Chapter 31: Sulfonamides Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 31: Sulfonamides
Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which is a characteristic that distinguishes sulfonamides from other drugs used to treat bacterial infection?
a. Sulfonamides are bactericidal.
b. Sulfonamides are derived from biologic substances.
c. Sulfonamides have antifungal and antiviral properties.
d. Sulfonamides increase bacterial synthesis of folic acid.
ANS: B
Sulfonamides are bacteriostatic, not bactericidal. They are not derived from biologic substances. They are not antifungals or antivirals. They act by decreasing bacterial synthesis of folic acid.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 429
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: N/A
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

2. The nurse is counseling a patient who will begin taking a sulfonamide drug to treat a urinary tract infection. What information will the nurse include in teaching?
a. Drink several quarts of water daily.
b. If stomach upset occurs, take an antacid.
c. Limit sun exposure to no more than 1 hour each day.
d. Sore throat is a common, harmless side effect.
ANS: A
Patients should drink several quarts of water daily while taking sulfonamides to prevent crystalluria. Patients should not take antacids with sulfonamides. Patients should not go out into the sun. Sore throat should be reported.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 430
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention: Patient Teaching
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

3. A female patient who is taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) (Bactrim, Septra) to treat a urinary tract infection reports vaginal itching and discharge. The nurse will perform which action?
a. Ask the patient if she might be pregnant.
b. Reassure the patient that this is a normal side effect.
c. Report a possible superinfection to the provider.
d. Suspect that the patient is having a hematologic reaction.
ANS: C
Superinfection can occur with a secondary infection. Vaginal itching and discharge is a sign of superinfection. This is not symptomatic of pregnancy. These are not common side effects and do not indicate a hematologic reaction.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 432
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

4. A patient who will begin taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) asks the nurse why the combination drug is necessary. The nurse will explain that the combination is used to
a. broaden the antibacterial spectrum.
b. decrease bacterial resistance.
c. improve the taste.
d. minimize toxic effects.
ANS: B
The combination drug is used to decrease bacterial resistance to sulfonamides. It does not broaden the spectrum, improve the taste, or decrease toxicity.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 429
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention: Patient Teaching
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

5. The nurse is preparing to administer trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) to a patient who is being treated for a urinary tract infection. The nurse learns that the patient has type 2 diabetes mellitus and takes a sulfonylurea oral antidiabetic drug. The nurse will monitor this patient closely for which effect?
a. Headaches
b. Hypertension
c. Hypoglycemia
d. Superinfection
ANS: C
Taking oral antidiabetic agents (sulfonylurea) with sulfonamides increases the hypoglycemic effect. Sulfonylureas do not increase the incidence of headaches, hypertension, or superinfection when taken with sulfonamides. Examples of antidiabetic sulfonylurea medications are glipizide, glimepride, glyburide, tolaamide, and tolbutamide.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 431
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

6. The nurse is preparing to give a dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and learns that the patient takes warfarin (Coumadin). The nurse will request an order for
a. a decreased dose of TMP-SMX.
b. a different antibiotic.
c. an increased dose of warfarin.
d. coagulation studies.
ANS: D
Sulfonamides can increase the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. The nurse should request INR levels. An increased dose of warfarin would likely lead to toxicity and to undesirable anticoagulation.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 432
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

7. A patient who is taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) calls to report developing an all-over rash. The nurse will instruct the patient to perform which action?
a. Increase fluid intake.
b. Take diphenhydramine.
c. Stop taking TMP-SMX immediately.
d. Continue taking the medication.
ANS: C
A rash can indicate a serious drug reaction. Patients should stop taking the drug immediately and notify the provider.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 431
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Evaluation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

8. The nurse is caring for a patient who is receiving sulfadiazine. The nurse knows that this patients daily fluid intake should be at least which amount?
a. 1000 mL/day
b. 1200 mL/day
c. 2000 mL/day
d. 2400 mL/day
ANS: C
To prevent crystalluria, patients should consume at least 2000 mL/day.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: Page 432
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

9. A patient taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) to treat a urinary tract infection complains of a sore throat. The nurse will contact the provider to request an order for which laboratory test(s)?
a. Complete blood count with differential
b. Throat culture
c. Urinalysis
d. Coagulation studies
ANS: A
A sore throat can indicate a life-threatening anemia, so a complete blood count with differential should be ordered.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 432
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

10. The nurse is caring for a patient who is ordered to receive PO trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) 160/800 QID to treat a urinary tract infection caused by E. coli. The nurse will contact the provider to clarify the correct
a. dose.
b. drug.
c. frequency.
d. route.
ANS: C
TMP-SMX is taken twice daily. This is the correct dose, drug, and route to treat this condition.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 431
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

11. The nurse is preparing to give trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) to a patient and notes a petechial rash on the patients extremities. The nurse will perform which action?
a. Hold the dose and notify the provider.
b. Request an order for a blood glucose level.
c. Request an order for a BUN and creatinine level.
d. Request an order for diphenhydramine (Benadryl).
ANS: A
A petechial rash can indicate a severe adverse reaction and should be reported.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 432
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

12. The nurse is caring for a patient who is taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). The nurse learns that the patient takes an angiotension-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. To monitor for drug interactions, the nurse will request an order for which laboratory test(s)?
a. A complete blood count
b. BUN and creatinine
c. Electrolytes
d. Glucose
ANS: C
TMP-SMX can result in hyperkalemia when taken with an ACE inhibitor.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 431
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

13. A child who weighs 10 kg will begin taking oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). The liquid preparation contains 40 mg of TMP and 200 mg of SMX per 5 mL. The nurse determines that the childs dose should be 8 mg of TMP and 40 mg of SMX/kg/day divided into two doses. Which order for this child is correct?
a. 5 mL PO BID
b. 5 mL PO daily
c. 10 mL PO BID
d. 10 mL PO daily
ANS: A
This child should receive (10 kg 8 mg) 80 mg of TMP and (10 kg 40 mg) 400 mL of SMX per day. When divided into two doses, the correct dose is 40 mg TMP and 200 mg SMX, or 5 mL per dose.

DIF: COGNITIVE LEVEL: Applying (Application) REF: Page 430
TOP: NURSING PROCESS: Nursing Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

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