Chapter 28- Nutrition Nursing School Test Banks

 

1.

The patient reports to the nurse that she feels as if her eyes are persistently dry. This symptom is consistent with a deficiency in which of the following dietary elements?

A)

Protein

B)

Vitamin D

C)

Calcium

D)

Vitamin A

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Dryness of the eyes (xerophthalmia) is associated with a deficiency of vitamin A.

2.

The nurse is providing an education program to teens. When discussing the role of fat in our bodies, which of the following functions can be attributed to fat? Select all that apply.

A)

Vitamin absorption

B)

Protection from injury

C)

Absorption of water soluble vitamins

D)

Energy

E)

Cellular transport

Ans:

A, B, D, E

Feedback:

Fat is a component of all body cells and ideally makes up approximately 20% of the body weight of healthy, nonobese people. Fat performs many important functions, including cellular transport, insulation, protection of vital organs in the form of padding, provision of energy, energy storage of adipose tissue, vitamin absorption, and transport of fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K).

3.

During an annual physical examination, the patient reports feeling a lack of muscle energy when walking and doing simple chores around the house. When reviewing the patients diet, deficiencies in which of the following would be associated with the symptoms reported? Select all that apply.

A)

Vitamin C

B)

Vitamin D

C)

Folic acid

D)

Niacin

E)

Thiamine

Ans:

D, E

Feedback:

Vitamins in the B complex such as niacin and thiamine are associated with confusion and motor weakness.

4.

The nurse is caring for a patient who has been experiencing prolonged wound healing from a surgical procedure. A deficiency in which of the following nutrients would be associated with this condition?

A)

Vitamin B1

B)

Calcium

C)

Folic acid

D)

Vitamin C

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Poor wound healing is associated with deficiencies in vitamin C and protein.

5.

The nurse is providing education about nutrition and feeding to the mother of a toddler. Which of the following statements by the childs mother indicates understanding of the teaching?

A)

It is important for my child to avoid finger feeding and use utensils.

B)

Providing small finger snacks such as grapes is a good idea.

C)

Fruit slices with the skins will be a healthy choice for my child.

D)

Boiled eggs and pieces of cheese are good snacks for my child.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Toddlers are often independent and insist on feeding themselves. Appropriate finger foods include meatballs, hard-boiled eggs, cooked carrots, fruit slices (without skins), cheese pieces, dry cereal, and crackers. Avoid whole grapes, hard candy, and other foods that could cause choking.

6.

The nurse should include which of the following in the plan of care for the patient receiving enteral feedings? Select all that apply.

A)

Position head of bed in semi-Fowlers during feeding.

B)

Check placement of tube before initiating feeding.

C)

Maintain head of bed elevated between 30 and 45 degrees at least 30 minutes after feeding.

D)

Allow at least 90 minutes for each feeding.

E)

Notify primary care physician for gastric residuals of 100 to 200 cc.

Ans:

B, C

Feedback:

Minimize the risk of aspiration by checking proper tube placement before initiating feedings and at frequent intervals and by keeping the patient in Fowlers position (head of bed elevated at least 30 to 45 degrees) at all times when feedings are infusing and for 30 minutes after completion of intermittent or continuous feeding.

7.

The nurse is assessing the gastric residual volume of a patient receiving enteral feedings. The nurse notes there is a residual of 250 cc. Which of the following actions by the nurse is most appropriate?

A)

Reduce the amount of the next feeding by 250 cc.

B)

Contact the primary care physician.

C)

Document the findings.

D)

Slow the next feeding to promote improved absorption.

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Assessment of gastric residual volume (GRV) is a nursing function. Feedings should generally not be stopped for GRVs of more than 400 to 500 mL unless the patient exhibits signs of intolerance. Patients at high risk for aspiration should be monitored based on their disease process, not solely on their GRVs.

8.

The nurse is reviewing a patients laboratory report. The report indicates the patients albumin level is 2.89g/dL. Which of the following inferences can the nurse make about the laboratory result?

A)

The patient has an infection.

B)

The patient has been taking steroids.

C)

The patient has likely been on a high protein diet.

D)

The patient may be overhydrated.

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Serum albumin values reflect protein intake or absorption. Values of less than 3.5 g/dL (35 g/L) may indicate nutritional deficits. Such protein changes take more than 2 weeks to appear in serum albumin values because the half-life of albumin is about 18 days. A low albumin level also can be related to overhydration and may not necessarily indicate malnutrition.

9.

The nurse is caring for a patient on a telemetry unit following a myocardial infarction. The patient has undergone numerous medication changes since the event. Which of the following foods should be avoided when a patient is taking Coumadin following a myocardial infarction?

A)

Spinach

B)

Milk

C)

Orange juice

D)

Wheat bread

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Spinach is an essential source of vitamin K. Since vitamin K is essential for clotting, it should be consumed sparingly with anticoagulant therapy.

10.

You are the nurse caring for a patient with an enlarged thyroid. What nutritional deficiency is linked to an enlarged thyroid?

A)

Potassium

B)

Sodium

C)

Magnesium

D)

Iodine

Ans:

D

Feedback:

A chronic deficiency of iodine can lead to endemic goiter. The major initial symptom is an enlarged thyroid gland.

11.

The nurse is providing education to a patient concerning calcium intake. During the discussion the nurse addresses a potential health concern related to inadequate calcium intake. Which of the following conditions is most impacted by inadequate calcium intake?

A)

Dental caries

B)

Anemia

C)

Osteoporosis

D)

Dry eyes

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Osteoporosis is a condition in which there is a reduction in bone density. Factors contributing to the development of osteoporosis may include chronically insufficient calcium intake, decreased estrogens, heredity factors, smoking, race, and decreased physical activity.

12.

To promote health of the fetus the nurse should instruct the woman in the first trimester of pregnancy to do which of the following?

A)

Eliminate high-fiber foods

B)

Eat foods high in folic acid

C)

Consume saturated fats

D)

Consume milk products in the last trimester

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Folic acid deficiency in pregnant women can lead to neural tube deficits in the fetus. Women during pregnancy may experience constipation. Increased fiber intake is recommended. Saturated fats are to be eaten only in moderation. Milk products are important during the entire pregnancy.

13.

A woman complains of cracking fissures in the corner of her mouth. Which of the following instructions should the nurse include in the information provided to the patient?

A)

Increase intake of eggs and milk

B)

Avoid citrus fruits for the next few weeks.

C)

Nuts and legume intake should be increased.

D)

Potatoes and other starch containing foods should be restricted.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

The patient has presented with symptoms consistent with cheilosis. This may be the result of a Vitamin B2 deficiency. Good sources of this vitamin include milk and eggs.

14.

Which vitamin is found only in animal foods?

A)

Vitamin C

B)

Vitamin B12

C)

Vitamin A

D)

Vitamin D

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Vitamin B12 functions in the formation of mature red blood cells and in synthesis of DNA and RNA. This vitamin is only found in animal foods (meats, fish, poultry, milk, and eggs).

15.

A patient who has bleeding tendencies has a deficiency in which vitamin?

A)

Vitamin A

B)

Vitamin B

C)

Vitamin C

D)

Vitamin K

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Vitamin K deficiencies are manifested in two ways: an increased tendency to hemorrhage and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, which is common in premature or anoxic newborns.

16.

When planning interventions in the immediate hours after birth the nurse recognizes the need to provide an injection of which of the following to manage bacteria in the intestinal tract?

A)

Vitamin K

B)

Vitamin A

C)

Vitamin C

D)

Vitamin D

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Approximately half of the bodys requirement of vitamin K is synthesized by bacteria in the lower intestinal tract.

17.

The nurse is reviewing the health assessment of a patient. The nurse is concerned that the patient may have a deficiency of Vitamin D. Which of the following conditions most supports this suspicion?

A)

Night blindness

B)

Clotting disorder

C)

Rickets

D)

Dental decay

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Signs of vitamin D deficiency are rickets in children, poor dental health, tetany, and osteomalacia.

18.

You are educating a group of adolescent girls on bone and teeth growth. Which fat-soluble vitamin assists to build bone and teeth?

A)

Vitamin A

B)

Vitamin E

C)

Vitamin C

D)

Vitamin B1

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Vitamin A is important for the promotion of normal skeletal and tooth development.

19.

The nurse is providing teaching to a patient with high triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Which of the following foods should the patient be cautioned to avoid?

A)

Coconut

B)

Fish

C)

Chicken

D)

Sunflower

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil are highly saturated fats.

20.

The nurse is reviewing a patients understanding of dietary choices that will help reduce high triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Which statement by the patient indicates an understanding of the best options to be included in the diet?

A)

I plan to use more sunflower oil in my diet selections.

B)

Coconut oil has shown to be a good choice for people hoping to reduce cholesterol levels.

C)

I am using palm oil in most of my cooking right now.

D)

Palm kernel oil is a smart choice because it is one of the oils lowest in triglyceride and cholesterol.

Ans:

A

Feedback:

Coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil are highly saturated fats.

21.

Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?

A)

Vitamin C

B)

Vitamin B12

C)

Vitamin E

D)

Vitamin B6

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin.

22.

An elderly patient has a decubitus ulcer with drainage, dysphagia, and immobility. She consumes less than 300 calories per day and has a large amount of interstitial fluid. She is in a state of

A)

Positive nitrogen balance

B)

Anabolism

C)

Negative nitrogen balance

D)

Digestion

Ans:

C

Feedback:

A negative nitrogen balance exists when excretion of nitrogen exceeds the intake.

23.

Which of the following foods eaten with peanut butter would provide the patient with complete protein?

A)

Wheat bread

B)

Milk

C)

Jelly

D)

Carrots

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Peanut butter is an incomplete protein and milk is a complete protein. Combining the two would improve the diet in terms of protein value.

24.

A patient has just had abdominal surgery, and the nurse is consulting with him about his diet now that he is allowed to eat. Which nutrient is most important for wound healing?

A)

Carbohydrates

B)

Protein

C)

Fats

D)

Vitamins

Ans:

B

Feedback:

Complete proteins contain sufficient amounts of the essential amino acids to maintain body tissues and to promote growth.

25.

A 40-year-old man has consumed a breakfast consisting of cereal, milk, orange juice, and coffee. His blood sugar in 2 hours should be

A)

6080 mg/dL

B)

100120 mg/dL

C)

140180 mg/dL

D)

200220 mg/dL

Ans:

C

Feedback:

Normal blood glucose should be between 80 mg/dL and 110 mg/dL. Blood glucose 2 hours after a meal can rise to between 140 and 180 mg/dL, depending on the persons age.

26.

An athlete wants to increase her intake of complex carbohydrates and asks the nurse about potential sources. Which of the following foods is considered a complex carbohydrate?

A)

Molasses

B)

Syrup

C)

Brown sugar

D)

Bread

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Bread, cereal, potatoes, rice, pasta, crackers, flour products, and legumes contain complex carbohydrates.

27.

What vitamin is synthesized with an adequate supply of carbohydrates?

A)

Vitamin A

B)

Vitamin D

C)

Vitamin E

D)

Vitamin K

Ans:

D

Feedback:

Carbohydrates are important for the synthesis of vitamin K and vitamin B12.

28.

A woman consumes pasta, grains, and other carbohydrates for

A)

Weight gain

B)

Energy

C)

Weight loss

D)

Source of fiber

Ans:

B

Feedback:

The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy.

29.

The average dietary nutrient intake level that meets the nutritional requirement of almost all healthy people in a selected age and gender group is the

A)

AI level

B)

UL level

C)

EAR level

D)

RDA level

Ans:

D

Feedback:

The RDA level is the average dietary intake level that meets the nutritional requirement of almost all healthy people in a selected age and gender group.

30.

The average daily nutrient intake value estimated to meet the needs of 50% of healthy people in a selected age and gender group is

A)

AI level

B)

UL level

C)

EAR level

D)

RDA level

Ans:

C

Feedback:

The EAR level is the average dietary nutrient intake value estimated to meet the needs of 50% of healthy people in a selected age and gender group.

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