Chapter 4: Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Practice Nursing School Test Banks

Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. In preparing to review different theories, the nurse reviews basic information to assist in understanding the material. Theories are defined as:

a.

Statements that describe concepts or connect concepts

b.

Mental formulations of objects or events

c.

Aspects of reality that can be consciously sensed

d.

Concepts or propositions that project a systematic view of phenomena

ANS: d

d. A theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relations, and assumptions that project a systematic view of phenomena.

a. Statements that describe concepts or connect concepts are called assumptions.

b. Mental formulations of objects or events are called concepts.

c. Aspects of reality that can be consciously sensed are called phenomena.

REF: Text Reference: p. 62

2. Different types of theories may be used by nurses seeking to study the basis of nursing practice. When the goal of a theory is to speculate on why phenomena occur, it is termed a:

a.

Prescriptive theory

b.

Descriptive theory

c.

Grand theory

d.

Middle-range theory

ANS: b

b. Descriptive theories describe phenomena, speculate on why phenomena occur, and describe the consequences of phenomena.

a. Prescriptive theories address nursing interventions and predict the consequence of a specific nursing intervention.

c. Grand theories provide the structural framework for broad, abstract ideas about nursing.

d. Middle-range theories address specific phenomena or concepts and reflect practice.

REF: Text Reference: p. 64

3. Which one of the four linkages of interest in the nursing paradigm refers to factors in the home or school?

a.

Person

b.

Health

c.

Nursing care

d.

Environment/situation

ANS: d

d. Environment/situation includes all possible conditions affecting the client and the setting in which health care needs occur, such as the home, school, workplace, or community.

a. Person refers to the recipient of nursing care, including individual clients, families, and the community.

b. Health is the goal of nursing care.

c. Nursing care refers to the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems (ANA, 1995).

REF: Text Reference: p. 62

4. The nurse is working within a health care system that uses Neumans theory. A client is having difficulty breathing and requires oxygen and medication. Within Neumans theory, the nurse approaches the client to:

a.

Strengthen the line of defenses at the secondary level of prevention

b.

Promote attainment of biologic self-care requisites

c.

Assist in physiological adaptation to internal changes

d.

Achieve the 14 basic needs

ANS: a

a. Neumans framework for practice included nursing actions as primary, secondary, or tertiary levels of prevention in caring for clients holistically. Secondary prevention strengthens internal defenses and resources by establishing priorities and treatment plans for identified symptoms.

b. The goal of Orems theory is to promote attainment of self-care.

c. Roys theory focuses on adaptation.

d. In Hendersons theory, nurses help the client to perform 14 basic needs.

REF: Text Reference: p. 68

5. Although similarities exist in the different nursing theories, key elements distinguish one from another. The emphasis of Jean Watsons conceptual model is that:

a.

Self-care maintains wholeness.

b.

Subsystems exist in dynamic stability.

c.

Stimuli disrupt an adaptive system.

d.

Caring is central to the essence of nursing.

ANS: d

d. As in Benner and Wrubels theory, Watson emphasized caring in her theory. Watsons model is designed around the caring process, assisting clients in attaining or maintaining health or in dying peacefully. The key emphasis of her theory is that caring is the moral ideal: mind-body-soul engagement with another.

a. Self-care is central to Orems theory.

b. The key emphasis of Johnsons theory is that subsystems exist in dynamic stability.

c. The key emphasis of Roys theory is that stimuli disrupt an adaptive system.

REF: Text Reference: p. 65, Text Reference: p. 69

6. A community health nurse is working with a variety of clients and decides to use a Systems theory approach to assist them to meet their health care needs. In using the Systems theory, the nurse focuses on the:

a.

Clients interaction with the environment

b.

Hierarchy of the clients human needs

c.

Clients attitudes toward health behaviors

d.

Response of the client to the process of growth and development

ANS: a

a. According to systems theory, a system is made up of parts that rely on one another, are interrelated, share a common purpose, and together form a whole. A clients interaction with the environment is an example of an open system. The nurse understands that factors that change the environment also can have an impact on the system.

b. Maslows hierarchy of human needs is an interdisciplinary theory useful in planning individualized care.

c. Determining a clients attitudes toward health behaviors follows a health-and-wellness theoretical model.

d. Focusing on the response of a client to the process of growth and development is consistent with developmental theories.

REF: Text Reference: p. 64

7. While working on a postoperative unit, the nurse is applying the elements of the Self-Care theory. The nurse who assists the client to manage or attain self-care in wound management is using the theory developed by:

a.

Florence Nightingale

b.

Virginia Henderson

c.

Dorothea Orem

d.

Imogene King

ANS: c

c. The goal of Orems theory is to help the client perform self-care.

a. The goal of Nightingales theory is to facilitate the bodys reparative processes by manipulating the clients environment.

b. The goal of Hendersons theory is to work independently with other health care workers assisting the client to gain independence as quickly as possible.

d. The goal of Kings theory is to use communication to help the client reestablish positive adaptation to the environment.

REF: Text Reference: p. 68

8. Martha Rogers theory has a framework for practice that includes the:

a.

Twenty-one nursing problems within four major client needs

b.

Manipulation of the clients environment

c.

Seven categories of behavior and behavioral balance

d.

Unitary human being in continuous interaction with the environment

ANS: d

d. The framework for practice according to Martha Rogers theory is the unitary human continuously changing and coexisting with the environment.

a. Abdellahs nursing theory includes 21 nursing problems within four major client needs in the framework for practice.

b. Nightingales theory includes manipulation of the clients environment (i.e., appropriate noise, nutrition, hygiene, light, comfort, socialization, and hope) in the framework for practice.

c. Johnsons theory includes seven categories of behavior and behavioral balance in the framework for practice.

REF: Text Reference: p. 67

9. If the nurse wanted to apply a theory that focused on stress reduction, a theory proposed by which one of the following individuals should be selected?

a.

Peplau

b.

Orlando

c.

Neuman

d.

Parse

ANS: c

c. Stress reduction is the goal of the systems model of nursing practice according to Neumans theory.

a. Peplaus theory focuses on the interpersonal process as the maturing force for personality.

b. Orlandos theory focuses on the interpersonal process to alleviate distress.

d. Parses theory focuses on indivisible beings and the environment co-creating health.

REF: Text Reference: p. 67

10. A similarity in the theories of Leininger and Benner and Wrubel is:

a.

The clients adaptation to demands

b.

Caring as a central focus

c.

An emphasis on the maximum level of wellness

d.

Dynamic interpersonal communication

ANS: b

b. Leininger states that care is the essence of nursing and the dominant, distinctive, and unifying feature of nursing. Caring also is central to Benner and Wrubels theory, depicting personal concern as an inherent feature of nursing practice.

a. The theories of Roy and Johnson focus on the clients adaptation to demands.

c. Neumans theory places emphasis on achieving a maximum level of wellness. Abdellahs theory also addressed the person as a whole.

d. Kings theory and Peplaus theory share a similarity with a focus on interpersonal communication.

REF: Text Reference: p. 67, Text Reference: p. 69

11. The nurse is working with a client with multiple sclerosis to be able to take care of himself in his own home. The nursing theory that best supports this clients situation is:

a.

Hendersons theory

b.

Orems theory

c.

Abdellahs theory

d.

Neumans theory

ANS: b

b. The goal of nursing, according to Orem, is to increase the clients ability to meet biologic, psychologic, developmental, or social needs independently.

a. According to Henderson, nurses help clients to perform 14 basic needs.

c. Abdellahs theory emphasizes the delivery of nursing care for the whole person.

d. Neumans theory is concerned with the whole person. According to Neuman, the focus of nursing is on the variables affecting the clients response to a stressor.

REF: Text Reference: p. 68

Copyright 2005 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

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