Chapter 31: Care of Patients with Infectious Respiratory Problems Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 31: Care of Patients with Infectious Respiratory Problems

Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.A nurse working in a geriatric clinic sees clients with cold symptoms and rhinitis. Which drug would be appropriate to teach these clients to take for their symptoms?

a. Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton)
b. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
c. Fexofenadine (Allegra)
d. Hydroxyzine (Vistaril)

ANS: C

First-generation antihistamines are not appropriate for use in the older population. These drugs include chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine. Fexofenadine is a second-generation antihistamine.

DIF:Remembering/KnowledgeREF:584

KEY:Antihistamines| older adults| histamine blocker

MSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

2.A nurse in a family practice clinic is preparing discharge instructions for a client reporting facial pain that is worse when bending over, tenderness across the cheeks, and postnasal discharge. What instruction will be most helpful?

a. Ice packs may help with the facial pain.
b. Limit fluids to dry out your sinuses.
c. Try warm, moist heat packs on your face.
d. We will schedule you for a computed tomography scan this week.

ANS: C

This client has rhinosinusitis. Comfort measures for this condition include breathing in warm steam, hot packs, nasal saline irrigations, sleeping with the head elevated, increased fluids, and avoiding cigarette smoke. The client does not need a CT scan.

DIF:Understanding/ComprehensionREF:584

KEY:Infectious respiratory problems| nonpharmacologic comfort interventions| patient educationMSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

3.Which teaching point is most important for the client with bacterial pharyngitis?

a. Gargle with warm salt water.
b. Take all antibiotics as directed.
c. Use a humidifier in the bedroom.
d. Wash hands frequently.

ANS: B

Any client on antibiotics must be instructed to complete the entire course of antibiotics. Not completing them can lead to complications or drug-resistant strains of bacteria. The other instructions are appropriate, just not the most important.

DIF:Understanding/ComprehensionREF:585

KEY:Antibiotics| infectious respiratory problems| patient education

MSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

4.A client is in the family practice clinic reporting a severe cold that started 4 days ago. On examination, the nurse notes the client also has a severe headache and muscle aches. What action by the nurse is best?

a. Educate the client on oseltamivir (Tamiflu).
b. Facilitate admission to the hospital.
c. Instruct the client to have a flu vaccine.
d. Teach the client to sneeze in the upper sleeve.

ANS: D

Sneezing and coughing into ones sleeve helps prevent the spread of upper respiratory infections. The client does have manifestations of the flu (influenza), but it is too late to start antiviral medications; to be effective, they must be started within 24 to 48 hours of symptom onset. The client does not need hospital admission. The client should be instructed to have a flu vaccination, but now that he or she has the flu, vaccination will have to wait until next year.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:587

KEY: Influenza| antiviral| medications| patient education| infection control

MSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT:Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5.The charge nurse on a medical unit is preparing to admit several clients who have possible pandemic flu during a preparedness drill. What action by the nurse is best?

a. Admit the clients on Contact Precautions.
b. Cohort the clients in the same area of the unit.
c. Do not allow pregnant caregivers to care for these clients.
d. Place the clients on enhanced Droplet Precautions.

ANS: B

Preventing the spread of pandemic flu is equally important as caring for the clients who have it. Clients can be cohorted together in the same set of rooms on one part of the unit to use distancing to help prevent the spread of the disease. The other actions are not appropriate.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:588

KEY:Infection control| Transmission-Based Precautions| emergency and disaster preparedness/management plans

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

6.A client admitted for pneumonia has been tachypneic for several days. When the nurse starts an IV to give fluids, the client questions this action, saying I have been drinking tons of water. How am I dehydrated? What response by the nurse is best?

a. Breathing so quickly can be dehydrating.
b. Everyone with pneumonia is dehydrated.
c. This is really just to administer your antibiotics.
d. Why do you think you are so dehydrated?

ANS: A

Tachypnea and mouth breathing, both seen in pneumonia, increase insensible water loss and can lead to a degree of dehydration. The other options do not give the client useful information.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:593

KEYneumonia| fluid and electrolyte imbalances| patient education

MSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

7.An older adult is brought to the emergency department by a family member, who reports a moderate change in mental status and mild cough. The client is afebrile. The health care provider orders a chest x-ray. The family member questions why this is needed since the manifestations seem so vague. What response by the nurse is best?

a. Chest x-rays are always ordered when we suspect pneumonia.
b. Older people often have vague symptoms, so an x-ray is essential.
c. The x-ray can be done and read before laboratory work is reported.
d. We are testing for any possible source of infection in the client.

ANS: B

It is essential to obtain an early chest x-ray in older adults suspected of having pneumonia because symptoms are often vague. Waiting until definitive manifestations are present to obtain the x-ray leads to a costly delay in treatment. Stating that chest x-rays are always ordered does not give the family definitive information. The x-ray can be done while laboratory values are still pending, but this also does not provide specific information about the importance of a chest x-ray in this client. The client has manifestations of pneumonia, so the staff is not testing for any possible source of infection but rather is testing for a suspected disorder.

DIF:Understanding/ComprehensionREF:592

KEY:Older adult| pneumonia| infection| communication

MSC:Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

NOT:Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

8.A client has been diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). What action by the nurse takes highest priority?

a. Educating the client on adherence to the treatment regimen
b. Encouraging the client to eat a well-balanced diet
c. Informing the client about follow-up sputum cultures
d. Teaching the client ways to balance rest with activity

ANS: A

The treatment regimen for TB ranges from 6 to 12 months, making adherence problematic for many people. The nurse should stress the absolute importance of following the treatment plan for the entire duration of prescribed therapy. The other options are appropriate topics to educate this client on but do not take priority.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:597

KEYatient education| infection| antibiotics| tuberculosis

MSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaption

9.A client has been admitted for suspected inhalation anthrax infection. What question by the nurse is most important?

a. Are any family members also ill?
b. Have you traveled recently?
c. How long have you been ill?
d. What is your occupation?

ANS: D

Inhalation anthrax is rare and is an occupational hazard among people who work with animal wool, bone meal, hides, and skin, such as taxidermists and veterinarians. Inhalation anthrax seen in someone without an occupational risk is considered a bioterrorism event and must be reported to authorities immediately. The other questions are appropriate for anyone with an infection.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:599

KEY:Infection| nursing assessment| anthrax| bioterrorism

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

10.A nurse is caring for several older clients in the hospital that the nurse identifies as being at high risk for healthcare-associated pneumonia. To reduce this risk, what activity should the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)?

a. Encourage between-meal snacks.
b. Monitor temperature every 4 hours.
c. Provide oral care every 4 hours.
d. Report any new onset of cough.

ANS: C

Oral colonization by gram-negative bacteria is a risk factor for healthcare-associated pneumonia. Good, frequent oral care can help prevent this from developing and is a task that can be delegated to the UAP. Encouraging good nutrition is important, but this will not prevent pneumonia. Monitoring temperature and reporting new cough in clients is important to detect the onset of possible pneumonia but do not prevent it.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:590

KEY: Delegation| oral care| pneumonia| older adult| unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)

MSC:Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

11.The emergency department (ED) manager is reviewing client charts to determine how well the staff performs when treating clients with community-acquired pneumonia. What outcome demonstrates that goals for this client type have been met?

a. Antibiotics started before admission
b. Blood cultures obtained within 20 minutes
c. Chest x-ray obtained within 30 minutes
d. Pulse oximetry obtained on all clients

ANS: A

Goals for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia include initiating antibiotics prior to inpatient admission or within 6 hours of presentation to the ED. Timely collection of blood cultures, chest x-ray, and pulse oximetry are important as well but do not coincide with established goals.

DIF:Evaluating/SynthesisREF:590

KEY:Infection| pneumonia| core measures

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

12.A nurse has educated a client on isoniazid (INH). What statement by the client indicates teaching has been effective?

a. I need to take extra vitamin C while on INH.
b. I should take this medicine with milk or juice.
c. I will take this medication on an empty stomach.
d. My contact lenses will be permanently stained.

ANS: C

INH needs to be taken on an empty stomach, either 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Extra vitamin B needs to be taken while on the drug. Staining of contact lenses commonly occurs while taking rifampin (Rifadin).

DIF:Evaluating/SynthesisREF:597

KEY: Antibiotics| anti-tuberculosis agents| medication-food interactions| patient education

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

13.A client has been taking isoniazid (INH) for tuberculosis for 3 weeks. What laboratory results need to be reported to the health care provider immediately?

a. Albumin: 5.1 g/dL
b. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 180 U/L
c. Red blood cell (RBC) count: 5.2/mm3
d. White blood cell (WBC) count: 12,500/mm3

ANS: B

INH can cause liver damage, especially if the client drinks alcohol. The ALT (one of the liver enzymes) is extremely high and needs to be reported immediately. The albumin and RBCs are normal. The WBCs are slightly high, but that would be an expected finding in a client with an infection.

DIF:Analyzing/AnalysisREF:597

KEY: Infection| anti-tuberculosis agents| laboratory values| communication

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

14.A client seen in the emergency department reports fever, fatigue, and dry cough but no other upper respiratory symptoms. A chest x-ray reveals mediastinal widening. What action by the nurse is best?

a. Collect a sputum sample for culture by deep suctioning.
b. Inform the client that antibiotics will be needed for 60 days.
c. Place the client on Airborne Precautions immediately.
d. Tell the client that directly observed therapy is needed.

ANS: B

This client has manifestations of early inhalation anthrax. For treatment, after IV antibiotics are finished, oral antibiotics are continued for at least 60 days. Sputum cultures are not needed. Anthrax is not transmissible from person to person, so Standard Precautions are adequate. Directly observed therapy is often used for tuberculosis.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:600

KEY:Anthrax| antibiotics| Standard Precautions| Transmission-Based Precautions| patient educationMSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

15.A client has been hospitalized with tuberculosis (TB). The clients spouse is fearful of entering the room where the client is in isolation and refuses to visit. What action by the nurse is best?

a. Ask the spouse to explain the fear of visiting in further detail.
b. Inform the spouse the precautions are meant to keep other clients safe.
c. Show the spouse how to follow the isolation precautions to avoid illness.
d. Tell the spouse that he or she has already been exposed, so its safe to visit.

ANS: A

The nurse needs to obtain further information about the spouses specific fears so they can be addressed. This will decrease stress and permit visitation, which will be beneficial for both client and spouse. Precautions for TB prevent transmission to all who come into contact with the client. Explaining isolation precautions and what to do when entering the room will be helpful, but this is too narrow in scope to be the best answer. Telling the spouse its safe to visit is demeaning of the spouses feelings.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:599

KEY: Psychosocial response| therapeutic communication| communication| caring

MSC:Integrated Process: Caring

NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

16.A client is being discharged on long-term therapy for tuberculosis (TB). What referral by the nurse is most appropriate?

a. Community social worker for Meals on Wheels
b. Occupational therapy for job retraining
c. Physical therapy for homebound therapy services
d. Visiting Nurses for directly observed therapy

ANS: D

Directly observed therapy is often utilized for managing clients with TB in the community. Meals on Wheels, job retraining, and home therapy may or may not be appropriate.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:599

KEY:Anti-tuberculosis agents| referrals| infection| interdisciplinary team

MSC:Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

17.A client is in the family practice clinic reporting a severe cough that has lasted for 5 weeks. The client is so exhausted after coughing that work has become impossible. What action by the nurse is most appropriate?

a. Arrange for immediate hospitalization.
b. Facilitate polymerase chain reaction testing.
c. Have the client produce a sputum sample.
d. Obtain two sets of blood cultures.

ANS: B

Polymerase chain reaction testing is used to diagnose pertussis, which this client is showing manifestations of. Hospitalization may or may not be needed but is not the most important action. The client may or may not be able to produce sputum, but sputum cultures for this disease must be obtained via deep suctioning. Blood cultures will be negative.

DIF:Remembering/KnowledgeREF:600

KEY:Laboratory values| infection| respiratory system

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

18.A client has the diagnosis of valley fever accompanied by myalgias and arthralgias. What treatment should the nurse educate the client on?

a. Intravenous amphotericin B
b. Long-term anti-inflammatories
c. No specific treatment
d. Oral fluconazole (Diflucan)

ANS: D

Valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis, is a fungal infection. Many people do not need treatment and the disease resolves on its own. However, the presence of joint and muscle pain indicates a moderate infection that needs treatment with antifungal medications. IV amphotericin is reserved for pregnant women and those with severe infection. Anti-inflammatory medications may be used to treat muscle aches and pain but are not used long term.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:601

KEY: Infection| fungal infection| anti-fungal medications| patient education

MSC:Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

19.A client is in the family medicine clinic reporting a dry, sore throat. The provider asks the nurse to assess for odynophagia. What assessment technique is most appropriate?

a. Ask the client what foods cause trouble swallowing.
b. Assess the client for pain when swallowing.
c. Determine if the client can swallow saliva.
d. Palpate the clients jaw while swallowing.

ANS: B

Odynophagia is painful swallowing. The nurse should assess the client for this either by asking or by having the client attempt to drink water. It is not related to specific foods and is not assessed by palpating the jaw. Being unable to swallow saliva is not odynophagia, but it would be a serious situation.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:584

KEY: Infection| respiratory system| respiratory disorders| respiratory assessment| nursing assessment MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment

NOT:Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20.A client is admitted with suspected pneumonia from the emergency department. The client went to the primary care provider a few days ago and shows the nurse the results of what the client calls an allergy test, as shown below:

What action by the nurse takes priority?

a. Assess the client for possible items to which he or she is allergic.
b. Call the primary care providers office to request records.
c. Immediately place the client on Airborne Precautions.
d. Prepare to begin administration of intravenous antibiotics.

ANS: C

This allergy test is actually a positive tuberculosis test. The client should be placed on Airborne Precautions immediately. The other options do not take priority over preventing the spread of the disease.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:595

KEY: Infection| Transmission-Based Precautions| nursing implementation

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

21.A nurse admits a client from the emergency department. Client data are listed below:

History Physical Assessment Laboratory Values
70 years of age

History of diabetes

On insulin twice a day

Reports new-onset dyspnea and productive cough

Crackles and rhonchi heard throughout the lungs

Dullness to percussion LLL

Afebrile

Oriented to person only

WBC: 5,200/mm3

PaO2 on room air 65 mm Hg

What action by the nurse is the priority?

a. Administer oxygen at 4 liters per nasal cannula.
b. Begin broad-spectrum antibiotics.
c. Collect a sputum sample for culture.
d. Start an IV of normal saline at 50 mL/hr.

ANS: A

All actions are appropriate for this client who has manifestations of pneumonia. However, airway and breathing come first, so begin oxygen administration and titrate it to maintain saturations greater than 95%. Start the IV and collect a sputum culture, and then begin antibiotics.

DIF:Analyzing/AnalysisREF:593

KEYneumonia| antibiotics| oxygen therapy

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis

NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1.A nurse is providing pneumonia vaccinations in a community setting. Due to limited finances, the event organizers must limit giving the vaccination to priority groups. What clients would be considered a priority when administering the pneumonia vaccination? (Select all that apply.)

a. 22-year-old client with asthma
b. Client who had a cholecystectomy last year
c. Client with well-controlled diabetes
d. Healthy 72-year-old client
e. Client who is taking medication for hypertension

ANS: A, C, D, E

Clients over 65 years of age and any client (no matter what age) with a chronic health condition would be considered a priority for a pneumonia vaccination. Having a cholecystectomy a year ago does not qualify as a chronic health condition.

DIF:Understanding/ComprehensionREF:589

KEY:Vaccinations| chronic illness| older adults| health promotion

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT:Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2.A hospital nurse is participating in a drill during which many clients with inhalation anthrax are being admitted. What drugs should the nurse anticipate administering? (Select all that apply.)

a. Amoxicillin (Amoxil)
b. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
c. Doxycycline (Vibramycin)
d. Ethambutol (Myambutol)
e. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) (Septra)

ANS: A, B, C

Amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline are all possible treatments for inhalation anthrax. Ethambutol is used for tuberculosis. SMX-TMP is commonly used for urinary tract infections and other common infections.

DIF:Remembering/KnowledgeREF:600

KEY:Antibiotics| anthrax| emergency preparedness plan

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

3.A client in the emergency department is taking rifampin (Rifadin) for tuberculosis. The client reports yellowing of the sclera and skin and bleeding after minor trauma. What laboratory results correlate to this condition? (Select all that apply.)

a. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): 19 mg/dL
b. International normalized ratio (INR): 6.3
c. Prothrombin time: 35 seconds
d. Serum sodium: 130 mEq/L
e. White blood cell (WBC) count: 72,000/mm3

ANS: B, C

Rifampin can cause liver damage, evidenced by the clients high INR and prothrombin time. The BUN and WBC count are normal. The sodium level is low, but that is not related to this clients problem.

DIF:Analyzing/AnalysisREF:597

KEY:Laboratory values| anti-tuberculosis agents| liver disorders

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

4.A client has been diagnosed with an empyema. What interventions should the nurse anticipate providing to this client? (Select all that apply.)

a. Assisting with chest tube insertion
b. Facilitating pleural fluid sampling
c. Performing frequent respiratory assessment
d. Providing antipyretics as needed
e. Suctioning deeply every 4 hours

ANS: A, B, C, D

The client with an empyema is often treated with chest tube insertion, which facilitates obtaining samples of the pleural fluid for analysis and re-expands the lungs. The nurse should perform frequent respiratory system assessments. Antipyretic medications are also used. Suction is only used when needed and is not done deeply to prevent tissue injury.

DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:599

KEY:Respiratory system| chest tubes| infection| respiratory assessment

MSC:Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation

NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

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