Chapter 37: Impact of Cognitive or Sensory Impairment on the Child and Family Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 37: Impact of Cognitive or Sensory Impairment on the Child and Family

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A young child who has an intelligence quotient (IQ) of 45 would be described as:

a.

Within the lower limits of the range of normal intelligence.

b.

Mildly cognitively impaired but educable.

c.

Moderately cognitively impaired but trainable.

d.

Severely cognitively impaired and completely dependent on others for care.

ANS: C

Moderately cognitively impaired IQs range from 35 to 55. The lower limit of normal intelligence is approximately 70 to 75. Individuals with IQs of 50 to 70 are considered mildly cognitively impaired but educable. An IQ of 20 to 40 results in severe cognitive impairment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1085

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

2. When a child with mild cognitive impairment reaches the end of adolescence, what characteristic would be expected?

a.

Achieves a mental age of 5 to 6 years

b.

Achieves a mental age of 8 to 12 years

c.

Is unable to progress in functional reading or arithmetic

d.

Acquires practical skills and useful reading and arithmetic to an eighth-grade level

ANS: B

By the end of adolescence, the child with mild cognitive impairment can usually acquire social and vocational skills, may need occasional guidance and support when under unusual social or economic stress, and may be able to adjust to marriage but not childrearing. Achieving a mental age of 5 to 6 years is considered a level of skill development associated with severe cognitive impairment. Being unable to progress in functional reading or math would indicate a level of skill development associated with profound cognitive impairment. Acquiring practical skills and useful reading and math to an eighth-grade level represents a level of skill development associated with moderate cognitive impairment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1085

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

3. When should children with cognitive impairment be referred for stimulation and educational programs?

a.

As young as possible

b.

As soon as they have the ability to communicate in some way

c.

At age 3 years, when schools are required to provide services

d.

At age 5 or 6 years, when schools are required to provide services

ANS: A

The childs education should begin as soon as possible. Considerable evidence exists that early intervention programs for children with disabilities are valuable for cognitively impaired children. The early intervention may facilitate the childs development of communication skills. States are encouraged to provide early intervention programs from birth under Public Law 101-476, the Individuals with Disabilities Act.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1100

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

4. The major consideration when selecting toys for a child who is cognitively impaired is:

a.

Safety.

c.

Ability to provide exercise.

b.

Age appropriateness.

d.

Ability to teach useful skills.

ANS: A

Safety is the primary concern in selecting recreational and exercise activities for all children. This is especially true for children who are cognitively impaired. Age appropriateness, the ability to provide exercise, and the ability to teach useful skills are all factors to consider in the selection of toys, but safety is of paramount importance.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1087

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment

5. Appropriate interventions to facilitate socialization of the cognitively impaired child include to:

a.

Provide age-appropriate toys and play activities.

b.

Provide peer experiences such as Special Olympics when older.

c.

Avoid exposure to strangers who may not understand cognitive development.

d.

Emphasize mastery of physical skills because they are delayed more often than verbal skills.

ANS: B

The acquisition of social skills is a complex task. Children of all ages need peer relationships. Parents should enroll the child in preschool. When older, the child should have peer experiences similar to other children, such as group outings, Boy or Girl Scouts, and Special Olympics. Providing age-appropriate toys and play activities is important, but peer interactions will facilitate social development. Parents should expose the child to strangers so the child can practice social skills. Verbal skills are delayed more than physical skills.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1087

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

6. When caring for a newborn with Down syndrome, the nurse should be aware that the most common congenital anomaly associated with Down syndrome is:

a.

Hypospadias.

c.

Congenital heart disease.

b.

Pyloric stenosis.

d.

Congenital hip dysplasia.

ANS: C

Congenital heart malformations, primarily septal defects, are very common congenital anomalies in Down syndrome. Hypospadias, pyloric stenosis, and congenital hip dysplasia are not frequent congenital anomalies associated with Down syndrome.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1090

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

7. Mark, a 9-year-old with Down syndrome, is mainstreamed into a regular third-grade class for part of the school day. His mother asks the school nurse about programs such as Cub Scouts that he might join. The nurses recommendation should be based on knowing that:

a.

Programs such as Cub Scouts are inappropriate for children who are cognitively impaired.

b.

Children with Down syndrome have the same need for socialization as other children.

c.

Children with Down syndrome socialize better with children who have similar disabilities.

d.

Parents of children with Down syndrome encourage programs such as scouting because they deny that their children have disabilities.

ANS: B

Children of all ages need peer relationships. Children with Down syndrome should have peer experiences similar to those of other children, such as group outings, Cub Scouts, and Special Olympics, which can all help children with cognitive impairment to develop socialization skills. Although all children should have an opportunity to form a close relationship with someone of the same developmental level, it is appropriate for children with disabilities to develop relationships with children who do not have disabilities. The parents are acting as advocates for their child.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1090

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

8. A newborn assessment shows separated sagittal suture, oblique palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, protruding tongue, and transverse palmar creases. These findings are most suggestive of:

a.

Microcephaly.

c.

Cerebral palsy.

b.

Down syndrome.

d.

Fragile X syndrome.

ANS: B

These are characteristics associated with Down syndrome. The infant with microcephaly has a small head. Cerebral palsy is a diagnosis not usually made at birth. No characteristic physical signs are present. The infant with fragile X syndrome has increased head circumference; long, wide, and/or protruding ears; long, narrow face with prominent jaw; hypotonia; and high, arched palate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1090

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

9. The child with Down syndrome should be evaluated for what characteristic before participating in some sports?

a.

Hyperflexibility

c.

Atlantoaxial instability

b.

Cutis marmorata

d.

Speckling of iris (Brushfields spots)

ANS: C

Children with Down syndrome are at risk for atlantoaxial instability. Before participating in sports that put stress on the head and neck, a radiologic examination should be done. Although hyperflexibility, cutis marmorata, and Brushfields spots are characteristics of Down syndrome, they do not affect the childs ability to participate in sports.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1090

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

10. Which action is contraindicated when a child with Down syndrome is hospitalized?

a.

Determine the childs vocabulary for specific body functions.

b.

Assess the childs hearing and visual capabilities.

c.

Encourage parents to leave the child alone for extended periods of time.

d.

Have meals served at the childs usual mealtimes.

ANS: C

The child with Down syndrome needs routine schedules and consistency. Having familiar people present, especially parents, helps to decrease the childs anxiety. To communicate effectively with the child, it is important to know the childs particular vocabulary for specific body functions. Children with Down syndrome have a high incidence of hearing loss and vision problems and should have hearing and vision assessed whenever they are in a health care facility. Meals should be served at the usual mealtimes because routine schedules and consistency are important to children with Down syndrome.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1090

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

11. The pediatric nurse understands that fragile X syndrome is:

a.

A chromosome defect affecting only females.

b.

A chromosome defect that follows the pattern of X-linked recessive disorders.

c.

The second most common genetic cause of cognitive impairment.

d.

The most common cause of noninherited cognitive impairment.

ANS: C

Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of cognitive impairment and the second most common genetic cause of cognitive impairment after Down syndrome. Fragile X primarily affects males and follows the pattern of X-linked dominant disorders with reduced penetrance.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1092

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

12. Distortion of sound and problems in discrimination are characteristic of which type of hearing loss?

a.

Conductive

c.

Mixed conductive-sensorineural

b.

Sensorineural

d.

Central auditory imperceptive

ANS: B

Sensorineural hearing loss, also known as perceptive or nerve deafness, involves damage to the inner ear structures or the auditory nerve. It results in distortion of sounds and problems in discrimination. Conductive hearing loss involves mainly interference with loudness of sound. Mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss manifests as a combination of both sensorineural and conductive loss. The central auditory imperceptive category includes all hearing losses that do not demonstrate defects in the conduction or sensory structures.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1093

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

13. The most common type of hearing loss, which results from interference of transmission of sound to the middle ear, is called:

a.

Conductive.

c.

Mixed conductive-sensorineural.

b.

Sensorineural.

d.

Central auditory imperceptive.

ANS: A

Conductive or middle-ear hearing loss is the most common type. It results from interference of transmission of sound to the middle ear, most often from recurrent otitis media. Sensorineural, mixed conductive-sensorineural, and central auditory imperceptive are less common types of hearing loss.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1093

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

14. A parent asks the nurse why a developmental assessment is being conducted for a child during a routine well-child visit. The nurse answers based on the knowledge that routine developmental assessments during well-child visits are:

a.

Not necessary unless the parents request them.

b.

The best method for early detection of cognitive disorders.

c.

Frightening to parents and children and should be avoided.

d.

Valuable in measuring intelligence in children.

ANS: B

Early detection of cognitive disorders can be facilitated through assessment of development at each well-child examination. Developmental assessment is a component of all well-child examinations; however, they are not intended to measure intelligence. Developmental assessments are not frightening when the parent and child are educated about the purpose of the assessment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1086

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. The nurse is talking with a 10-year-old boy who wears bilateral hearing aids. The left hearing aid is making an annoying whistling sound that the child cannot hear. The most appropriate nursing action is to:

a.

Ignore the sound.

b.

Ask him to reverse the hearing aids in his ears.

c.

Suggest that he reinsert the hearing aid.

d.

Suggest that he raise the volume of the hearing aid.

ANS: C

The whistling sound is acoustic feedback. The nurse should have the child remove the hearing aid and reinsert it, making sure that no hair is caught between the ear mold and the ear canal. Ignoring the sound and suggesting that he raise the volume of the hearing aid would be annoying to others. The hearing aids are molded specifically for each ear.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1094

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. An implanted ear prosthesis for children with sensorineural hearing loss is a(n):

a.

Hearing aid.

c.

Auditory implant.

b.

Cochlear implant.

d.

Amplification device.

ANS: B

Cochlear implants are surgically implanted, and they provide a sensation of hearing for individuals who have severe or profound hearing loss of sensorineural origin. Hearing aids are external devices for enhancing hearing. An auditory implant does not exist. An amplification device is an external device for enhancing hearing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1094

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

17. Which action best facilitates lipreading by the hearing-impaired child?

a.

Speaking at an even rate

b.

Exaggerating pronunciation of words

c.

Avoiding using facial expressions

d.

Repeating in exactly the same way if child does not understand

ANS: A

The child should be helped to learn and understand how to read lips by speaking at an even rate. Exaggerating word pronunciation, avoiding facial expressions, and repeating words are characteristics of communication that would interfere with the childs comprehension of the spoken word.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1095

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

18. Prevention of hearing impairment in children is a major goal for the nurse. This can be achieved through:

a.

Being involved in immunization clinics for children.

b.

Assessing a newborn for hearing loss.

c.

Answering parents questions about hearing aids.

d.

Participating in hearing screening in the community.

ANS: A

Childhood immunizations can eliminate the possibility of acquired sensorineural hearing loss from rubella, mumps, or measles encephalitis. Assessing a newborn for hearing loss, answering parents questions about hearing aids, and participating in community hearing screenings are screening interventions to identify the presence of hearing loss, not prevention.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1097

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

19. Which term refers to opacity of the crystalline lens that prevents light rays from entering the eye and refracting on the retina?

a.

Myopia

c.

Cataract

b.

Amblyopia

d.

Glaucoma

ANS: C

A cataract refers to opacity of the crystalline lens that prevents light rays from entering the eye and refracting on the retina. Myopia, or nearsightedness, refers to the ability to see objects clearly at close range but not at a distance. Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is reduced visual acuity in one eye. Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1099

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. A nurse would suspect possible visual impairment in a child who displays:

a.

Excessive rubbing of the eyes.

b.

Rapid lateral movement of the eyes.

c.

Delay in speech development.

d.

Lack of interest in casual conversation with peers.

ANS: A

Excessive rubbing of the eyes is a clinical manifestation of visual impairment. Rapid lateral movement of the eyes, delay in speech development, and lack of interest in casual conversation with peers are not associated with visual impairment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1099

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

21. The school nurse is caring for a child with a penetrating eye injury. Emergency treatment includes:

a.

Applying a regular eye patch.

b.

Applying a Fox shield to the affected eye and any type of patch to the other eye.

c.

Applying ice until the physician is seen.

d.

Irrigating the eye copiously with a sterile saline solution.

ANS: B

The nurses role in a penetrating eye injury is to prevent further injury to the eye. A Fox shield (if available) should be applied to the injured eye, and a regular eye patch to the other eye to prevent bilateral movement. Applying a regular eye patch or ice until the physician is seen, or irrigating the eye with a copious amount of sterile saline, may cause more damage to the eye.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1099

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

22. A father calls the emergency department nurse saying that his daughters eyes burn after getting some dishwasher detergent in them. The nurse recommends that the child be seen in the emergency department or by an ophthalmologist. What should the nurse recommend before the child is transported?

a.

Keep the eyes closed.

b.

Apply cold compresses.

c.

Irrigate eyes copiously with tap water for 20 minutes.

d.

Prepare a normal saline solution (salt and water) and irrigate eyes for 20 minutes.

ANS: C

The first action is to flush the eyes with clean tap water. This will rinse the detergent from the eyes. Keeping the eyes closed and applying cold compresses may allow the detergent to do further harm to the eyes during transport. Normal saline is not necessary. The delay during preparation can allow the detergent to cause continued injury to the eyes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1099

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

23. An adolescent gets hit in the eye during a fight. The school nurse, using a flashlight, notes the presence of gross hyphema (hemorrhage into anterior chamber). The nurse should:

a.

Apply a Fox shield.

b.

Instruct the adolescent to apply ice for 24 hours.

c.

Have adolescent rest with eye closed and ice applied.

d.

Notify parents that adolescent needs to see an ophthalmologist.

ANS: D

The parents should be notified that the adolescent must see an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. Applying a Fox shield, instructing the adolescent to apply ice for 24 hours, and having the adolescent rest with the eye closed and ice applied may cause further damage.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1099

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

24. The most common clinical manifestation of retinoblastoma is:

a.

Glaucoma.

c.

White eye reflex.

b.

Amblyopia.

d.

Sunken eye socket.

ANS: C

When examining the eye, the light will reflect off of the tumor, giving the eye a whitish appearance. This is called white eye reflex. A late sign of retinoblastoma is a red, painful eye with glaucoma. Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is reduced visual acuity in one eye. The eye socket is not sunken with retinoblastoma.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1102

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

25. A parent whose child has been diagnosed with a cognitive deficit should be counseled that intellectual impairment:

a.

Is usually due to a genetic defect.

b.

May be caused by a variety of factors.

c.

Is rarely due to first-trimester events.

d.

Is usually caused by parental intellectual impairment.

ANS: B

There are a multitude of causes for intellectual impairment. In most cases, a specific cause has not been identified. Only a small percentage of children with intellectual impairment are affected by a genetic defect. One third of children with intellectual impairment are affected by first-trimester events. Intellectual impairment can be transmitted to a child only if the parent has a genetic disorder.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1084

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

26. An appropriate nursing diagnosis for a child with a cognitive dysfunction who has a limited ability to anticipate danger is:

a.

Impaired Social Interaction.

c.

Risk for Injury.

b.

Deficient Knowledge.

d.

Ineffective Coping.

ANS: C

The nurse needs to know that limited cognitive abilities to anticipate danger lead to risk for injury. Impaired social interaction is indeed a concern for the child with a cognitive disorder but does not address the limited ability to anticipate danger. Because of the childs cognitive deficit, knowledge will not be retained and will not decrease the risk for injury. Ineffective individual coping does not address the limited ability to anticipate danger.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1085

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

27. A nurse is providing a parent information regarding autism. Which statement made by the parent indicates understanding of the teaching?

a.

Autism is characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation.

b.

The onset of autism usually occurs before 3 years of age.

c.

Children with autism have imitation and gesturing skills.

d.

Autism can be treated effectively with medication.

ANS: B

The onset of autism usually occurs before 3 years of age. Autism does not have periods of remission and exacerbation. Autistic children lack imitative skills. Medications are of limited use in children with autism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1104

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

28. What should the nurse keep in mind when planning to communicate with a child who has autism?

a.

The child has normal verbal communication.

b.

The child is expected to use sign language.

c.

The child may exhibit monotone speech and echolalia.

d.

The child is not listening if she is not looking at the nurse.

ANS: C

Children with autism have abnormalities in the production of speech, such as a monotone voice or echolalia, or inappropriate volume, pitch, rate, rhythm, or intonation. The child has impaired verbal communication and abnormalities in the production of speech. Some autistic children may use sign language, but it is not assumed. Children with autism often are reluctant to initiate direct eye contact.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1104

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

29. Parents have learned that their 6-year-old child has autism. The nurse may help the parents to cope by explaining that the child may:

a.

Have an extremely developed skill in a particular area.

b.

Outgrow the condition by early adulthood.

c.

Have average social skills.

d.

Have age-appropriate language skills.

ANS: A

Some children with autism have an extremely developed skill in a particular area, such as mathematics or music. No evidence supports that autism is outgrown. Autistic children have abnormal ways of relating to people (social skills). Speech and language skills are usually delayed in autistic children.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1104

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

30. A child with autism is hospitalized with asthma. The nurse should plan care so that the:

a.

Parents expectations are met.

b.

Childs routine habits and preferences are maintained.

c.

Child is supported through the autistic crisis.

d.

Parents need not be at the hospital.

ANS: B

Children with autism are often unable to tolerate even slight changes in routine. The childs routine habits and preferences are important to maintain. Focus of care is on the childs needs rather than on the parents desires. Autism is a lifelong condition. The presence of the parents is almost always required when an autistic child is hospitalized.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1106

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

31. An adolescent male visits his primary care provider complaining of difficulty with his vision. When the nurse asks the adolescent to explain what visual deficits he is experiencing, the adolescent states, I am having difficulty seeing distant objects; they are less clear than things that are close. What disorder does the nurse suspect the adolescent has?

a.

Hyphema

c.

Amblyopia

b.

Astigmatism

d.

Myopia

ANS: D

Myopic patients have the ability to see near objects more clearly than those at a distance; it is caused by the image focusing beyond the retina. Hyphema includes hemorrhage in the anterior chamber and is not a refractive disorder. Astigmatism is caused by an abnormal curvature of the cornea or lens. Amblyopia is a problem of reduced visual acuity not correctable by refraction.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1097

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

32. A 10-year-old patient is talking to the nurse about wanting to try contact lenses instead of wearing glasses. She states that the other children at her school call her four-eyes. Contact lenses should be prescribed for a child who is:

a.

At least 12 years of age.

b.

Able to read all the written information and instructions.

c.

Able to independently care for the lenses in a responsible manner.

d.

Confident that she really wants contact lenses.

ANS: C

The child must be able to care for the lenses independently. Serious eye damage can occur with irresponsible use of contact lenses. Chronologic age is not the major determinant. A responsible 10-year-old child might be permitted to wear contact lenses. The ability to read does not indicate understanding of the instructions. Confidence and wanting do not equal responsibility.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1102

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

33. Which statement by a parent about a childs conjunctivitis indicates that further teaching is needed?

a.

Ill have separate towels and washcloths for each family member.

b.

Ill notify my doctor if the eye gets redder or the drainage increases.

c.

When the eye drainage improves, well stop giving the antibiotic ointment.

d.

After taking the antibiotic for 24 hours, my child can return to school.

ANS: C

The antibiotic should be continued for the full prescription. Maintaining separate towels and washcloths will prevent the other family members from acquiring the infection. If the infection proliferates, the physician should be contacted. The child should be kept home from school or day care until the child receives the antibiotic for 24 hours.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1103

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

34. Which teaching guideline helps prevent eye injuries during sports and play activities?

a.

Restrict helmet use to those who wear eyeglasses or contact lenses.

b.

Discourage the use of goggles with helmets.

c.

Wear eye protection when participating in high-risk sports such as paintball.

d.

Wear a face mask when playing any sport or playing roughly.

ANS: C

High-risk sports such as paintball can cause penetrating eye injuries. Eye protection should be worn. All children who participate in sports should be protected by the appropriate headgear. Goggles and helmets can and should be used concurrently. A face mask does not prevent damage to the childs head.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1099

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

35. The teaching plan for the parents of a 3-year-old child with amblyopia (lazy eye) should include what instruction?

a.

Apply a patch to the childs eyeglass lenses.

b.

Apply a patch only during waking hours.

c.

Apply a patch over the bad eye to strengthen it.

d.

Cover the good eye completely with a patch.

ANS: D

The good eye is patched to force the child to use the bad eye, thus strengthening the muscles. The patch should always be applied directly to the childs face, not to eyeglasses. The patch should be left in place even when the child is sleeping. Covering the bad eye will not contribute to strengthening it. The good eye should be patched.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1099

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

36. A 2-year-old girl has excessive tearing and corneal haziness. The nurse knows that these symptoms may indicate:

a.

Viral conjunctivitis.

c.

Congenital cataract.

b.

Paralytic strabismus.

d.

Infantile glaucoma.

ANS: D

Excessive tearing and corneal haziness are indicative of glaucoma. Because the child is younger than 3 years of age, it would be classified as infantile. Discharge is noted with conjunctivitis. Corneal haziness is not a symptom of conjunctivitis. Paralytic strabismus is caused by weakness or paralysis of one or more of the extraocular muscles. Neither tearing nor corneal haziness is a symptom of paralytic strabismus. Congenital cataract will present as an opacity, but not excessive tearing.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1099

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

37. The nurse is discussing sexuality with the parents of an adolescent girl with moderate cognitive impairment. Which should the nurse consider when dealing with this issue?

a.

Sterilization is recommended for any adolescent with cognitive impairment.

b.

Sexual drive and interest are limited in individuals with cognitive impairment.

c.

Individuals with cognitive impairment need a well-defined, concrete code of sexual conduct.

d.

Sexual intercourse rarely occurs unless the individual with cognitive impairment is sexually abused.

ANS: C

Adolescents with moderate cognitive impairment may be easily persuaded and lack judgment. A well-defined, concrete code of conduct with specific instructions for handling certain situations should be laid out for the adolescent. Permanent contraception by sterilization presents moral and ethical issues and may have psychologic effects on the adolescent. It may be prohibited in some states. The adolescent needs to have practical sexual information regarding physical development and contraception. Cognitively impaired individuals may desire to marry and have families. The adolescent needs to be protected from individuals who may make intimate advances.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1089

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

38. A nurse is preparing a teaching session for parents on prevention of childhood hearing loss. The nurse should include that the most common cause of hearing impairment in children is:

a.

Auditory nerve damage.

c.

Congenital rubella.

b.

Congenital ear defects.

d.

Chronic otitis media.

ANS: D

Chronic otitis media is the most common cause of hearing impairment in children. It is essential that appropriate measures be instituted to treat existing infections and prevent recurrences. Auditory nerve damage, congenital ear defects, and congenital rubella are rarer causes of hearing impairment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1093

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

39. The nurse is talking to the parent of a 13-month-old child. The mother states, My child does not make noises like da or na like my sisters baby, who is only 9 months old. Which statement by the nurse would be most appropriate to make?

a.

I am going to request a referral to a hearing specialist.

b.

You should not compare your child to your sisters child.

c.

I think your child is fine, but we will check again in 3 months.

d.

You should ask other parents what noises their children made at this age.

ANS: A

By 11 months of age, a child should be making well-formed syllables such as da or na and should be referred to a specialist if not. You should not compare your child to your sisters child, I think your child is fine, but we will check again in 3 months, and You should ask other parents what noises their children made at this age are not appropriate statements to make to the parent.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1095

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

40. A nurse is preparing to perform a dressing change on a 6-year-old child with mild cognitive impairment (CI) who sustained a minor burn. Which strategy should the nurse use to prepare the child for this procedure?

a.

Verbally explain what will be done.

b.

Have the child watch a video on dressing changes.

c.

Demonstrate a dressing change on a doll.

d.

Explain the importance of keeping the burn area clean.

ANS: C

Children with CI have a marked deficit in their ability to discriminate between two or more stimuli because of difficulty in recognizing the relevance of specific cues. However, these children can learn to discriminate if the cues are presented in an exaggerated, concrete form and if all extraneous stimuli are eliminated. Therefore, demonstration is preferable to verbal explanation, and learning should be directed toward mastering a skill rather than understanding the scientific principles underlying a procedure. Watching a video would require the use of both visual and auditory stimulation and might produce overload in the child with mild CI. Explaining the importance of keeping the burn area clean would be too abstract for the child.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1086

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

41. A child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. The nurse should plan which priority intervention when caring for the child?

a.

Maintain a structured routine and keep stimulation to a minimum.

b.

Place the child in a room with a roommate of the same age.

c.

Maintain frequent touch and eye contact with the child.

d.

Take the child frequently to the playroom to play with other children.

ANS: A

Providing a structured routine for the child to follow is key in the management of ASD. Decreasing stimulation by using a private room, avoiding extraneous auditory and visual distractions, and encouraging the parents to bring in possessions the child is attached to may lessen the disruptiveness of hospitalization. Because physical contact often upsets these children, minimum holding and eye contact may be necessary to avoid behavioral outbursts. Children with ASD need to be introduced slowly to new situations, with visits with staff caregivers kept short whenever possible. The playroom would be too overwhelming with new people and situations and should not be a priority of care.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1105

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Basic Care and Comfort

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

42. Autism is a complex developmental disorder. The diagnostic criteria for autism include delayed or abnormal functioning in which area(s) with onset before age 3 years (select all that apply)?

a.

Language as used in social communication

b.

Gross motor development

c.

Growth below the 5th percentile for height and weight

d.

Symbolic or imaginative play

e.

Social interaction

ANS: A, D, E

Language as used in social communication, symbolic or imaginative play, and social interaction are three of the areas in which autistic children may show delayed or abnormal functioning. Gross motor development and growth below the 5th percentile for height and weight are not areas in which autistic children may show delayed or abnormal functioning.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1106

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

43. Which interventions should the nurse plan when caring for a child with a visual impairment (select all that apply)?

a.

Touch the child upon entering the room before speaking.

b.

Keep items in the room in the same location.

c.

Describe the placement of the eating utensils on the meal tray.

d.

Use color examples to describe something to a child who has been blind since birth.

e.

Identify noises for the child.

ANS: B, C, E

Keep all items in the room in the same location and order. Describing how many steps away something is or the placement of eating utensils on a tray are both useful tactics. Identify noises for the child because children who are visually impaired or blind often have difficulty establishing the source of a noise. Never touch the child without identifying yourself and explaining what you plan to do. When describing objects or the environment to a child who is blind or visually impaired, use familiar terms. If the child has been blind since birth, color has no meaning.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1097

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

44. Which assessment findings indicate to the nurse a child has Down syndrome (select all that apply)?

a.

High-arched, narrow palate

b.

Protruding tongue

c.

Long, slender fingers

d.

Transverse palmar crease

e.

Hypertonic muscle tone

ANS: A, B, D

The assessment findings of Down syndrome include high-arched, narrow palate; protruding tongue; and transverse palmar creases. The fingers are stubby and the muscle tone is hypotonic, not hypertonic.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1090

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

45. A nurse is instructing a nursing assistant on techniques to facilitate lipreading with a hearing-impaired child who lip-reads. Which techniques should the nurse include (select all that apply)?

a.

Speak at eye level.

b.

Stand at a distance from the child.

c.

Speak words in a loud tone.

d.

Use facial expressions while speaking.

e.

Keep sentences short.

ANS: A, D, E

To facilitate lipreading for a hearing-impaired child who can lip-read, the speaker should be at eye level, facing the child directly or at a 45-degree angle. Facial expressions should be used to assist in conveying messages, and the sentences should be kept short. The speaker should stand close to the child, not at a distance. Using a loud tone while speaking will not facilitate lipreading.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1095

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care

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