Chapter 36: Preoperative and Postoperative Care Nursing School Test Banks

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. When planning care for a surgical patient, the nurse recognizes that surgical site infections account for what percentage of hospital-acquired infection?

a.

22% to 40%

b.

5% to 10%

c.

45% to 70%

d.

75% to 100%

ANS: A

The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that surgical site infections (SSIs) account for up to 16% of hospital-acquired infections. Current research indicates that 38% of hospital-acquired infections are surgical site infections.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 881

OBJ: Explain the rationale for preoperative procedures. TOP: Hospital-Acquired Infections

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. The goal of prophylactic antibiotic therapy is to protect the patient from infection with as little risk as possible. To achieve this goal, the nurse recognizes that antibiotics should be administered when they will be most beneficial. When would that be?

a.

Twenty-four hours before surgery

b.

For 2 weeks after surgery

c.

For no longer than 24 hours after surgery

d.

When signs of infection first appear

ANS: C

Overall, it is recommended that prophylactic antibiotics be given as close to the time of incision as possible (within 30 to 60 minutes) and not be given for longer than 24 hours postoperatively. However, vancomycin and fluoroquinolones may be given up to 2 hours before incision because of their longer infusion times. The goal of prophylactic antibiotic therapy is to protect the patient from infection with as little risk as possible. To achieve this goal, antibiotics must be administered when they will be most beneficial.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: pp. 881-882

OBJ: Describe the activities needed to prepare a patient for surgery.

TOP: Hospital-Acquired Infections KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. While planning care for a surgical patient, the nurse recognizes that which of the following effects of hyperglycemia is seen in the immediate postoperative period?

a.

Increases risk for infection in the diabetic patient only

b.

Decreases risk for surgical site infection

c.

Increases risk for infection in diabetic and nondiabetic patients

d.

Has no effect on the bodys ability to fight infection

ANS: C

The presence of hyperglycemia in the immediate postoperative period increases the risk for infection in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The higher the serum glucose, the greater the potential for infection in both patient groups. Hyperglycemia has been shown to inhibit the bodys ability to fight infection. Immediate postoperative glucose control also has been correlated with a reduction in surgical infection.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 882

OBJ: Explain the rationale for preoperative procedures. TOP: Hyperglycemia

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. The nurse is to obtain an informed consent for a patient before surgery is performed. The nurse recognizes that which of the following statements is true?

a.

Informed consent is required by law to protect the surgeon in case of an adverse outcome.

b.

Only the patient can sign a surgical consent.

c.

The nurses legal responsibility is to ensure that the patient understands the information presented.

d.

The surgeon should give the patient information about the surgery.

ANS: D

The surgeon should give the patient information about the extent and type of surgery, alternative therapies, usual risks and benefits, and consequences of not having surgery in a nonthreatening manner, as outlined in The Patient Care Partnership developed by the American Hospital Association (AHA). Informed consent is required by law to help protect patients rights, their autonomy, and their privacy. The patient or the patients legal guardian must sign a surgical consent form that includes this information. If the patients cultural practices include male dominance, the husband, father, or oldest brother of a female patient also may need to sign the consent form. It is the nurses ethical (not legal) responsibility, acting as the patients advocate, to ensure that the patient understands the information. See institutional policy regarding consent.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 883

OBJ: Explain the rationale for preoperative procedures. TOP: Informed Consent

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. The nurse is planning care for a preoperative patient. Which intervention is implemented to ensure safe nursing care?

a.

Allowing the patient to have ice chips

b.

Always keeping the patient NPO for 12 to 14 hours before

c.

Allowing the patient to brush teeth and swallow water

d.

Allowing the patient to take specifically ordered oral medications with small amounts of water

ANS: D

Patients may take oral medications with sips of water (30 mL) if they are specially ordered to be taken preoperatively (e.g., antiarrhythmic or seizure medications). All other oral medications are withheld. The nurse must later check postoperative orders to ensure that scheduled medications unrelated to surgery are not forgotten. In general, food and fluids are withheld for 4 to 8 hours before surgery requiring general anesthesia, to minimize the risk for aspiration. Patients may brush their teeth but should not swallow water.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 886

OBJ: Adequately prepare a patient for surgery.

TOP: Preoperative Medication Administration

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. The nurse is providing the patient with preoperative education. When the nurse informs the patient that she will not be able to wear makeup, the patient states, But I never go anywhere without my makeup. The nurses response is based on what rationale?

a.

She will speak with the surgeon to see if he will make an exception.

b.

The patient may wear makeup if she insists.

c.

Makeup makes it difficult for the surgeon to assess the patient.

d.

Makeup impedes circulation.

ANS: C

Instruct the patient to remove hairpins, clips, wigs, hairpieces, jewelry, including rings used in body piercings, and makeup (including nail polish and acrylic nails). Makeup, nail polish, and false nails impede the assessment of skin and oxygenation. In addition, acrylic nails harbor pathogenic organisms. Makeup does not impede circulation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 886

OBJ: Adequately prepare a patient for surgery. TOP: Makeup

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7. The patient is in the hospital awaiting surgery. When asked to remove her jewelry, the patient asks why she needs to remove her navel ring. What explanation should the nurse provide?

a.

The navel ring may impede assessment of the skin.

b.

The navel ring may decrease circulation.

c.

She may leave it in place if she chooses.

d.

The navel ring may cause injury.

ANS: D

Hair appliances and jewelry anywhere on the body may become dislodged and cause injury during positioning and intubation. Navel rings probably would not impede assessment or decrease circulation. Due to the risk of injury if left in place, allowing the patient to leave the ring in place is not an option.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text reference: p. 886

OBJ: Adequately prepare a patient for surgery. TOP: Jewelry

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. A patient who is scheduled for colon surgery is wearing a simple wedding band that he cannot remove. Which intervention is implemented to provide safe patient care?

a.

Get the ring cutter from the emergency department and cut the ring off.

b.

Call the physician and cancel the surgery.

c.

Tape the wedding ring in place.

d.

Call the physician for an order for extra antibiotics.

ANS: C

Tape in place wedding rings that cannot be removed. Be careful not to create a tourniquet effect with tape around the finger.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 886

OBJ: Adequately prepare a patient for surgery. TOP: Jewelry

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

9. The nurse is helping the patient prepare for surgery. The patient has removed her jewelry and glasses. Which action should the nurse take to keep the jewelry safe?

a.

Put these items in the patients bedside stand.

b.

Inventory the items and give them to the family.

c.

Place the items in a plastic bag and send them to the OR with the patient.

d.

Keep these items with her until the patient returns.

ANS: B

Inventory the items and give them to family members, or have security lock them up. Document a list of items and their locations in a preoperative checklist and/or in the nurses notes per agency policy. Valuables left in the patients room may be lost or stolen. Items not secured could be misplaced or lost. Keeping the items with the nurse creates a liability for the nurse.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 886

OBJ: Adequately prepare a patient for surgery. TOP: Jewelry

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

10. In planning care for a surgical patient, the patient asks the nurse what may be left on during the surgery. Understanding patient safety, the nurse tells the patient that which item may remain in place?

a.

Hearing aid

b.

Artificial limb

c.

Pair of eyeglasses

d.

Pair of contact lenses

ANS: A

The only item the might be left in place is a hearing aid. If the patient will be required to follow instructions in the operating room, allow the patient to keep the hearing aid in place. Otherwise remove prostheses, including dentures and oral appliances, glasses and contact lenses, artificial limbs and eyes, and artificial eyelashes. Prostheses can be lost or damaged during surgery and could cause injury. Oral appliances may occlude the airway.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 886

OBJ: Adequately prepare a patient for surgery. TOP: Hearing Aids

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. In planning surgical care for an older adult patient, the nurse recognizes which of the following as causing the greatest risk for surgery?

a.

Increased tactile sense

b.

Decreased glomerular filtration rate

c.

Increased numbers of red blood cells

d.

Decreased rigidity of arterial walls

ANS: B

Reduced glomerular filtration rate and excretory times limit the ability to remove drugs or toxic substances. Assess for adverse effects of medications. Older adults usually will have sensory losses, reduced numbers of red blood cells, and increased rigidity of the arterial walls.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 889

OBJ: Adequately prepare a patient for surgery.

TOP: Gerontological Consideration KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

12. When providing care for an ambulatory surgical patient, the nurse recognizes that which assessment indicates that the patient meets discharge criteria?

a.

The patient is able to drive home alone.

b.

Some respiratory depression is evident.

c.

The oxygen saturation level is at 85%.

d.

No intravenous (IV) narcotics have been given in the past 30 minutes.

ANS: D

An ambulatory surgical patient meets discharge criteria when no IV narcotics have been administered for the past 30 minutes, a responsible adult is present to accompany the patient home, respiratory depression is not present, and oxygen saturation is greater than 90%.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 888

OBJ: Discuss the differences in nursing assessment during the immediate postoperative period and the convalescent phase of recovery. TOP: Discharge From Ambulatory Care Surgery

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. As a patient is prepared for surgery, which finding indicates that the nurse should inform the surgeon that the surgery may need to be postponed?

a.

The patient has a history of smoking.

b.

The patient is experiencing calf pain, redness, and swelling.

c.

The patient has an increased hemoglobin level.

d.

The patient experienced an upper respiratory infection a month ago.

ANS: B

Observe the calves for redness, warmth, and tenderness. Palpate pedal pulses. If a thrombus is suspected, notify the physician and refrain from manipulating the extremity any further. Surgery usually will be postponed. Any condition that affects chest wall movement such as obesity, advanced pregnancy, thoracic or abdominal surgery, history of smoking, or presence of reduced hemoglobin level can increase the risk for postoperative complications but will not necessarily require postponement of surgery. Assess and report to the physician and/or the anesthesiologist if the patient has had a cold or an upper respiratory infection within the past week.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text reference: p. 891

OBJ: Discuss the differences in nursing assessment during the immediate postoperative period and the convalescent phase of recovery. TOP: Possible DVT

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. The patient has been taught how to use diaphragmatic breathing. When the patient returns from surgery, however, he cannot be placed upright and must remain flat. What does the nurse tell the patient about performing the diaphragmatic exercises?

a.

Diaphragmatic breathing cannot be done in this position.

b.

Alternative breathing exercises need to be found.

c.

Diaphragmatic breathing exercises still can be performed.

d.

Diaphragmatic breathing exercises may be postponed.

ANS: C

Although performing the diaphragmatic exercises in the upright position is ideal, the patient can still benefit from performing the exercises while laying flat. The upright position is preferred because it facilitates diaphragmatic excursion by using gravity to keep abdominal contents away from the diaphragm. It prevents tension on the abdominal muscles, which allows for greater diaphragmatic excursion.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 892

OBJ: Successfully instruct a patient in performing postoperative exercises.

TOP: Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercises

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Intervention MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

15. When teaching the patient about positive expiratory pressure therapy (PEP) and huff coughing, the nurse incorporates which of the following in the plan of care?

a.

Instruct the patient to remain flat in bed.

b.

Place a nose clip on the patients nose.

c.

Instruct the patient to breathe through his nose.

d.

Instruct the patient to exhale with long slow breaths.

ANS: B

Instruct the patient to assume semi-Fowlers or high-Fowlers position, and place a nose clip on the patients nose. Have the patient place his lips around the mouthpiece. Instruct the patient to exhale in quick, short, forced huffs. Huff coughing, or forced expiratory technique, promotes bronchial hygiene by increasing expectoration of secretions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 893

OBJ: Successfully instruct a patient in performing postoperative exercises.

TOP: Teaching Positive Expiratory Pressure Therapy (PEP) and Huff Coughing

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Intervention MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

16. When providing teaching to a patient, which action is important to help the patient in performing controlled coughing?

a.

Repeat the breathing exercises twice.

b.

Cough two to three times and inhale between coughs.

c.

Place a pillow over the incisional site for splinting.

d.

Use the chest and shoulder muscles while inhaling during diaphragmatic breathing.

ANS: C

If the surgical incision is to be thoracic or abdominal, teach the patient to place a pillow over the incisional area and to place his hands over the pillow to splint the incision. The patient should begin by taking two or three slow, deep breaths inhaling through the nose and exhaling through the mouth. On the third inhale he should hold the breath to a count of 3. The patient will then cough fully for two to three consecutive coughs without inhaling between coughs. Teach the patient to avoid using chest and shoulder muscles while inhaling.. The patient will do this 2 to 3 times every hour he is awake.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 893

OBJ: Successfully instruct a patient in performing postoperative exercises.

TOP: Teaching Controlled Coughing and Splinting

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Intervention MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

17. When providing care for a postoperative patient, it is important for the nurse to include which postoperative exercise?

a.

Turning every 4 hours

b.

Completing leg exercises once daily

c.

Repeating individual leg exercises 20 times

d.

Performing exercises with the unaffected extremities

ANS: D

A leg unaffected by surgery can be exercised safely unless the patient has preexisting phlebothrombosis (blood clot formation) or thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the vein wall).

Instruct the patient to turn every 2 hours from side to back to the other side while awake. Have the patient continue to practice exercises at least every 2 hours while awake and repeat exercises 5 times. Instruct the patient to coordinate turning and leg exercises with diaphragmatic breathing, incentive spirometry, and coughing exercises.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: pp. 894-895

OBJ: Successfully instruct a patient in performing postoperative exercises.

TOP: Teaching Postoperative Exercises KEY: Nursing Process Step: Intervention

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

18. When planning care for a PACU or recovery room patient, how often should the nurse plan to assess the patient?

a.

Every 5 minutes

b.

Every 15 minutes

c.

Every 30 minutes

d.

Hourly

ANS: B

Conduct complete assessment of all vital signs. Compare findings with the patients normal baseline. Continue assessing vital signs at least every 15 minutes until the patients condition stabilizes.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 898

OBJ: Discuss the differences in nursing assessment during the immediate postoperative period and the convalescent phase of recovery. TOP: Assessment of Patient in PACU

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. When providing care for a patient who has received spinal anesthesia, the nurse recognizes that which position prevents spinal headaches?

a.

Prone

b.

Lying on the side

c.

Supine, with the head flat

d.

Trendelenburgs position

ANS: C

Position patients with spinal anesthetic supine, without elevation of the head, for up to 24 hours to prevent spinal headache from loss of cerebrospinal fluid. Increased IV or PO fluids aid the body in replacing cerebrospinal fluid.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 900

OBJ: Discuss the differences in nursing assessment during the immediate postoperative period and the convalescent phase of recovery. TOP: Positioning of Patient in PACU

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

20. While providing care for a postsurgical patient who has not received spinal anesthesia, the nurse recognizes that which position is required to maintain a patent airway in the recovery phase?

a.

On his side with head facing down and neck slightly extended

b.

On his side with head facing down and neck slightly flexed

c.

On his back with hands over the chest

d.

On his side with head facing up and neck slightly extended

ANS: A

Position the patient on his side with head facing down and neck slightly extended. Extension prevents occlusion of the airway at the pharynx. A downward position of the head moves the tongue forward, and mucus or vomitus can drain out of the mouth, preventing aspiration. Never position the patient with hands over the chest (reduces chest expansion).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 900

OBJ: Discuss the differences in nursing assessment during the immediate postoperative period and the convalescent phase of recovery. TOP: Positioning of Patient in PACU

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

21. The nurse is providing care for a patient who is recovering in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Given that the patient is restricted to the supine position, which intervention provides the patient with adequate chest expansion?

a.

Keeping the bed flat during recovery

b.

Positioning the patients hands over his chest

c.

Flexing the neck and turning the head to the side

d.

Extending the neck and turning the head to the side

ANS: D

If the patient is restricted to a supine position, elevate the head of the bed approximately 10 to 15 degrees, extend the neck, and turn the head to the side. Never position the patient with his hands over his chest (reduces chest expansion).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 900

OBJ: Discuss the differences in nursing assessment during the immediate postoperative period and the convalescent phase of recovery. TOP: Positioning of Patient in PACU

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

22. A patient is being transferred to a room from the PACU. What should the nurse do upon transfer?

a.

Remove the indwelling urinary catheter.

b.

Turn off the nasogastric tube suction.

c.

Use a black pen to note drainage on the dressing.

d.

Change the dressing immediately when the patient reaches the room.

ANS: C

Mark the dressing with a circle around the drainage using a black pen. Never use a felt tip marker to mark the dressing because ink can bleed into the gauze, contaminating the incision site. Once the patient is transferred to the bed, immediately attach any existing oxygen tubing, hang IV fluids, check the IV flow rate, attach a nasogastric (NG) tube to suction, and place an indwelling catheter in drainage position. Reinforce the pressure dressing, or change a simple dressing as ordered and needed. First dressing changes most often occur 24 hours postoperatively and usually are done by the physician.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 901

OBJ: Conduct an assessment of a postoperative patient. TOP: Assessing Dressing

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

23. The nurse explains to the patient that the incentive spirometer is used to promote which of the following outcomes?

a.

Lung expansion

b.

Reduce likelihood of vascular complications

c.

Incisional healing

d.

Expectoration of mucus

ANS: A

The use of the incentive spirometer promotes lung expansion. The visual incentive provided by the device encourages the patient to breathe as deeply as possible. Huff coughing is used to promote expectoration of mucus. Repositioning the patient regularly reduces the risk for vascular complications. While adequate oxygenation is needed for wound healing, the use of the incentive spirometer is not recommended for that outcome.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 893

OBJ: Conduct an assessment of a postoperative patient. TOP: Incentive Spirometry

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

24. When assessing a postoperative patient, the nurse notes tenderness, redness, and swelling in the left calf. What should the nurse do next?

a.

Massage the lower leg.

b.

Contact the surgeon and prepare for heparin therapy.

c.

Keep the leg in a dependent position.

d.

Have the patient exercise that extremity.

ANS: B

Calf tenderness, redness, and edema in the lower extremity are signs and symptoms of venous thrombosis or thrombophlebitis. Notify the surgeon and anticipate orders for bed rest, leg elevation, and initiation of anticoagulation (e.g., heparin intravenous drip). Do not massage the affected leg. Continue to have the patient do leg exercises with the unaffected leg, not the affected leg.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text reference: p. 905

OBJ: Conduct an assessment of a postoperative patient. TOP: DVT

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

25. The nurse understands that paralytic ileus is a possible postoperative complication. Which assessment provides the nurse with information about this postoperative complication?

a.

Auscultating for bowel sounds every 4 hours

b.

Checking blood pressure while sitting and standing

c.

Observing the patients performance of leg exercises

d.

Palpating the suprapubic region for distention

ANS: A

Paralytic ileus can develop as a common complication after bowel or abdominal surgery. Intestinal motility may return slowly, depending on anesthetic effects. Assess for bowel

sounds and flatus every 4 hours. A blood pressure check has little to do with paralytic ileus and is an assessment done before ambulation. Leg exercises may help prevent venous stasis and thrombosis, but observing them will not help you to detect a paralytic ileus. Palpation of the suprapubic region is part of the assessment for bladder distention.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 905

OBJ: Conduct an assessment of a postoperative patient. TOP: Paralytic Ileus

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

26. Upon entering a patients room, the nurse finds that the abdominal surgical wound has eviscerated. Which intervention is safest for the nurse to implement?

a.

Cover the site with dry sterile dressings.

b.

Report the incident to the oncoming shift.

c.

Attempt to replace the organs.

d.

Cover the site with saline-soaked sterile gauze.

ANS: D

Report wound dehiscence and/or evisceration to the surgeon immediately because it could be life threatening. If evisceration has occurred, cover abdominal contents with sterile gauze saturated with sterile normal saline, and prepare the patient for emergency surgery.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 905

OBJ: Conduct an assessment of a postoperative patient. TOP: Wound Evisceration

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which of the following have been identified as evidence-based guidelines to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs)? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Prepping the surgical site with a razor followed by an antiseptic scrub

b.

Giving antibiotics immediately after the procedure

c.

Maintaining blood glucose levels

d.

Maintaining normal body temperatures

e.

Maintaining proper positioning

ANS: C, D

Four evidence-based guidelines have been identified to reduce SSIs: Do not remove hair unless it will interfere with the operation, and remove it with electrical clippers if possible; give the correct antibiotic preoperatively and at the appropriate time; maintain blood glucose postoperatively, especially for patients undergoing cardiac surgery; and maintain normothermia.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text reference: pp. 881-882

OBJ: Explain the rationale for preoperative procedures. TOP: Hospital-Acquired Infections

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. Therapies and regimens designed to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) include which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Pneumatic compression stockings

b.

Venous foot pump

c.

Low-molecular-weight heparin

d.

Fondaparinux

e.

Elspar

ANS: A, B, C, D

Mechanical therapies include the use of graduated compression stockings along with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) or a venous foot pump (VFP). The VFP is limited primarily to when IPC cannot be used, as when surgery or injury occurs to the affected lower extremity. Pharmacological regimens that include the administration of low-dose unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, factor Xa inhibitor (fondaparinux), or warfarin are recommended. Elspar is a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat which can increase the risk for clot formation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text reference: p. 882

OBJ: Explain the rationale for preoperative procedures.

TOP: Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Therapies

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. Being overweight or obese increases the risk for many diseases and health conditions, including which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Hypertension

b.

Coronary heart disease

c.

Sleep apnea

d.

Respiratory problems

e.

Hypotension

ANS: A, B, C, D

Being overweight or obese increases the risk for many diseases and health conditions, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and respiratory problems. These conditions increase risks for postoperative complications. Hypotension is not a complication of obesity.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text reference: p. 882

OBJ: Explain the rationale for preoperative procedures. TOP: Obesity

KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

Leave a Reply