Chapter 41: Assessment of the Hematologic System Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 41: Assessment of the Hematologic System

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse helps to ambulate a client who has anemia. Which clinical manifestation indicates that the client is not tolerating the activity?

a.

Blood pressure of 120/90 mm Hg

b.

Heart rate of 110 beats/min

c.

Pulse oximetry reading of 95%

d.

Respiratory rate of 20 breaths/min

ANS: B

The red blood cells contain thousands of hemoglobin molecules. The most important feature of hemoglobin is its ability to combine loosely with oxygen. A low hemoglobin level can cause decreased oxygenation to the tissues, thus causing a compensatory increase in heart rate. The other options are close to normal range and are not indicative of not tolerating this activity.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Physiological AdaptationPathophysiology)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Analysis)

2. The nurse is assessing a client with liver failure. Which assessment is the highest priority for this client?

a.

Auscultation for bowel sounds

b.

Assessing for deep vein thrombosis

c.

Monitoring of blood pressure hourly

d.

Assessing for signs of bleeding

ANS: D

All these options are important in assessment of the client, but the most important action is assessment for signs of bleeding. The liver is the site of production of prothrombin and most of the blood-clotting factors. Clients with liver failure run a high risk of having problems with bleeding.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Complications from Surgical Procedures and Health Alterations)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment)

3. The nurse observes yellow-tinged sclera in a client with dark skin. Based on this assessment finding, what does the nurse do next?

a.

Assess the clients pulses.

b.

Examine the soles of the clients feet.

c.

Inspect the clients hard palate.

d.

Auscultate the clients lung sounds.

ANS: C

Jaundice can best be observed in clients with dark skin by inspecting the oral mucosa, especially the hard palate, for yellow discoloration. Because sclera may have subconjunctival fat deposits that show a yellow hue, and because foot calluses may appear yellow, neither of these areas should be used to assess for jaundice. The clients pulse and lung sounds have no correlation with an assessment of jaundice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Health Screening)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment)

4. The nurse is assessing a client with numerous areas of bruising. Which question does the nurse ask to determine the cause of this finding?

a.

Do you take aspirin?

b.

How often do you exercise?

c.

Are you a vegetarian?

d.

How often do you take Tylenol?

ANS: A

Platelet aggregation is essential for blood clotting. An inability to clot blood when an injury occurs can result in bleeding, which would cause bruising. Aspirin is a drug that interferes with platelet aggregation and has the ability to plug an extrinsic event, such as trauma. Vitamin K found in green vegetables enhances clotting factors, which would improve the ability to stop bleeding associated with an extrinsic event. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and exercise do not inhibit clotting factors.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Health Screening)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment)

5. A client who has a chronic vitamin B12 deficiency is admitted to the hospital. When obtaining the clients health history, which priority question does the nurse ask this client?

a.

Are you having any pain?

b.

Are you having blood in your stools?

c.

Do you notice any changes in your memory?

d.

Do you bruise easily?

ANS: C

Vitamin B12 deficiency impairs cerebral, olfactory, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve function. Severe chronic deficiency may cause permanent neurologic degeneration. The other options are not symptoms of vitamin B12deficiency.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Health Screening)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment)

6. The nurse is planning discharge teaching for a client who has a splenectomy. Which statement does the nurse include in this clients teaching plan?

a.

Avoid crowds and people who are sick.

b.

Do not eat raw fruits or vegetables.

c.

Avoid environmental allergens.

d.

Do not play contact sports.

ANS: A

The spleen is the major site of B-lymphocyte maturation and antibody production. Those who undergo splenectomies for any reason have a decreased antibody-mediated immune response and are particularly susceptible to viral infections. Eating raw fruits and vegetables places the client at risk for bacterial infections. The body responds to environmental allergens with an unspecific inflammatory process. The client is not at risk for bleeding or injury due to contact sports.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Complications from Surgical Procedures and Health Alterations)

MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

7. The nurse is teaching a client who has undergone a bone marrow biopsy. Which instruction does the nurse give the client?

a.

Wear protective gear when playing contact sports.

b.

Monitor the biopsy site for bruising.

c.

Remain in bed for at least 12 hours.

d.

Use a heating pad for pain at the biopsy site.

ANS: B

The most important instruction is to have the client monitor the area for external or internal bleeding. Activities such as contact sports should be avoided, and an ice pack can be used to limit bruising.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Complications from Diagnostic Tests/Treatments/Procedures)

MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

8. The nurse is assessing a 75-year-old male client. Which blood value indicates that the client is experiencing normal changes associated with aging?

a.

Hemoglobin, 13.0 g/dL

b.

Platelet count, 100,000/mm3

c.

Prothrombin time (PT), 14 seconds

d.

White blood cell (WBC) count, 5000/mm3

ANS: A

Hemoglobin levels in men and women fall after middle age. Therefore, this clients hemoglobin value would be considered part of the aging process. Platelet counts and blood-clotting times are not age related; the clients platelet count and PT are elevated for some other reason. The WBC count shown is normal.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 860

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialLaboratory Values) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment)

9. The nurse is planning care for a client who has a platelet count of 30,000/mm3. Which intervention does the nurse include in this clients plan of care?

a.

Oxygen by nasal cannula

b.

Bleeding Precautions

c.

Isolation Precautions

d.

Vital signs every 4 hours

ANS: B

The normal platelet count ranges between 150,000 and 400,000/mm3. This client is at extreme risk for bleeding. Although it is necessary to notify the provider, the nurse would first protect the client by instituting Bleeding Precautions. The other interventions are not related to the low platelet count.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialLaboratory Values) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Analysis)

10. The nurse is obtaining the health history of a client who has iron deficiency anemia. Which factor in this clients history does the nurse correlate with this diagnosis?

a.

Eating a meat-free diet

b.

Family history of sickle cell disease

c.

History of leukemia

d.

History of bleeding ulcer

ANS: A

A diet high in protein and iron helps keep the clients levels of iron within normal limits. Meat is a good source of protein and iron. A bleeding ulcer could cause anemia but would not cause iron deficiency. Sickle cell disease causes sickle cell anemia. Leukemia causes a decrease in white blood cells.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Complications from Surgical Procedures and Health Alterations)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Analysis)

11. The nurse is caring for a client who has a decreased serum iron level. Which intervention does the nurse prioritize for this client?

a.

Dietary consult

b.

Family assessment

c.

Cardiac assessment

d.

Administration of vitamin K

ANS: A

Diets can alter cell quality and affect blood clotting. Diets low in iron can cause anemia and decrease the function of all red blood cells. The question does not say that the hemoglobin is low enough to affect the cardiac function. Family assessment may be important in finding out any genetic or family lifestyle causes of the low serum iron level. However, the first intervention that the nurse can provide is to have the clients dietary habits evaluated and changed so that iron levels can increase. Vitamin K is involved with clotting, not with iron stores.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Basic Care and ComfortNutrition and Oral Hydration) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation)

12. The nurse is caring for a client who has an elevated white blood cell count. Which intervention does the nurse implement for this client?

a.

Administer the prescribed Tylenol.

b.

Hold the clients prescribed steroids.

c.

Assess the clients respiratory rate.

d.

Obtain the clients temperature.

ANS: D

White blood cells provide immunity and protect against invasion and infection. An elevated white blood cell count could indicate an infectious process, which could cause an elevation in body temperature. Tylenol would treat a fever but not the elevated white blood cell count. Steroids place the client at higher risk for infection but should not be stopped suddenly. The respiratory rate does not need to be assessed in this client.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialLaboratory Values) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation)

13. A female client is admitted with the medical diagnosis of anemia. The nurse assesses for which potential cause?

a.

Diet high in meat and fat

b.

Daily intake of aspirin

c.

Heavy menses

d.

Smoking history

ANS: C

Iron levels can be low because intake of iron is too low, or because loss of iron through bleeding is excessive. A premenopausal woman may be having unusually heavy menses sufficient to cause excessive loss of blood and iron. Smoking and aspirin do not cause iron deficiency. A diet high in meat provides iron.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 861

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Physiological AdaptationPathophysiology)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment)

14. The nurse is assessing a clients susceptibility to rejecting a transplanted kidney. Which result does the nurse recognize as increasing the clients chances of rejection?

a.

Decreased T-lymphocyte helper

b.

Decreased white blood cell count

c.

Increased cytotoxic-cytolytic T cell

d.

Increased neutrophil count

ANS: C

Cytotoxic-cytolytic T cells function to attack and destroy nonself-cells, specifically virally infected cells and cells from transplanted grafts and organs. A high level of these cells would increase the chances of rejection. Decreased white blood cells would indicate immune suppression. Neutrophils are increased during an infection.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remembering REF: Table 41-1, p. 857

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialLaboratory Values) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Analysis)

15. The nurse is caring for a client who is receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Which intervention does the nurse implement for this client?

a.

Assess the clients fibrinogen level.

b.

Administer the prescribed iron.

c.

Maintain strict Standard Precautions.

d.

Monitor the clients pulse oximetry.

ANS: C

The client who is receiving chemotherapy drugs that suppress the bone marrow will be at risk for a decreased white blood cell (WBC) count and infection. The nurse will be most therapeutic by adhering to Standard Precautions to prevent infection, such as handwashing. The nurse will not expect the fibrinogen level to be affected by this therapy. Iron is not typically administered with chemotherapy because this is bone marrow suppression, so the administration of epoetin (Epogen) or filgrastim (Neupogen) is most effective. Monitoring the pulse oximetry is part of routine care and probably would not need to be done continuously.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Complications from Diagnostic Tests/Treatments/Procedures)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation)

16. The nurse is performing an admission assessment on a 46-year-old client, who states, I have been drinking a 12-pack of beer every day for the past 20 years. Which laboratory abnormality does the nurse correlate with this history?

a.

Decreased white blood cell (WBC) count

b.

Decreased bleeding time

c.

Elevated prothrombin time (PT)

d.

Elevated red blood cell (RBC) count

ANS: C

The liver is the site for production of prothrombin and most of the blood-clotting factors. If the liver is damaged because of chronic alcoholism, it is unable to produce these clotting factors. Therefore, the PT could become elevated, which would reflect deficiency of some clotting factors. The WBC would not be elevated in this situation because no infection is present. Bleeding time would likely increase. The clients RBC count most likely would not be affected unless the client was bleeding, in which case it would decrease.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Alterations in Body Systems) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Analysis)

17. The nurse is assessing a client whose warfarin (Coumadin) therapy was discontinued 3 weeks ago. Which laboratory test result indicates that the clients warfarin therapy is no longer therapeutic?

a.

International normalized ratio (INR), 0.9

b.

Reticulocyte count, 1%

c.

Serum ferritin level, 350 ng/mL

d.

Total white blood cell (WBC) count, 9000/mm3

ANS: A

Warfarin therapy increases the INR. Normal INR ranges between 0.7 and 1.8. Therapeutic warfarin levels, depending on the indication of the disorder, should maintain the INR between 1.5 and 3.0. When the effects of warfarin are no longer present, the INR returns to normal levels. Warfarin therapy does not affect white blood cell count, serum ferritin level, or reticulocyte count.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 866

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialLaboratory Values) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Evaluation)

18. The nurse is completing the preoperative checklist on a client. The client states, I take an aspirin every day for my heart. How does the nurse respond?

a.

I will call your doctor and request a prescription for pain medication.

b.

I need to call the surgeon and reschedule your surgery.

c.

Ill give you the prescribed Tylenol to minimize any headache before surgery.

d.

I need to administer vitamin K to prevent bleeding during the procedure.

ANS: B

Aspirin and other salicylates interfere with platelet aggregationthe first step in the blood-clotting cascadeand decrease the ability of the blood to form a platelet plug. These effects last for longer than 1 week after just one dose of aspirin. The client may need to have the surgery rescheduled. Vitamin K, prescribed pain medication, and Tylenol cannot reduce the anticlotting effects of aspirin.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Pharmacological and Parenteral TherapiesAdverse Effects/Contraindications/Interactions/Side Effects)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation)

19. The nurse is caring for a client who is receiving heparin therapy. How does the nurse evaluate the therapeutic effect of the therapy?

a.

Evaluate platelets.

b.

Monitor the partial thromboplastin time (PTT).

c.

Assess bleeding time.

d.

Monitor fibrin degradation products.

ANS: B

The PTT assesses the intrinsic clotting cascade. Heparin therapy is monitored by the PTT. Platelets are monitored by the platelet count laboratory value, bleeding time evaluates vascular and platelet activity during hemostasis, and fibrin degradation products help assess for fibrinolysis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialLaboratory Values) MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Evaluation)

20. The nurse is administering a prescribed fibrinolytic to a client who is having a myocardial infarction (MI). Which adverse effect does the nurse monitor for?

a.

Bleeding

b.

Orthostatic hypotension

c.

Deep vein thrombosis

d.

Nausea and vomiting

ANS: A

A fibrinolytic lyses any clots in the body, thus causing an increased risk for bleeding. Fibrinolytic therapy does not place the client at risk for hypotension, thrombosis, or nausea and vomiting.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension/Understanding REF: p. 861

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Pharmacological and Parenteral TherapiesAdverse Effects/Contraindications/Side Effects/Interactions)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment)

21. The nurse is caring for a client who had a bone marrow aspiration. The client begins to bleed from the aspiration site. Which action does the nurse perform?

a.

Apply external pressure to the site.

b.

Elevate the extremities.

c.

Cover the site with a dressing.

d.

Immobilize the leg.

ANS: A

All these options could be done after a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. However, the most important action when bleeding occurs is to apply external pressure to the site until hemostasis is ensured. The other measures could then be carried out.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Complications from Diagnostic Tests/Treatments/Procedures)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation)

22. The nurse is preparing a client for a bone biopsy and aspiration. The client asks, Will this be painful? How does the nurse respond?

a.

The procedure is always done under general anesthesia.

b.

The biopsy lasts for only 2 minutes.

c.

There is a chance that you may have pain.

d.

You can relieve pain with guided imagery.

ANS: C

Clients may have pain during this procedure. The type and amount of anesthesia or sedation depend on the physicians preference, the clients preference, and previous experience with bone marrow aspiration. The procedure takes from 5 to 15 minutes. Guided imagery can relieve pain but works well only with some clients.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Complications from Diagnostic Tests/Treatments/Procedures)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Implementation)

23. The nurse is caring for four clients with hematologic-type problems. Which client does the nurse prioritize to see first?

a.

18-year-old female with decreased protein levels

b.

36-year-old male with increased lymphocytes

c.

60-year-old female with decreased erythropoietin

d.

82-year-old male with an increased thromboxane level

ANS: C

The kidney releases more erythropoietin when tissue oxygenation levels are low. This growth factor then stimulates the bone marrow to increase red blood cell (RBC) production, which improves tissue oxygenation and prevents hypoxia. Hypoxia causes the body to increase its respiratory rate to overcome decreased oxygenation of the tissues. All these clients are important, but the woman with decreased erythropoietin takes priority because of her risk for hypoxia.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Reduction of Risk PotentialPotential for Complications from Surgical Procedures and Health Alterations)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Analysis)

24. The nurse is assessing the following laboratory results of a client before discharge. Which instruction does the nurse include in this clients discharge teaching plan?

Test

Result

Hemoglobin

15 g/dL

Hematocrit

45%

White blood cell (WBC) count

2000/mm3

Platelet count

250,000/mm3

a.

Avoid contact sports.

b.

Do not take any aspirin.

c.

Eat a diet high in iron.

d.

Perform good hand hygiene.

ANS: D

A normal WBC count is 5000 to 10,000/mm3. A white blood cell count of 2000/mm3 is low and makes this client at risk for infection. Good handwashing technique is the best way to prevent the transmission of infection. The other laboratory results are all within normal limits.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Health Promotion and Maintenance (Self-Care)

MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. The nurse is monitoring a client with liver failure. Which assessments does the nurse perform when monitoring for bleeding in this client? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Gums

b.

Lung sounds

c.

Urine

d.

Stool

e.

Hair

ANS: A, C, D

The liver is the site for production of clotting factors. Without these factors, the client is at risk for bleeding. Common areas of bleeding include the gums and mucous membranes, bladder, and gastrointestinal tract. Lung sounds and hair are part of the assessment but are not essential in the presence of liver failure and hematologic abnormalities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Physiological AdaptationPathophysiology)

MSC: Integrated Process: Nursing Process (Assessment)

2. The nurse is teaching a client who is receiving sodium warfarin (Coumadin). Which topics does the nurse include in the teaching plan? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Foods high in vitamin K

b.

Using acetaminophen (Tylenol) for minor pain

c.

Daily exercise and weight management

d.

Use of a safety razor and soft toothbrush

e.

Blood testing regimen

ANS: A, B, D, E

The client on warfarin will need to know which foods are high in vitamin K because vitamin K intake must be consistent to avoid interfering with the anticoagulant properties of warfarin. Clients should not take aspirin or NSAIDs for minor pain owing to their anticoagulant properties. Clients must use safety razors and soft toothbrushes to avoid bleeding episodes. The client on warfarin needs regular blood tests for prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR). Daily exercise and weight management are not specifically important to this client.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application/Applying or higher REF: N/A

TOP: Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity (Pharmacological and Parenteral TherapiesAdverse Effects/Contraindications/Side Effects/Interactions)

MSC: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning

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