Chapter 29: Nursing Management: Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 29: Nursing Management: Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse teaches a patient with chronic bronchitis about a new prescription for Advair Diskus (combined fluticasone and salmeterol). Which action by the patient would indicate to the nurse that teaching about medication administration has been successful?

a.

The patient shakes the device before use.

b.

The patient attaches a spacer to the Diskus.

c.

The patient rapidly inhales the medication.

d.

The patient performs huff coughing after inhalation.

ANS: C

The patient should inhale the medication rapidly. Otherwise the dry particles will stick to the tongue and oral mucosa and not get inhaled into the lungs. Advair Diskus is a dry powder inhaler; shaking is not recommended. Spacers are not used with dry powder inhalers. Huff coughing is a technique to move mucus into larger airways to expectorate. The patient should not huff cough or exhale forcefully after taking Advair in order to keep the medication in the lungs.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 574

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. The nurse teaches a patient how to administer formoterol (Perforomist) through a nebulizer. Which action by the patient indicates good understanding of the teaching?

a.

The patient attaches a spacer before using the inhaler.

b.

The patient coughs vigorously after using the inhaler.

c.

The patient activates the inhaler at the onset of expiration.

d.

The patient removes the facial mask when misting has ceased.

ANS: D

A nebulizer is used to administer aerosolized medication. A mist is seen when the medication is aerosolized, and when all of the medication has been used, the misting stops. The other options refer to inhaler use. Coughing vigorously after inhaling and activating the inhaler at the onset of expiration are both incorrect techniques when using an inhaler.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 574

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. A patient is scheduled for pulmonary function testing. Which action should the nurse take to prepare the patient for this procedure?

a.

Give the rescue medication immediately before testing.

b.

Administer oral corticosteroids 2 hours before the procedure.

c.

Withhold bronchodilators for 6 to 12 hours before the examination.

d.

Ensure that the patient has been NPO for several hours before the test.

ANS: C

Bronchodilators are held before pulmonary function testing (PFT) so that a baseline assessment of airway function can be determined. Testing is repeated after bronchodilator use to determine whether the decrease in lung function is reversible. There is no need for the patient to be NPO. Oral corticosteroids should be held before PFTs. Rescue medications (which are bronchodilators) would not be given until after the baseline pulmonary function was assessed.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 566

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. Which information will the nurse include in the asthma teaching plan for a patient being discharged?

a.

Use the inhaled corticosteroid when shortness of breath occurs.

b.

Inhale slowly and deeply when using the dry powder inhaler (DPI).

c.

Hold your breath for 5 seconds after using the bronchodilator inhaler.

d.

Tremors are an expected side effect of rapidly acting bronchodilators.

ANS: D

Tremors are a common side effect of short-acting b2-adrenergic (SABA) medications and not a reason to avoid using the SABA inhaler. Inhaled corticosteroids do not act rapidly to reduce dyspnea. Rapid inhalation is needed when using a DPI. The patient should hold the breath for 10 seconds after using inhalers.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 572

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. The emergency department nurse is evaluating the effectiveness of therapy for a patient who has received treatment during an asthma attack. Which assessment finding is the best indicator that the therapy has been effective?

a.

No wheezes are audible.

b.

Oxygen saturation is >90%.

c.

Accessory muscle use has decreased.

d.

Respiratory rate is 16 breaths/minute.

ANS: B

The goal for treatment of an asthma attack is to keep the oxygen saturation >90%. The other patient data may occur when the patient is too fatigued to continue with the increased work of breathing required in an asthma attack.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 569

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. A patient seen in the asthma clinic has recorded daily peak flows that are 75% of the baseline. Which action will the nurse plan to take next?

a.

Increase the dose of the leukotriene inhibitor.

b.

Teach the patient about the use of oral corticosteroids.

c.

Administer a bronchodilator and recheck the peak flow.

d.

Instruct the patient to keep the next scheduled follow-up appointment.

ANS: C

The patients peak flow reading indicates that the condition is worsening (yellow zone). The patient should take the bronchodilator and recheck the peak flow. Depending on whether the patient returns to the green zone, indicating well-controlled symptoms, the patient may be prescribed oral corticosteroids or a change in dosing of other medications. Keeping the next appointment is appropriate, but the patient also needs to be taught how to control symptoms now and use the bronchodilator.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 580

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7. The nurse teaches a patient who has asthma about peak flow meter use. Which action by the patient indicates that teaching was successful?

a.

The patient inhales rapidly through the peak flow meter mouthpiece.

b.

The patient takes montelukast (Singulair) for peak flows in the red zone.

c.

The patient calls the health care provider when the peak flow is in the green zone.

d.

The patient uses albuterol (Proventil) metered dose inhaler (MDI) for peak flows in the yellow zone.

ANS: D

Readings in the yellow zone indicate a decrease in peak flow. The patient should use short-acting b2-adrenergic (SABA) medications. Readings in the green zone indicate good asthma control. The patient should exhale quickly and forcefully through the peak flow meter mouthpiece to obtain the readings. Readings in the red zone do not indicate good peak flow, and the patient should take a fast-acting bronchodilator and call the health care provider for further instructions. Singulair is not indicated for acute attacks but rather is used for maintenance therapy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 568 | 580

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. A young adult patient who denies any history of smoking is seen in the clinic with a new diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is most appropriate for the nurse to teach the patient about

a.

a1-antitrypsin testing.

b.

use of the nicotine patch.

c.

continuous pulse oximetry.

d.

effects of leukotriene modifiers.

ANS: A

When COPD occurs in young patients, especially without a smoking history, a genetic deficiency in a1-antitrypsin should be suspected. Because the patient does not smoke, a nicotine patch would not be ordered. There is no indication that the patient requires continuous pulse oximetry. Leukotriene modifiers would be used in patients with asthma, not with COPD.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 582-583

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

9. The nurse is caring for a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Which information obtained from the patient would prompt the nurse to consult with the health care provider before administering the prescribed theophylline?

a.

The patient reports a recent 15-pound weight gain.

b.

The patient denies any shortness of breath at present.

c.

The patient takes cimetidine (Tagamet) 150 mg daily.

d.

The patient complains about coughing up green mucus.

ANS: C

Cimetidine interferes with the metabolism of theophylline, and concomitant administration may lead rapidly to theophylline toxicity. The other patient information would not affect whether the theophylline should be administered or not.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 571 | 572

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

10. A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has a nursing diagnosis of impaired breathing pattern related to anxiety. Which nursing action is most appropriate to include in the plan of care?

a.

Titrate oxygen to keep saturation at least 90%.

b.

Discuss a high-protein, high-calorie diet with the patient.

c.

Suggest the use of over-the-counter sedative medications.

d.

Teach the patient how to effectively use pursed lip breathing.

ANS: D

Pursed lip breathing techniques assist in prolonging the expiratory phase of respiration and decrease air trapping. There is no indication that the patient requires oxygen therapy or an improved diet. Sedative medications should be avoided because they decrease respiratory drive.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 578

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has a nursing diagnosis of imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements. Which intervention would be most appropriate for the nurse to include in the plan of care?

a.

Encourage increased intake of whole grains.

b.

Increase the patients intake of fruits and fruit juices.

c.

Offer high-calorie snacks between meals and at bedtime.

d.

Assist the patient in choosing foods with high vegetable and mineral content.

ANS: C

Eating small amounts more frequently (as occurs with snacking) will increase caloric intake by decreasing the fatigue and feelings of fullness associated with large meals. Patients with COPD should rest before meals. Foods that have a lot of texture like whole grains may take more energy to eat and get absorbed and lead to decreased intake. Although fruits, juices, and vegetables are not contraindicated, foods high in protein are a better choice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 596

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

12. The nurse interviews a patient with a new diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Which information is most helpful in confirming a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis?

a.

The patient tells the nurse about a family history of bronchitis.

b.

The patients history indicates a 30 pack-year cigarette history.

c.

The patient complains about a productive cough every winter for 3 months.

d.

The patient denies having any respiratory problems until the last 12 months.

ANS: C

A diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is based on a history of having a productive cough for 3 months for at least 2 consecutive years. There is no family tendency for chronic bronchitis. Although smoking is the major risk factor for chronic bronchitis, a smoking history does not confirm the diagnosis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 579

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. The nurse teaches a patient about pursed lip breathing. Which action by the patient would indicate to the nurse that further teaching is needed?

a.

The patient inhales slowly through the nose.

b.

The patient puffs up the cheeks while exhaling.

c.

The patient practices by blowing through a straw.

d.

The patients ratio of inhalation to exhalation is 1:3.

ANS: B

The patient should relax the facial muscles without puffing the cheeks while doing pursed lip breathing. The other actions by the patient indicate a good understanding of pursed lip breathing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 579

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. Which finding by the nurse for a patient with a nursing diagnosis of impaired gas exchange will be most useful in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment?

a.

Even, unlabored respirations

b.

Pulse oximetry reading of 92%

c.

Respiratory rate of 18 breaths/minute

d.

Absence of wheezes, rhonchi, or crackles

ANS: B

For the nursing diagnosis of impaired gas exchange, the best data for evaluation are arterial blood gases (ABGs) or pulse oximetry. The other data may indicate either improvement or impending respiratory failure caused by fatigue.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 598

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

15. The nurse is caring for a patient with cor pulmonale. The nurse should monitor the patient for which expected finding?

a.

Peripheral edema

b.

Elevated temperature

c.

Clubbing of the fingers

d.

Complaints of chest pain

ANS: A

Cor pulmonale causes clinical manifestations of right ventricular failure, such as peripheral edema. The other clinical manifestations may occur in the patient with other complications of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but are not indicators of cor pulmonale.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 586

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

16. The nurse is admitting a patient diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).What is the best way for the nurse to determine the appropriate oxygen flow rate?

a.

Minimize oxygen use to avoid oxygen dependency.

b.

Maintain the pulse oximetry level at 90% or greater.

c.

Administer oxygen according to the patients level of dyspnea.

d.

Avoid administration of oxygen at a rate of more than 2 L/minute.

ANS: B

The best way to determine the appropriate oxygen flow rate is by monitoring the patients oxygenation either by arterial blood gases (ABGs) or pulse oximetry. An oxygen saturation of 90% indicates adequate blood oxygen level without the danger of suppressing the respiratory drive. For patients with an exacerbation of COPD, an oxygen flow rate of 2 L/min may not be adequate. Because oxygen use improves survival rate in patients with COPD, there is no concern about oxygen dependency. The patients perceived dyspnea level may be affected by other factors (such as anxiety) besides blood oxygen level.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 589

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

17. A patient hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is being discharged home on oxygen therapy. Which instruction should the nurse include in the discharge teaching?

a.

Storage of oxygen tanks will require adequate space in the home.

b.

Travel opportunities will be limited because of the use of oxygen.

c.

Oxygen flow should be increased if the patient has more dyspnea.

d.

Oxygen use can improve the patients prognosis and quality of life.

ANS: D

The use of home oxygen improves quality of life and prognosis. Because increased dyspnea may be a symptom of an acute process such as pneumonia, the patient should notify the physician rather than increasing the oxygen flow rate if dyspnea becomes worse. Oxygen can be supplied using liquid, storage tanks, or concentrators, depending on individual patient circumstances. Travel is possible using portable oxygen concentrators.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 592

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18. A patient is receiving 35% oxygen via a Venturi mask. To ensure the correct amount of oxygen delivery, which action by the nurse is most important?

a.

Teach the patient to keep mask on at all times.

b.

Keep the air entrainment ports clean and unobstructed.

c.

Give a high enough flow rate to keep the bag from collapsing.

d.

Drain moisture condensation from the oxygen tubing every hour.

ANS: B

The air entrainment ports regulate the oxygen percentage delivered to the patient, so they must be unobstructed. A high oxygen flow rate is needed when giving oxygen by partial rebreather or non-rebreather masks. Draining oxygen tubing is necessary when caring for a patient receiving mechanical ventilation. The mask is uncomfortable and can be removed when the patient eats.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 591

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. Postural drainage with percussion and vibration is ordered twice daily for a patient with chronic bronchitis. Which intervention should the nurse include in the plan of care?

a.

Schedule the procedure 1 hour after the patient eats.

b.

Maintain the patient in the lateral position for 20 minutes.

c.

Perform percussion before assisting the patient to the drainage position.

d.

Give the ordered albuterol (Proventil) before the patient receives the therapy.

ANS: D

Bronchodilators are administered before chest physiotherapy. Postural drainage, percussion, and vibration should be done 1 hour before or 3 hours after meals. Patients remain in each postural drainage position for 5 minutes. Percussion is done while the patient is in the postural drainage position.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 594

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

20. The nurse develops a teaching plan to help increase activity tolerance at home for an older adult with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Which instructions would be most appropriate for the nurse to include in the plan of care?

a.

Stop exercising when short of breath.

b.

Walk until pulse rate exceeds 130 beats/minute.

c.

Limit exercise to activities of daily living (ADLs).

d.

Walk 15 to 20 minutes daily at least 3 times/week.

ANS: D

Encourage the patient to walk 15 to 20 minutes a day at least three times a week with gradual increases. Shortness of breath is normal with exercise and not an indication that the patient should stop. Limiting exercise to ADLs will not improve the patients exercise tolerance. A 70-year-old patient should have a pulse rate of 120 or less with exercise (80% of the maximal heart rate of 150).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 599

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

21. A patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) tells the nurse, I wish I were dead! Im just a burden on everybody. Based on this information, which nursing diagnosis is most appropriate?

a.

Complicated grieving related to expectation of death

b.

Ineffective coping related to unknown outcome of illness

c.

Deficient knowledge related to lack of education about COPD

d.

Chronic low self-esteem related to increased physical dependence

ANS: D

The patients statement about not being able to do anything for himself or herself supports this diagnosis. Although deficient knowledge, complicated grieving, and ineffective coping may also be appropriate diagnoses for patients with COPD, the data for this patient do not support these diagnoses.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 599-600

TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

22. A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has poor gas exchange. Which action by the nurse would be most appropriate?

a.

Have the patient rest in bed with the head elevated to 15 to 20 degrees.

b.

Ask the patient to rest in bed in a high-Fowlers position with the knees flexed.

c.

Encourage the patient to sit up at the bedside in a chair and lean slightly forward.

d.

Place the patient in the Trendelenburg position with several pillows behind the head.

ANS: C

Patients with COPD improve the mechanics of breathing by sitting up in the tripod position. Resting in bed with the head elevated in a semi-Fowlers position would be an alternative position if the patient was confined to bed, but sitting in a chair allows better ventilation. The Trendelenburg position or sitting upright in bed with the knees flexed would decrease the patients ability to ventilate well.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 599

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

23. A 55-year-old patient with increasing dyspnea is being evaluated for a possible diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). When teaching a patient about pulmonary function testing (PFT) for this condition, what is the most important question the nurse should ask?

a.

Are you claustrophobic?

b.

Are you allergic to shellfish?

c.

Do you have any metal implants or prostheses?

d.

Have you taken any bronchodilators in the past 6 hours?

ANS: D

Pulmonary function testing will help establish the COPD diagnosis. Bronchodilators should be avoided at least 6 hours before the test. PFTs do not involve being placed in an enclosed area such as for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast dye is not used for PFTs. The patient may still have PFTs done if metal implants or prostheses are present, as these are contraindications for an MRI.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 566

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

24. A young adult patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) is admitted to the hospital with increased dyspnea. Which intervention should the nurse include in the plan of care?

a.

Schedule a sweat chloride test.

b.

Arrange for a hospice nurse visit.

c.

Place the patient on a low-sodium diet.

d.

Perform chest physiotherapy every 4 hours.

ANS: D

Routine scheduling of airway clearance techniques is an essential intervention for patients with CF. A sweat chloride test is used to diagnose CF, but it does not provide any information about the effectiveness of therapy. There is no indication that the patient is terminally ill. Patients with CF lose excessive sodium in their sweat and require high amounts of dietary sodium.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 594

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

25. A patient in the clinic with cystic fibrosis (CF) reports increased sweating and weakness during the summer months. Which action by the nurse would be most appropriate?

a.

Have the patient add dietary salt to meals.

b.

Teach the patient about the signs of hypoglycemia.

c.

Suggest decreasing intake of dietary fat and calories.

d.

Instruct the patient about pancreatic enzyme replacements.

ANS: A

Added dietary salt is indicated whenever sweating is excessive, such as during hot weather, when fever is present, or from intense physical activity. The management of pancreatic insufficiency includes pancreatic enzyme replacement of lipase, protease, and amylase (e.g., Pancreaze, Creon, Ultresa, Zenpep) administered before each meal and snack. This patient is at risk for hyponatremia based on reported symptoms. Adequate intake of fat, calories, protein, and vitamins is important. Fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K) must be supplemented because they are malabsorbed. Use of caloric supplements improves nutritional status. Hyperglycemia due to pancreatic insufficiency is more likely to occur than hypoglycemia.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 605

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

26. A young adult female patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) tells the nurse that she is not sure about getting married and having children some day. Which initial response by the nurse is best?

a.

Are you aware of the normal lifespan for patients with CF?

b.

Do you need any information to help you with that decision?

c.

Many women with CF do not have difficulty conceiving children.

d.

You will need to have genetic counseling before making a decision.

ANS: B

The nurses initial response should be to assess the patients knowledge level and need for information. Although the lifespan for patients with CF is likely to be shorter than normal, it would not be appropriate for the nurse to address this as the initial response to the patients comments. The other responses have accurate information, but the nurse should first assess the patients understanding about the issues surrounding pregnancy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 605-606

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

27. A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has rhonchi throughout the lung fields and a chronic, nonproductive cough. Which nursing intervention will be most effective?

a.

Change the oxygen flow rate to the highest prescribed rate.

b.

Teach the patient to use the Flutter airway clearance device.

c.

Reinforce the ongoing use of pursed lip breathing techniques.

d.

Teach the patient about consistent use of inhaled corticosteroids.

ANS: B

Airway clearance devices assist with moving mucus into larger airways where it can more easily be expectorated. The other actions may be appropriate for some patients with COPD, but they are not indicated for this patients problem of thick mucus secretions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 595

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

28. The nurse provides dietary teaching for a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who has a low body mass index (BMI). Which patient statement indicates that the teaching has been effective?

a.

I will drink lots of fluids with my meals.

b.

I can have ice cream as a snack every day.

c.

I will exercise for 15 minutes before meals.

d.

I will decrease my intake of meat and poultry.

ANS: B

High-calorie foods like ice cream are an appropriate snack for patients with COPD. Fluid intake of 3 L/day is recommended, but fluids should be taken between meals rather than with meals to improve oral intake of solid foods. The patient should avoid exercise for an hour before meals to prevent fatigue while eating. Meat and dairy products are high in protein and are good choices for the patient with COPD.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 595-596

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

29. Which instruction should the nurse include in an exercise teaching plan for a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

a.

Stop exercising if you start to feel short of breath.

b.

Use the bronchodilator before you start to exercise.

c.

Breathe in and out through the mouth while you exercise.

d.

Upper body exercise should be avoided to prevent dyspnea.

ANS: B

Use of a bronchodilator before exercise improves airflow for some patients and is recommended. Shortness of breath is normal with exercise and not a reason to stop. Patients should be taught to breathe in through the nose and out through the mouth (using a pursed lip technique). Upper-body exercise can improve the mechanics of breathing in patients with COPD.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 572

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

30. The nurse completes an admission assessment on a patient with asthma. Which information given by patient is most indicative of a need for a change in therapy?

a.

The patient uses albuterol (Proventil) before any aerobic exercise.

b.

The patient says that the asthma symptoms are worse every spring.

c.

The patients heart rate increases after using the albuterol (Proventil) inhaler.

d.

The patients only medications are albuterol (Proventil) and salmeterol (Serevent).

ANS: D

Long-acting b2-agonists should be used only in patients who also are using an inhaled corticosteroid for long-term control. Salmeterol should not be used as the first-line therapy for long-term control. Using a bronchodilator before exercise is appropriate. The other information given by the patient requires further assessment by the nurse, but is not unusual for a patient with asthma.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 572

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

31. The nurse takes an admission history on a patient with possible asthma who has new-onset wheezing and shortness of breath. Which information may indicate a need for a change in therapy?

a.

The patient has chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

b.

The patient has a history of pneumonia 6 months ago.

c.

The patient takes propranolol (Inderal) for hypertension.

d.

The patient uses acetaminophen (Tylenol) for headaches.

ANS: C

b-Blockers such as propranolol can cause bronchospasm in some patients with asthma. The other information will be documented in the health history but does not indicate a need for a change in therapy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 576

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

32. A patient newly diagnosed with asthma is being discharged. The nurse anticipates including which topic in the discharge teaching?

a.

Use of long-acting b-adrenergic medications

b.

Side effects of sustained-release theophylline

c.

Self-administration of inhaled corticosteroids

d.

Complications associated with oxygen therapy

ANS: C

Inhaled corticosteroids are more effective in improving asthma than any other drug and are indicated for all patients with persistent asthma. The other therapies would not typically be first-line treatments for newly diagnosed asthma.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 569

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

33. A patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) has blood glucose levels that are consistently between 180 to 250 mg/dL. Which nursing action will the nurse plan to implement?

a.

Discuss the role of diet in blood glucose control.

b.

Teach the patient about administration of insulin.

c.

Give oral hypoglycemic medications before meals.

d.

Evaluate the patients home use of pancreatic enzymes.

ANS: B

The glucose levels indicate that the patient has developed CF-related diabetes, and insulin therapy is required. Because the etiology of diabetes in CF is inadequate insulin production, oral hypoglycemic agents are not effective. Patients with CF need a high-calorie diet. Inappropriate use of pancreatic enzymes would not be a cause of hyperglycemia in a patient with CF.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 603

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

34. The nurse assesses a patient with a history of asthma. Which assessment finding indicates that the nurse should take immediate action?

a.

Pulse oximetry reading of 91%

b.

Respiratory rate of 26 breaths/minute

c.

Use of accessory muscles in breathing

d.

Peak expiratory flow rate of 240 L/minute

ANS: C

Use of accessory muscle indicates that the patient is experiencing respiratory distress and rapid intervention is needed. The other data indicate the need for ongoing monitoring and assessment but do not suggest that immediate treatment is required.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 564-565

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

35. A patient who is experiencing an asthma attack develops bradycardia and a decrease in wheezing. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Notify the health care provider.

b.

Document changes in respiratory status.

c.

Encourage the patient to cough and deep breathe.

d.

Administer IV methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol).

ANS: A

The patients assessment indicates impending respiratory failure, and the nurse should prepare to assist with intubation and mechanical ventilation after notifying the health care provider. IV corticosteroids require several hours before having any effect on respiratory status. The patient will not be able to cough or deep breathe effectively. Documentation is not a priority at this time.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 565

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

36. A patient who is experiencing an acute asthma attack is admitted to the emergency department. Which assessment should the nurse complete first?

a.

Listen to the patients breath sounds.

b.

Ask about inhaled corticosteroid use.

c.

Determine when the dyspnea started.

d.

Obtain the forced expiratory volume (FEV) flow rate.

ANS: A

Assessment of the patients breath sounds will help determine how effectively the patient is ventilating and whether rapid intubation may be necessary. The length of time the attack has persisted is not as important as determining the patients status at present. Most patients having an acute attack will be unable to cooperate with an FEV measurement. It is important to know about the medications the patient is using but not as important as assessing the breath sounds.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 564-565

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

37. Which assessment finding in a patient who has received omalizumab (Xolair) is most important to report immediately to the health care provider?

a.

Pain at injection site

b.

Flushing and dizziness

c.

Peak flow reading 75% of normal

d.

Respiratory rate 22 breaths/minute

ANS: B

Flushing and dizziness may indicate that the patient is experiencing an anaphylactic reaction, and immediate intervention is needed. The other information should also be reported, but do not indicate possibly life-threatening complications of omalizumab therapy.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 572

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

38. The nurse in the emergency department receives arterial blood gas results for four recently admitted patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. Which patient will require the most rapid action by the nurse?

a.

22-year-old with ABG results: pH 7.28, PaCO2 60 mm Hg, and PaO2 58 mm Hg

b.

34-year-old with ABG results: pH 7.48, PaCO2 30 mm Hg, and PaO2 65 mm Hg

c.

45-year-old with ABG results: pH 7.34, PaCO2 33 mm Hg, and PaO2 80 mm Hg

d.

65-year-old with ABG results: pH 7.31, PaCO2 58 mm Hg, and PaO2 64 mm Hg

ANS: A

The pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 indicate that the patient has severe uncompensated respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia. Rapid action will be required to prevent increasing hypoxemia and correct the acidosis. The other patients also should be assessed as quickly as possible but do not require interventions as quickly as the 22-year-old.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (analysis) REF: 566

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization; Multiple Patients

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

39. Which nursing action for a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could the nurse delegate to experienced unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)?

a.

Obtain oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry.

b.

Monitor for increased oxygen need with exercise.

c.

Teach the patient about safe use of oxygen at home.

d.

Adjust oxygen to keep saturation in prescribed parameters.

ANS: A

UAP can obtain oxygen saturation (after being trained and evaluated in the skill). The other actions require more education and a scope of practice that licensed practical/vocational nurses (LPN/LVNs) or registered nurses (RNs) would have.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 592

OBJ: Special Questions: Delegation TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

40. The clinic nurse makes a follow-up telephone call to a patient with asthma. The patient reports having a baseline peak flow reading of 600 L/minute and the current peak flow is 420 L/minute. Which action should the nurse takefirst?

a.

Tell the patient to go to the hospital emergency department.

b.

Instruct the patient to use the prescribed albuterol (Proventil).

c.

Ask about recent exposure to any new allergens or asthma triggers.

d.

Question the patient about use of the prescribed inhaled corticosteroids.

ANS: B

The patients peak flow is 70% of normal, indicating a need for immediate use of short-acting b2-adrenergic SABA medications. Assessing for correct use of medications or exposure to allergens also is appropriate, but would not address the current decrease in peak flow. Because the patient is currently in the yellow zone, hospitalization is not needed.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (analysis) REF: 580

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

41. The nurse reviews the medication administration record (MAR) for a patient having an acute asthma attack. Which medication should the nurse administer first?

a.

Albuterol (Ventolin) 2.5 mg per nebulizer

b.

Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol) 60 mg IV

c.

Salmeterol (Serevent) 50 mcg per dry-powder inhaler (DPI)

d.

Triamcinolone (Azmacort) 2 puffs per metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

ANS: A

Albuterol is a rapidly acting bronchodilator and is the first-line medication to reverse airway narrowing in acute asthma attacks. The other medications work more slowly.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 570 | 576

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

42. The nurse receives a change-of-shift report on the following patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Which patient should the nurse assess first?

a.

A patient with loud expiratory wheezes

b.

A patient with a respiratory rate of 38/minute

c.

A patient who has a cough productive of thick, green mucus

d.

A patient with jugular venous distention and peripheral edema

ANS: B

A respiratory rate of 38/minute indicates severe respiratory distress, and the patient needs immediate assessment and intervention to prevent possible respiratory arrest. The other patients also need assessment as soon as possible, but they do not need to be assessed as urgently as the tachypneic patient.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (analysis) REF: 576

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization; Multiple Patients

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

43. Which finding in a patient hospitalized with bronchiectasis is most important to report to the health care provider?

a.

Cough productive of bloody, purulent mucus

b.

Scattered rhonchi and wheezes heard bilaterally

c.

Respiratory rate 28 breaths/minute while ambulating in hallway

d.

Complaint of sharp chest pain with deep breathing

ANS: A

Hemoptysis may indicate life-threatening hemorrhage and should be reported immediately to the health care provider. The other findings are frequently noted in patients with bronchiectasis and may need further assessment but are not indicators of life-threatening complications.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 607

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

COMPLETION

1. A patient with asthma has a personal best peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of 400 L/minute. When explaining the asthma action plan, the nurse will teach the patient that a change in therapy is needed when the PEFR is less than ___ L/minute

ANS:

320

A PEFR less than 80% of the personal best indicates that the patient is in the yellow zone where changes in therapy are needed to prevent progression of the airway narrowing.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 579

TOP: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

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