheduled to undergo a cardiac catheterization that the test involves the use of

A)

A Doppler instrument to determine coronary blood flow

B)

A venous catheter to measure cardiac output

C)

High-frequency sound waves to detect coronary blood flow

D)

Radiopaque dye injected into an artery to visualize heart function

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Catheterization of the heart and large vessel is used to determine precise information concerning valve function and cardiac muscle strength.

12.

A patient asks the nurse what atherosclerosis is. The nurse states

A)

It is the buildup of fat on the walls of the arteries.

B)

Atherosclerosis is thickening of the pulmonary artery.

C)

A patient with atherosclerosis has no pulse in the feet.

D)

Atherosclerosis causes pain in the lower extremities.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Atherosclerosis is characterized by fatty deteriorations of the arterial smooth muscle walls, causing arterial occlusion.

13.

A patient who was in an automobile accident has a deep laceration in the left arm at the brachial artery. The blood pressure is 70/30, with pulse of 120 and thready. The patient is suffering from

A)

Septic shock

B)

Hypovolemic shock

C)

Cardiogenic shock

D)

Anaphylactic shock

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Dehydration or hemorrhage causes a decrease in circulating volume. Because tissue perfusion depends on a sufficient volume of circulating blood, any decrease in volume can lead to tissue hypoxia. This occurs in the condition commonly called hypovolemic shock. Septic shock results from infection. It is associated with elevations in heart rate and temperature. Cardiogenic shock results when the heart is unable to meet the demands of the body. Anaphylactic shock results when the body is introduced to a substance to which it is highly allergic. Symptoms include tachycardia and difficulty breathing.

14.

When a 60-year-old patient asks the nurse what a dysrhythmia is, the nurse explains that it is an irregular heart rhythm that can be caused by

A)

Increased white blood cells

B)

Diminished coronary blood flow

C)

Deep-vein thrombosis

D)

Cerebrovascular accident

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Dysrhythmias range from minor, clinically insignificant abnormalities to life-threatening conditions. Dysrhythmias may be caused by damage to the heart muscle or conduction system, diminished coronary blood flow, decreased blood oxygen levels, medications, alterations in serum electrolytes, stress, or overstretching of the heart muscle.

15.

Illicit use of which of the following substances is associated with sudden cardiacarrest ?

A)

Heroin

B)

Angel dust

C)

Marijuana

D)

Cocaine

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Cocaine use has been increasingly associated with sudden cardiac arrest, because it increases oxygen demand and reduces supply to the myocardium.

16.

A patient is on hormone therapy in her postmenopausal years. What changes in blood levels can occur?

A)

Increased HDL

B)

Diminished white blood cells

C)

Increased LDL

D)

Decreased sodium

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The use of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women reduces LDL cholesterol and raises HDL cholesterol.

17.

Which of the following education interventions should the patient implement to improve heart function?

A)

The patient should consume a diet high in sodium

B)

An exercise plan to reduce blood glucose and eliminate acetone

C)

Exercise initiatives to lower triglycerides and raise HDL

D)

Implementation of 20 minute rest periods after meals

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Exercise protects the cardiovascular system and promotes weight reduction by raising the good HDL cholesterol and reducing triglycerides. Sodium is traditionally restricted in patients with cardiovascular health concerns. Excessive sodium intake will result in fluid retention. Exercise acts to reduce blood glucose.

18.

Which of the following foods are low in sodium?

A)

Fresh fruit

B)

Lunch meat

C)

Hot dogs

D)

Canned soup

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Convenience foods and preserved foods often contain large amounts of sodium.

19.

A 40-year-old man has been told he has a high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). How will you explain this factor?

A)

High levels of LDL increase the risk of a heart attack

B)

High levels of LDL are good to fight the formation of plaque

C)

High levels of HDL will increase your risk of high blood pressure

D)

High levels of HDL will cause you to have a stroke

Ans:

A

Feedback:

High levels of LDL cholesterol lead to peripheral vascular disease and hypertension, which greatly increases the chance of myocardial infarction.

20.

Which of the following individuals is at risk for the development of blood clots?

A)

18-year-male who runs daily

B)

25-year-old female on birth control pills

C)

30 year-old male who takes aspirin daily

D)

38-year-old female who exercises daily

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Women who take birth control pills are at risk for the development of blood clots. Regular exercise will reduce the incidence of cardiovascular complications. Aspirin is an anticoagulant and reduces the risk of blood clots. Daily exercise in any age group is associated with the lowering of risk factors.

21.

When the nursery nurse auscultates a newborns heart rate at 138 beats per minute, the nurse should

A)

Document the normal finding

B)

Notify the pediatrician

C)

Assess for respiratory distress

D)

Assess for rhythm

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The newborns heart rate is normally 130 to 160 beats per minute.

22.

A woman is being seen in the nurse practitioners office for her yearly gynecologic examination. She states, I think I am beginning menopause. My periods have been very light and irregular, and I am always hot. The nurse would expect what finding in her vital signs?

A)

Pulse of 160

B)

Blood pressure elevation

C)

Increased respiratory rate

D)

Decreased pulse rate

Ans:

B

Feedback:

In women, BP may increase slightly after menopause, probably as a result of hormonal changes.

23.

Cardiac output is a function of the heart rate and

A)

Sinoatrial node

B)

Electrical impulses

C)

Autonomic nervous system

D)

Stroke volume

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Cardiac output is a function of the heart rate and stroke volume. Stroke volume refers to the amount of blood the heart ejects with each beat.

24.

The period of contraction of the heart muscle when blood is ejected from the atria into the ventricles, and from the ventricles into the arteries is called

A)

Diastole

B)

Conductivity

C)

Repolarization

D)

Systole

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Contraction of the atria and the ventricles is called systole. Diastole refers to the period of time between heart contractions. Conductivity refers to the ability of the heart to contract. Repolarization refers to the return of ionic concentrations to conditions prior to contraction.

25.

The valve that is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the

A)

Mitral

B)

Aortic

C)

Pulmonic

D)

Tricuspid

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The mitral valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. The aortic valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta. The pulmonic valve separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary system. The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.

26.

The valve that is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the

A)

Mitral

B)

Aortic

C)

Pulmonic

D)

Tricuspid

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The heart has four valves that allow blood to flow in one direction, maximizing efficiency and preventing the backflow of blood. Two valves separate the atria from the ventricles. The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle; the mitral valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle.

The other two valves separate the ventricles from the large blood vessels they fill. The pulmonic valve separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary system, and the aortic valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta.

27.

Calcium assists in the contraction of a muscle. In which area of the heart is the impulse to contract stimulated?

A)

Sinoatrial node

B)

Atrioventricular node

C)

Tricuspid valve

D)

Mitral valve

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Impulses that stimulate contraction normally originate in specialized cells (sinoatrial node) near the top of the right atrium.

28.

Which part of the heart produces the muscular contraction of the heart?

A)

Pericardium

B)

Sinoatrial node

C)

Myocardium

D)

Atrioventricular node

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The thick muscular middle layer is called the myocardium.

Page 1

Leave a Reply