Chapter 35: Care of Patients with Cardiac Problems Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 35: Care of Patients with Cardiac Problems
Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A nurse assesses clients on a cardiac unit. Which client should the nurse identify as being at greatest risk for the development of left-sided heart failure?
a. A 36-year-old woman with aortic stenosis
b. A 42-year-old man with pulmonary hypertension
c. A 59-year-old woman who smokes cigarettes daily
d. A 70-year-old man who had a cerebral vascular accident
ANS: A
Although most people with heart failure will have failure that progresses from left to right, it is possible to have left-sided failure alone for a short period. It is also possible to have heart failure that progresses from right to left. Causes of left ventricular failure include mitral or aortic valve disease, coronary artery disease, and hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension and chronic cigarette smoking are risk factors for right ventricular failure. A cerebral vascular accident does not increase the risk of heart failure.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 679
KEY: Heart failure| health screening
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

2. A nurse assesses a client in an outpatient clinic. Which statement alerts the nurse to the possibility of left-sided heart failure?
a. I have been drinking more water than usual.
b. I am awakened by the need to urinate at night.
c. I must stop halfway up the stairs to catch my breath.
d. I have experienced blurred vision on several occasions.
ANS: C
Clients with left-sided heart failure report weakness or fatigue while performing normal activities of daily living, as well as difficulty breathing, or catching their breath. This occurs as fluid moves into the alveoli. Nocturia is often seen with right-sided heart failure. Thirst and blurred vision are not related to heart failure.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 682
KEY: Heart failure| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. A nurse assesses a client admitted to the cardiac unit. Which statement by the client alerts the nurse to the possibility of right-sided heart failure?
a. I sleep with four pillows at night.
b. My shoes fit really tight lately.
c. I wake up coughing every night.
d. I have trouble catching my breath.
ANS: B
Signs of systemic congestion occur with right-sided heart failure. Fluid is retained, pressure builds in the venous system, and peripheral edema develops. Left-sided heart failure symptoms include respiratory symptoms. Orthopnea, coughing, and difficulty breathing all could be results of left-sided heart failure.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 683
KEY: Heart failure| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. While assessing a client on a cardiac unit, a nurse identifies the presence of an S3 gallop. Which action should the nurse take next?
a. Assess for symptoms of left-sided heart failure.
b. Document this as a normal finding.
c. Call the health care provider immediately.
d. Transfer the client to the intensive care unit.
ANS: A
The presence of an S3 gallop is an early diastolic filling sound indicative of increasing left ventricular pressure and left ventricular failure. The other actions are not warranted.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 683
KEY: Heart failure| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

5. A nurse cares for a client with right-sided heart failure. The client asks, Why do I need to weigh myself every day? How should the nurse respond?
a. Weight is the best indication that you are gaining or losing fluid.
b. Daily weights will help us make sure that youre eating properly.
c. The hospital requires that all inpatients be weighed daily.
d. You need to lose weight to decrease the incidence of heart failure.
ANS: A
Daily weights are needed to document fluid retention or fluid loss. One liter of fluid equals 2.2 pounds. The other responses do not address the importance of monitoring fluid retention or loss.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 683
KEY: Heart failure| patient education MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

6. A nurse is teaching a client with heart failure who has been prescribed enalapril (Vasotec). Which statement should the nurse include in this clients teaching?
a. Avoid using salt substitutes.
b. Take your medication with food.
c. Avoid using aspirin-containing products.
d. Check your pulse daily.
ANS: A
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as enalapril inhibit the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia can be a life-threatening side effect, and clients should be taught to limit potassium intake. Salt substitutes are composed of potassium chloride. ACE inhibitors do not need to be taken with food and have no impact on the clients pulse rate. Aspirin is often prescribed in conjunction with ACE inhibitors and is not contraindicated.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 685
KEY: Heart failure| angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor| medication| patient education MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

7. After administering newly prescribed captopril (Capoten) to a client with heart failure, the nurse implements interventions to decrease complications. Which priority intervention should the nurse implement for this client?
a. Provide food to decrease nausea and aid in absorption.
b. Instruct the client to ask for assistance when rising from bed.
c. Collaborate with unlicensed assistive personnel to bathe the client.
d. Monitor potassium levels and check for symptoms of hypokalemia.
ANS: B
Administration of the first dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is often associated with hypotension, usually termed first-dose effect. The nurse should instruct the client to seek assistance before arising from bed to prevent injury from postural hypotension. ACE inhibitors do not need to be taken with food. Collaboration with unlicensed assistive personnel to provide hygiene is not a priority. The client should be encouraged to complete activities of daily living as independently as possible. The nurse should monitor for hyperkalemia, not hypokalemia, especially if the client has renal insufficiency secondary to heart failure.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 685
KEY: Heart failure| angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor| medication| patient education MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

8. A nurse assesses a client after administering isosorbide mononitrate (Imdur). The client reports a headache. Which action should the nurse take?
a. Initiate oxygen therapy.
b. Hold the next dose of Imdur.
c. Instruct the client to drink water.
d. Administer PRN acetaminophen.
ANS: D
The vasodilating effects of isosorbide mononitrate frequently cause clients to have headaches during the initial period of therapy. Clients should be told about this side effect and encouraged to take the medication with food. Some clients obtain relief with mild analgesics, such as acetaminophen. The clients headache is not related to hypoxia or dehydration; therefore, these interventions would not help. The client needs to take the medication as prescribed to prevent angina; the medication should not be held.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 686
KEY: Heart failure| nitroglycerin/nitrates| medication| pharmacologic pain management
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

9. A nurse teaches a client who is prescribed digoxin (Lanoxin) therapy. Which statement should the nurse include in this clients teaching?
a. Avoid taking aspirin or aspirin-containing products.
b. Increase your intake of foods that are high in potassium.
c. Hold this medication if your pulse rate is below 80 beats/min.
d. Do not take this medication within 1 hour of taking an antacid.
ANS: D
Gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin is erratic. Many medications, especially antacids, interfere with its absorption. Clients are taught to hold their digoxin for bradycardia; a heart rate of 80 beats/min is too high for this cutoff. Potassium and aspirin have no impact on digoxin absorption, nor do these statements decrease complications of digoxin therapy.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 686
KEY: Heart failure| digoxin| medication| patient education
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

10. A nurse teaches a client who has a history of heart failure. Which statement should the nurse include in this clients discharge teaching?
a. Avoid drinking more than 3 quarts of liquids each day.
b. Eat six small meals daily instead of three larger meals.
c. When you feel short of breath, take an additional diuretic.
d. Weigh yourself daily while wearing the same amount of clothing.
ANS: D
Clients with heart failure are instructed to weigh themselves daily to detect worsening heart failure early, and thus avoid complications. Other signs of worsening heart failure include increasing dyspnea, exercise intolerance, cold symptoms, and nocturia. Fluid overload increases symptoms of heart failure. The client should be taught to eat a heart-healthy diet, balance intake and output to prevent dehydration and overload, and take medications as prescribed. The most important discharge teaching is daily weights as this provides the best data related to fluid retention.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 687
KEY: Heart failure| patient education MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. A nurse admits a client who is experiencing an exacerbation of heart failure. Which action should the nurse take first?
a. Assess the clients respiratory status.
b. Draw blood to assess the clients serum electrolytes.
c. Administer intravenous furosemide (Lasix).
d. Ask the client about current medications.
ANS: A
Assessment of respiratory and oxygenation status is the priority nursing intervention for the prevention of complications. Monitoring electrolytes, administering diuretics, and asking about current medications are important but do not take priority over assessing respiratory status.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 687
KEY: Heart failure| respiratory distress/failure| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

12. A nurse assesses a client with mitral valve stenosis. What clinical manifestation should alert the nurse to the possibility that the clients stenosis has progressed?
a. Oxygen saturation of 92%
b. Dyspnea on exertion
c. Muted systolic murmur
d. Upper extremity weakness
ANS: B
Dyspnea on exertion develops as the mitral valvular orifice narrows and pressure in the lungs increases. The other manifestations do not relate to the progression of mitral valve stenosis.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 688
KEY: Valve disorder| respiratory distress/failure
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

13. A nurse cares for a client recovering from prosthetic valve replacement surgery. The client asks, Why will I need to take anticoagulants for the rest of my life? How should the nurse respond?
a. The prosthetic valve places you at greater risk for a heart attack.
b. Blood clots form more easily in artificial replacement valves.
c. The vein taken from your leg reduces circulation in the leg.
d. The surgery left a lot of small clots in your heart and lungs.
ANS: B
Synthetic valve prostheses and scar tissue provide surfaces on which platelets can aggregate easily and initiate the formation of blood clots. The other responses are inaccurate.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 696
KEY: Valve disorder| patient education| anticoagulants
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

14. After teaching a client who is being discharged home after mitral valve replacement surgery, the nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which client statement indicates a need for additional teaching?
a. Ill be able to carry heavy loads after 6 months of rest.
b. I will have my teeth cleaned by my dentist in 2 weeks.
c. I must avoid eating foods high in vitamin K, like spinach.
d. I must use an electric razor instead of a straight razor to shave.
ANS: B
Clients who have defective or repaired valves are at high risk for endocarditis. The client who has had valve surgery should avoid dental procedures for 6 months because of the risk for endocarditis. When undergoing a mitral valve replacement surgery, the client needs to be placed on anticoagulant therapy to prevent vegetation forming on the new valve. Clients on anticoagulant therapy should be instructed on bleeding precautions, including using an electric razor. If the client is prescribed warfarin, the client should avoid foods high in vitamin K. Clients recovering from open heart valve replacements should not carry anything heavy for 6 months while the chest incision and muscle heal.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 694
KEY: Valve disorder| patient education| hygiene
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

15. A nurse cares for a client with infective endocarditis. Which infection control precautions should the nurse use?
a. Standard Precautions
b. Bleeding precautions
c. Reverse isolation
d. Contact isolation
ANS: A
The client with infective endocarditis does not pose any specific threat of transmitting the causative organism. Standard Precautions should be used. Bleeding precautions or reverse or contact isolation is not necessary.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 697
KEY: Infection| Standard Precautions
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

16. A nurse assesses a client with pericarditis. Which assessment finding should the nurse expect to find?
a. Heart rate that speeds up and slows down
b. Friction rub at the left lower sternal border
c. Presence of a regular gallop rhythm
d. Coarse crackles in bilateral lung bases
ANS: B
The client with pericarditis may present with a pericardial friction rub at the left lower sternal border. This sound is the result of friction from inflamed pericardial layers when they rub together. The other assessments are not related.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 699
KEY: Inflammatory response| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

17. After teaching a client who is recovering from a heart transplant to change positions slowly, the client asks, Why is this important? How should the nurse respond?
a. Rapid position changes can create shear and friction forces, which can tear out your internal vascular sutures.
b. Your new vascular connections are more sensitive to position changes, leading to increased intravascular pressure and dizziness.
c. Your new heart is not connected to the nervous system and is unable to respond to decreases in blood pressure caused by position changes.
d. While your heart is recovering, blood flow is diverted away from the brain, increasing the risk for stroke when you stand up.
ANS: C
Because the new heart is denervated, the baroreceptor and other mechanisms that compensate for blood pressure drops caused by position changes do not function. This allows orthostatic hypotension to persist in the postoperative period. The other options are false statements and do not correctly address the clients question.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 703
KEY: Transplant| patient education
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

18. A nurse teaches a client recovering from a heart transplant who is prescribed cyclosporine (Sandimmune). Which statement should the nurse include in this clients discharge teaching?
a. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush and avoid flossing.
b. Avoid large crowds and people who are sick.
c. Change positions slowly to avoid hypotension.
d. Check your heart rate before taking the medication.
ANS: B
These agents cause immune suppression, leaving the client more vulnerable to infection. The medication does not place the client at risk for bleeding, orthostatic hypotension, or a change in heart rate.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 703
KEY: Transplant| immune suppressant
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies

19. A nurse cares for a client with end-stage heart failure who is awaiting a transplant. The client appears depressed and states, I know a transplant is my last chance, but I dont want to become a vegetable. How should the nurse respond?
a. Would you like to speak with a priest or chaplain?
b. I will arrange for a psychiatrist to speak with you.
c. Do you want to come off the transplant list?
d. Would you like information about advance directives?
ANS: D
The client is verbalizing a real concern or fear about negative outcomes of the surgery. This anxiety itself can have a negative effect on the outcome of the surgery because of sympathetic stimulation. The best action is to allow the client to verbalize the concern and work toward a positive outcome without making the client feel as though he or she is crazy. The client needs to feel that he or she has some control over the future. The nurse personally provides care to address the clients concerns instead of pushing the clients issues off on a chaplain or psychiatrist. The nurse should not jump to conclusions and suggest taking the client off the transplant list, which is the best treatment option.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 691
KEY: Transplant| psychosocial response| anxiety
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

20. A nurse assesses a client who has a history of heart failure. Which question should the nurse ask to assess the extent of the clients heart failure?
a. Do you have trouble breathing or chest pain?
b. Are you able to walk upstairs without fatigue?
c. Do you awake with breathlessness during the night?
d. Do you have new-onset heaviness in your legs?
ANS: B
Clients with a history of heart failure generally have negative findings, such as shortness of breath. The nurse needs to determine whether the clients activity is the same or worse, or whether the client identifies a decrease in activity level. Trouble breathing, chest pain, breathlessness at night, and peripheral edema are symptoms of heart failure, but do not provide data that can determine the extent of the clients heart failure.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 682
KEY: Heart failure| functional ability| respiratory distress/failure
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

21. A nurse cares for an older adult client with heart failure. The client states, I dont know what to do. I dont want to be a burden to my daughter, but I cant do it alone. Maybe I should die. How should the nurse respond?
a. Would you like to talk more about this?
b. You are lucky to have such a devoted daughter.
c. It is normal to feel as though you are a burden.
d. Would you like to meet with the chaplain?
ANS: A
Depression can occur in clients with heart failure, especially older adults. Having the client talk about his or her feelings will help the nurse focus on the actual problem. Open-ended statements allow the client to respond safely and honestly. The other options minimize the clients concerns and do not allow the nurse to obtain more information to provide client-centered care.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 683
KEY: Heart failure| support| psychosocial response
MSC: Integrated Process: Caring
NOT: Client Needs Category: Psychosocial Integrity

22. A nurse teaches a client with heart failure about energy conservation. Which statement should the nurse include in this clients teaching?
a. Walk until you become short of breath, and then walk back home.
b. Gather everything you need for a chore before you begin.
c. Pull rather than push or carry items heavier than 5 pounds.
d. Take a walk after dinner every day to build up your strength.
ANS: B
A client who has heart failure should be taught to conserve energy. Gathering all supplies needed for a chore at one time decreases the amount of energy needed. The client should not walk until becoming short of breath because he or she may not make it back home. Pushing a cart takes less energy than pulling or lifting. Although walking after dinner may help the client, the nurse should teach the client to complete activities when he or she has the most energy. This is usually in the morning.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 696
KEY: Heart failure| functional ability| patient education
MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance

23. A nurse is caring for a client with acute pericarditis who reports substernal precordial pain that radiates to the left side of the neck. Which nonpharmacologic comfort measure should the nurse implement?
a. Apply an ice pack to the clients chest.
b. Provide a neck rub, especially on the left side.
c. Allow the client to lie in bed with the lights down.
d. Sit the client up with a pillow to lean forward on.
ANS: D
Pain from acute pericarditis may worsen when the client lays supine. The nurse should position the client in a comfortable position, which usually is upright and leaning slightly forward. Pain is decreased by using gravity to take pressure off the heart muscle. An ice pack and neck rub will not relieve this pain.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 699
KEY: Nonpharmacologic pain management
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Implementation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

24. A nurse assesses a client who has mitral valve regurgitation. For which cardiac dysrhythmia should the nurse assess?
a. Preventricular contractions
b. Atrial fibrillation
c. Symptomatic bradycardia
d. Sinus tachycardia
ANS: B
Atrial fibrillation is a clinical manifestation of mitral valve regurgitation and stenosis. Preventricular contractions and bradycardia are not associated with valvular problems. These are usually identified in clients with electrolyte imbalances, myocardial infarction, and sinus node problems. Sinus tachycardia is a manifestation of aortic regurgitation due to a decrease in cardiac output.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 692
KEY: Valve disorder| cardiac dysrhythmia
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A nurse is assessing a client with left-sided heart failure. For which clinical manifestations should the nurse assess? (Select all that apply.)
a. Pulmonary crackles
b. Confusion, restlessness
c. Pulmonary hypertension
d. Dependent edema
e. Cough that worsens at night
ANS: A, B, E
Left-sided heart failure occurs with a decrease in contractility of the heart or an increase in afterload. Most of the signs will be noted in the respiratory system. Right-sided heart failure occurs with problems from the pulmonary vasculature onward including pulmonary hypertension. Signs will be noted before the right atrium or ventricle including dependent edema.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 682
KEY: Heart failure| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

2. A nurse evaluates laboratory results for a client with heart failure. Which results should the nurse expect? (Select all that apply.)
a. Hematocrit: 32.8%
b. Serum sodium: 130 mEq/L
c. Serum potassium: 4.0 mEq/L
d. Serum creatinine: 1.0 mg/dL
e. Proteinuria
f. Microalbuminuria
ANS: A, B, E, F
A hematocrit of 32.8% is low (should be 42.6%), indicating a dilutional ratio of red blood cells to fluid. A serum sodium of 130 mEq/L is low because of hemodilution. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria are present, indicating a decrease in renal filtration. These are early warning signs of decreased compliance of the heart. The potassium level is on the high side of normal and the serum creatinine level is normal.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 683
KEY: Heart failure| assessment/diagnostic examination
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Evaluation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

3. A nurse assesses clients on a cardiac unit. Which clients should the nurse identify as at greatest risk for the development of acute pericarditis? (Select all that apply.)
a. A 36-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
b. A 42-year-old man recovering from coronary artery bypass graft surgery
c. A 59-year-old woman recovering from a hysterectomy
d. An 80-year-old man with a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract
e. An 88-year-old woman with a stage III sacral ulcer
ANS: A, B, D
Acute pericarditis is most commonly associated acute exacerbations of systemic connective tissue disease, including SLE; with Dresslers syndrome, or inflammation of the cardiac sac after cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction; and with infective organisms, including bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Abdominal and reproductive surgeries and pressure ulcers do not increase clients risk for acute pericarditis.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 699
KEY: Inflammatory response| health screening
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

4. After teaching a client with congestive heart failure (CHF), the nurse assesses the clients understanding. Which client statements indicate a correct understanding of the teaching related to nutritional intake? (Select all that apply.)
a. Ill read the nutritional labels on food items for salt content.
b. I will drink at least 3 liters of water each day.
c. Using salt in moderation will reduce the workload of my heart.
d. I will eat oatmeal for breakfast instead of ham and eggs.
e. Substituting fresh vegetables for canned ones will lower my salt intake.
ANS: A, D, E
Nutritional therapy for a client with CHF is focused on decreasing sodium and water retention to decrease the workload of the heart. The client should be taught to read nutritional labels on all food items, omit table salt and foods high in sodium (e.g., ham and canned foods), and limit water intake to a normal 2 L/day.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 682
KEY: Heart failure| patient education MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

5. A nurse collaborates with an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) to provide care for a client with congestive heart failure. Which instructions should the nurse provide to the UAP when delegating care for this client? (Select all that apply.)
a. Reposition the client every 2 hours.
b. Teach the client to perform deep-breathing exercises.
c. Accurately record intake and output.
d. Use the same scale to weigh the client each morning.
e. Place the client on oxygen if the client becomes short of breath.
ANS: A, C, D
The UAP should reposition the client every 2 hours to improve oxygenation and prevent atelectasis. The UAP can also accurately record intake and output, and use the same scale to weigh the client each morning before breakfast. UAPs are not qualified to teach clients or assess the need for and provide oxygen therapy.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 684
KEY: Heart failure| delegation| interdisciplinary team| unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) MSC: Integrated Process: Communication and Documentation
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

6. A nurse prepares to discharge a client who has heart failure. Based on the Heart Failure Core Measure Set, which actions should the nurse complete prior to discharging this client? (Select all that apply.)
a. Teach the client about dietary restrictions.
b. Ensure the client is prescribed an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.
c. Encourage the client to take a baby aspirin each day.
d. Confirm that an echocardiogram has been completed.
e. Consult a social worker for additional resources.
ANS: A, B, D
The Heart Failure Core Measure Set includes discharge instructions on diet, activity, medications, weight monitoring and plan for worsening symptoms, evaluation of left ventricular systolic function (usually with an echocardiogram), and prescribing an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Aspirin is not part of the Heart Failure Core Measure Set and is usually prescribed for clients who experience a myocardial infarction. Although the nurse may consult the social worker or case manager for additional resources, this is not part of the Core Measures.

DIF: Understanding/Comprehension REF: 689
KEY: Heart failure| discharge| Core Measures| The Joint Commission
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

7. A nurse prepares to discharge a client who has heart failure. Which questions should the nurse ask to ensure this clients safety prior to discharging home? (Select all that apply.)
a. Are your bedroom and bathroom on the first floor?
b. What social support do you have at home?
c. Will you be able to afford your oxygen therapy?
d. What spiritual beliefs may impact your recovery?
e. Are you able to accurately weigh yourself at home?
ANS: A, B, D
To ensure safety upon discharge, the nurse should assess for structural barriers to functional ability, such as stairs. The nurse should also assess the clients available social support, which may include family, friends, and home health services. The clients ability to adhere to medication and treatments, including daily weights, should also be reviewed. The other questions do not address the clients safety upon discharge.

DIF: Applying/Application REF: 689
KEY: Heart failure| discharge| safety
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Analysis
NOT: Client Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control

8. A nurse assesses a client who is recovering from a heart transplant. Which assessment findings should alert the nurse to the possibility of heart transplant rejection? (Select all that apply.)
a. Shortness of breath
b. Abdominal bloating
c. New-onset bradycardia
d. Increased ejection fraction
e. Hypertension
ANS: A, B, C
Clinical manifestations of heart transplant rejection include shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid gain, abdominal bloating, new-onset bradycardia, hypotension, atrial fibrillation or flutter, decreased activity tolerance, and decreased ejection fraction.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 703
KEY: Transplant| heart failure
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

9. A nurse assesses a client who is diagnosed with infective endocarditis. Which assessment findings should the nurse expect? (Select all that apply.)
a. Weight gain
b. Night sweats
c. Cardiac murmur
d. Abdominal bloating
e. Oslers nodes
ANS: B, C, E
Clinical manifestations of infective endocarditis include fever with chills, night sweats, malaise and fatigue, anorexia and weight loss, cardiac murmur, and Oslers nodes on palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Abdominal bloating is a manifestation of heart transplantation rejection.

DIF: Remembering/Knowledge REF: 697 KEY: Endocarditis
MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process: Assessment
NOT: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

Leave a Reply