Chapter 42: Cardiovascular Dysfunction Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 42: Cardiovascular Dysfunction

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse is assessing a child postcardiac catheterization. Which complication might the nurse anticipate?

a.

Cardiac arrhythmia

c.

Congestive heart failure

b.

Hypostatic pneumonia

d.

Rapidly increasing blood pressure

ANS: A

Because a catheter is introduced into the heart, a risk exists of catheter-induced arrhythmias occurring during the procedure. These are usually transient. Hypostatic pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and rapidly increasing blood pressure are not risks usually associated with cardiac catheterization.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1320

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. Jos is a 4-year-old child scheduled for a cardiac catheterization. Preoperative teaching should be:

a.

Directed at his parents because he is too young to understand.

b.

Detailed in regard to the actual procedures so he will know what to expect.

c.

Done several days before the procedure so that he will be prepared.

d.

Adapted to his level of development so that he can understand.

ANS: D

Preoperative teaching should always be directed at the childs stage of development. The caregivers also benefit from the same explanations. The parents may ask additional questions, which should be answered, but the child needs to receive the information based on developmental level. This age group does not understand in-depth descriptions. Preschoolers should be prepared close to the time of the cardiac catheterization.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1320

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. The nurse is caring for a school-age girl who has had a cardiac catheterization. The child tells the nurse that her bandage is too wet. The nurse finds the bandage and bed soaked with blood. The most appropriate initial nursing action is to:

a.

Notify the physician.

b.

Apply a new bandage with more pressure.

c.

Place the child in the Trendelenburg position.

d.

Apply direct pressure above the catheterization site.

ANS: D

If bleeding occurs, direct continuous pressure is applied 2.5 cm (1 inch) above the percutaneous skin site to localize pressure over the vessel puncture. Notifying the physician and applying a new bandage with more pressure can be done after pressure is applied. The nurse can have someone else notify the physician while the pressure is being maintained. The Trendelenburg position would not be helpful; it would increase the drainage from the lower extremities.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1320

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. Which defect results in increased pulmonary blood flow?

a.

Pulmonic stenosis

c.

Atrial septal defect

b.

Tricuspid atresia

d.

Transposition of the great arteries

ANS: C

Atrial septal defect results in increased pulmonary blood flow. Blood flows from the left atrium (higher pressure) into the right atrium (lower pressure) and then to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. Pulmonic stenosis is an obstruction to blood flowing from the ventricles. Tricuspid atresia results in decreased pulmonary blood flow. Transposition of the great arteries results in mixed blood flow.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1322

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

5. Which structural defects constitute tetralogy of Fallot?

a.

Pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy

b.

Aortic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy

c.

Aortic stenosis, atrial septal defect, overriding aorta, left ventricular hypertrophy

d.

Pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, aortic hypertrophy, left ventricular hypertrophy

ANS: A

Tetralogy of Fallot has these four characteristics: pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy. There is pulmonic stenosis but not aortic stenosis in tetralogy of Fallot. Right ventricular hypertrophy, not left ventricular hypertrophy, is present in tetralogy of Fallot. There is a ventricular septal defect, not an atrial septal defect, and overriding aorta, not aortic hypertrophy, is present.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1327

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

6. What is best described as the inability of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the systemic circulation at normal filling pressures?

a.

Pulmonary congestion

c.

Congestive heart failure

b.

Congenital heart defect

d.

Systemic venous congestion

ANS: C

The definition of congestive heart failure is the inability of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the systemic circulation at normal filling pressures to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Pulmonary congestion is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Congenital heart defect is a malformation of the heart present at birth. Systemic venous congestion is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the systemic vasculature.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1331

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

7. A clinical manifestation of the systemic venous congestion that can occur with congestive heart failure is:

a.

Tachypnea.

c.

Peripheral edema.

b.

Tachycardia.

d.

Pale, cool extremities.

ANS: C

Peripheral edema, especially periorbital edema, is a clinical manifestation of systemic venous congestion. Tachypnea is a manifestation of pulmonary congestion. Tachycardia and pale, cool extremities are clinical manifestations of impaired myocardial function.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1332

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

8. A beneficial effect of administering digoxin (Lanoxin) is that it:

a.

Decreases edema.

c.

Increases heart size.

b.

Decreases cardiac output.

d.

Increases venous pressure.

ANS: A

Digoxin has a rapid onset and is useful in increasing cardiac output, decreasing venous pressure, and as a result decreasing edema. Heart size is decreased by digoxin.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1332

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

9. Which drug is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor?

a.

Captopril (Capoten)

c.

Spironolactone (Aldactone)

b.

Furosemide (Lasix)

d.

Chlorothiazide (Diuril)

ANS: A

Capoten is an ACE inhibitor. Lasix is a loop diuretic. Aldactone blocks the action of aldosterone. Diuril works on the distal tubules.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1332

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

10. The nurse is evaluating a child who is taking digoxin for her cardiac condition. The nurse is cognizant that a common sign of digoxin toxicity is:

a.

Seizures.

c.

Bradypnea.

b.

Vomiting.

d.

Tachycardia.

ANS: B

Vomiting is a common sign of digoxin toxicity. Seizures are not associated with digoxin toxicity. The child will have a slower heart rate, not respiratory rate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1335

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. The parents of a young child with congestive heart failure tell the nurse that they are nervous about giving digoxin. The nurses response should be based on knowing that:

a.

It is a safe, frequently used drug.

b.

It is difficult to either overmedicate or undermedicate with digoxin.

c.

Parents lack the expertise necessary to administer digoxin.

d.

Parents must learn specific, important guidelines for administration of digoxin.

ANS: D

Digoxin has a narrow therapeutic range. The margin of safety between therapeutic, toxic, and lethal doses is very small. Specific guidelines are available for parents to learn how to administer the drug safely and monitor for side effects. Digoxin is a frequently used drug, but it has a narrow therapeutic range. Very small amounts of the liquid are given to infants, which makes it easy to overmedicate or undermedicate. Parents may lack the necessary expertise to administer the drug at first, but with discharge preparation they should be prepared to administer the drug safely.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1351

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

12. As part of the treatment for congestive heart failure, the child takes the diuretic furosemide. As part of teaching home care, the nurse encourages the family to give the child foods such as bananas, oranges, and leafy vegetables. These foods are recommended because they are high in:

a.

Chlorides.

c.

Sodium.

b.

Potassium.

d.

Vitamins.

ANS: B

Diuretics that work on the proximal and distal renal tubules contribute to increased losses of potassium. The childs diet should be supplemented with potassium.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1333

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

13. An 8-month-old infant has a hypercyanotic spell while blood is being drawn. The nurses first action should be to:

a.

Assess for neurologic defects.

b.

Place the child in the knee-chest position.

c.

Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

d.

Prepare the family for imminent death.

ANS: B

The first action is to place the infant in the knee-chest position. Blow-by oxygen may be indicated. Neurologic defects are unlikely. The child should be assessed for airway, breathing, and circulation. Often calming the child and administering oxygen and morphine can alleviate the hypercyanotic spell; cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not necessary, and death is unlikely.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1337

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

14. The nurse is caring for a child with persistent hypoxia secondary to a cardiac defect. The nurse recognizes that a risk of cerebrovascular accidents (strokes) exists. An important objective to decrease this risk is to:

a.

Minimize seizures.

c.

Promote cardiac output.

b.

Prevent dehydration.

d.

Reduce energy expenditure.

ANS: B

In children with persistent hypoxia, polycythemia develops. Dehydration must be prevented in hypoxemic children because it potentiates the risk of strokes. Minimizing seizures, promoting cardiac output, and reducing energy expenditure will not reduce the risk of cerebrovascular accidents.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1337

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

15. Parents of a 3-year-old child with congenital heart disease are afraid to let their child play with other children because of possible overexertion. The nurses reply should be based on knowing that:

a.

The child needs opportunities to play with peers.

b.

The child needs to understand that peers activities are too strenuous.

c.

Parents can meet all the childs needs.

d.

Constant parental supervision is needed to avoid overexertion.

ANS: A

The child needs opportunities for social development. Children usually limit their activities if allowed to set their own pace and regulate their activities. The child will limit activities as necessary. Parents must be encouraged to seek appropriate social activities for the child, especially before kindergarten. The child needs to have activities that foster independence.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1339

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity

16. When preparing a school-age child and the family for heart surgery, the nurse should consider:

a.

Not showing unfamiliar equipment.

b.

Letting child hear the sounds of an electrocardiograph monitor.

c.

Avoiding mentioning postoperative discomfort and interventions.

d.

Explaining that an endotracheal tube will not be needed if the surgery goes well.

ANS: B

The child and family should be exposed to the sights and sounds of the intensive care unit. All positive, nonfrightening aspects of the environment are emphasized. The child should be shown unfamiliar equipment, and its use should be demonstrated on a doll. Carefully prepare the child for the postoperative experience, including intravenous lines, incision, and endotracheal tube.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1341

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. Seventy-two hours after cardiac surgery, a young child has a temperature of 37.7 C (101 F). The nurse should:

a.

Keep the child warm with blankets.

b.

Apply a hypothermia blanket.

c.

Record the temperature on nurses notes.

d.

Report findings to physician.

ANS: D

In the first 24 to 48 hours after surgery, the body temperature may increase to 37.7 C (100 F) as part of the inflammatory response to tissue trauma. If the temperature is higher or an elevated temperature continues after this period, it is most likely a sign of an infection and immediate investigation is indicated. Blankets should be removed from the child to keep the temperature from increasing. A hypothermia blanket is not indicated for this level of temperature. The temperature should be recorded, but the physician must be notified for evaluation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1341

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

18. An important nursing consideration when suctioning a young child who has had heart surgery is to:

a.

Perform suctioning at least every hour.

b.

Suction for no longer than 30 seconds at a time.

c.

Administer supplemental oxygen before and after suctioning.

d.

Expect symptoms of respiratory distress when suctioning.

ANS: C

If suctioning is indicated, supplemental oxygen is administered with a manual resuscitation bag before and after the procedure to prevent hypoxia. Suctioning should be done only as indicated, not on a routine basis. The child should be suctioned for no more than 5 seconds at one time. Symptoms of respiratory distress are to be avoided by using the appropriate technique.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1342

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

19. The nurse is caring for a child after heart surgery. What should she or he do if evidence is found of cardiac tamponade?

a.

Increase analgesia.

b.

Apply warming blankets.

c.

Immediately report this to the physician.

d.

Encourage the child to cough, turn, and breathe deeply.

ANS: C

If evidence is noted of cardiac tamponade (blood or fluid in the pericardial space constricting the heart), the physician is notified immediately of this life-threatening complication. Increasing analgesia may be done before the physician drains the fluid, but the physician must be notified. Warming blankets are not indicated at this time. Encouraging the child to cough, turn, and breathe deeply should be deferred until after the evaluation by the physician.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1342

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

20. An important nursing consideration when chest tubes will be removed from a child is to:

a.

Explain that it is not painful.

b.

Explain that only a Band-Aid will be needed.

c.

Administer analgesics before the procedure.

d.

Expect bright red drainage for several hours after removal.

ANS: C

It is appropriate to prepare the child for the removal of chest tubes with analgesics. Short-acting medications can be used that are administered through an existing intravenous line. It is not a pain-free procedure. A sharp, momentary pain is felt, and this should not be misrepresented to the child. A petroleum gauze/airtight dressing is needed. Little or no drainage should be found on removal.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1342

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

21. The most common causative agent of bacterial endocarditis is:

a.

Staphylococcus albus.

c.

Staphylococcus albicans.

b.

Streptococcus hemolyticus.

d.

Streptococcus viridans.

ANS: D

Staphylococcus viridans is the most common causative agent in bacterial (infective) endocarditis. Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus hemolyticus, and Staphylococcus albicans are not common causative agents.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1344

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

22. Which painful, tender, pea-sized nodules may appear on the pads of the fingers or toes in bacterial endocarditis?

a.

Oslers nodes

c.

Subcutaneous nodules

b.

Janeway lesions

d.

Aschoffs nodules

ANS: A

Oslers nodes are red, painful, intradermal nodes found on pads of the phalanges in bacterial endocarditis. Janeway lesions are painless hemorrhagic areas on palms and soles in bacterial endocarditis. Subcutaneous nodules are nontender swellings located over bony prominences, commonly found in rheumatic fever. Aschoffs nodules are small nodules composed of cells and leukocytes found in the interstitial tissues of the heart in rheumatic myocarditis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1344

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

23. The primary nursing intervention necessary to prevent bacterial endocarditis is to:

a.

Institute measures to prevent dental procedures.

b.

Counsel parents of high risk children about prophylactic antibiotics.

c.

Observe children for complications such as embolism and heart failure.

d.

Encourage restricted mobility in susceptible children.

ANS: B

The objective of nursing care is to counsel the parents of high risk children about both the need for prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures and the necessity of maintaining excellent oral health. The childs dentist should be aware of the childs cardiac condition. Dental procedures should be done to maintain a high level of oral health. Prophylactic antibiotics are necessary. Observing for complications and encouraging restricted mobility in susceptible children should be done, but maintaining good oral health and using prophylactic antibiotics are most important.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1344

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

24. A common, serious complication of rheumatic fever is:

a.

Seizures.

c.

Pulmonary hypertension.

b.

Cardiac arrhythmias.

d.

Cardiac valve damage.

ANS: D

Cardiac valve damage is the most significant complication of rheumatic fever. Seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, and pulmonary hypertension are not common complications of rheumatic fever.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1345

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

25. A major clinical manifestation of rheumatic fever is:

a.

Polyarthritis.

b.

Oslers nodes.

c.

Janeway spots.

d.

Splinter hemorrhages of distal third of nails.

ANS: A

Polyarthritis is swollen, hot, red, and painful joints. The affected joints will change every 1 to 2 days. Primarily the large joints are affected. Oslers nodes, Janeway spots, and splinter hemorrhages are characteristic of infective endocarditis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1345

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

26. When discussing hyperlipidemia with a group of adolescents, the nurse should explain that high levels of what substance are thought to protect against cardiovascular disease?

a.

Cholesterol

c.

Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)

b.

Triglycerides

d.

High-density lipoproteins (HDLs).

ANS: D

HDLs contain very low concentrations of triglycerides, relatively little cholesterol, and high levels of proteins. It is thought that HDLs protect against cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDLs do not protect against cardiovascular disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1346

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

27. The leading cause of death after heart transplantation is:

a.

Infection.

c.

Cardiomyopathy.

b.

Rejection.

d.

Congestive heart failure.

ANS: B

The posttransplantation course is complex. The leading cause of death after cardiac transplantation is rejection. Infection is a continued risk secondary to the immunosuppression necessary to prevent rejection. Cardiomyopathy is one of the indications for cardiac transplant. Congestive heart failure is not a leading cause of death.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1351

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

28. When caring for the child with Kawasaki disease, the nurse should understand that:

a.

The childs fever is usually responsive to antibiotics within 48 hours.

b.

The principal area of involvement is the joints.

c.

Aspirin is contraindicated.

d.

Therapeutic management includes administration of gamma globulin and aspirin.

ANS: D

High-dose intravenous gamma globulin and aspirin therapy are indicated to reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities when given within the first 10 days of the illness. The fever of Kawasaki disease is unresponsive to antibiotics and antipyretics. Involvement of mucous membranes and conjunctiva, changes in the extremities, and cardiac involvement are seen.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1354

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

29. One of the most frequent causes of hypovolemic shock in children is:

a.

Myocardial infarction.

c.

Anaphylaxis.

b.

Blood loss.

d.

Congenital heart disease.

ANS: B

Blood loss and extracellular fluid loss are two of the most frequent causes of hypovolemic shock in children. Myocardial infarction is rare in a child; if it occurred, the resulting shock would be cardiogenic, not hypovolemic. Anaphylaxis results in distributive shock from extreme allergy or hypersensitivity to a foreign substance. Congenital heart disease tends to contribute to hypervolemia, not hypovolemia.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1355

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

30. What type of shock is characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction causing massive vasodilation and capillary leaks, which may occur with drug or latex allergy?

a.

Neurogenic shock

c.

Hypovolemic shock

b.

Cardiogenic shock

d.

Anaphylactic shock

ANS: D

Anaphylactic shock results from extreme allergy or hypersensitivity to a foreign substance. Neurogenic shock results from loss of neuronal control, such as the interruption of neuronal transmission that occurs from a spinal cord injury. Cardiogenic shock is decreased cardiac output. Hypovolemic shock is a reduction in the size of the vascular compartment, decreasing blood pressure, and low central venous pressure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1356

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

31. Which clinical changes occur as a result of septic shock?

a.

Hypothermia

c.

Vasoconstriction

b.

Increased cardiac output

d.

Angioneurotic edema

ANS: B

Increased cardiac output, which results in warm, flushed skin, is one of the manifestations of septic shock. Fever and chills are characteristic of septic shock. Vasodilation is more common in septic shock. Angioneurotic edema occurs as a manifestation in anaphylactic shock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1356

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

32. A child is brought to the emergency department experiencing an anaphylactic reaction to a bee sting. While an airway is being established, what medication should the nurse prepare for immediate administration?

a.

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

c.

Epinephrine

b.

Dopamine

d.

Calcium chloride

ANS: C

After the first priority of establishing an airway, epinephrine is the drug of choice. Benadryl is not a strong enough antihistamine for this severe a reaction. Dopamine and calcium chloride are not appropriate drugs for this type of reaction.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1358

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

33. Which postoperative intervention should be questioned for a child after a cardiac catheterization?

a.

Continue intravenous (IV) fluids until the infant is tolerating oral fluids.

b.

Check the dressing for bleeding.

c.

Assess peripheral circulation on the affected extremity.

d.

Keep the affected leg flexed and elevated.

ANS: D

The child should be positioned with the affected leg straight for 4 to 6 hours after the procedure. IV fluid administration continues until the child is taking and retaining adequate amounts of oral fluids. The insertion site dressing should be observed frequently for bleeding. The nurse should also look under the child to check for pooled blood. Peripheral perfusion is monitored after catheterization. Distal pulses should be palpable, although they may be weaker than in the contralateral extremity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1320

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

34. In which situation is there the greatest risk that a newborn infant will have a congenital heart defect (CHD)?

a.

Trisomy 21 detected on amniocentesis

b.

Family history of myocardial infarction

c.

Father has type 1 diabetes mellitus

d.

Older sibling born with Turners syndrome

ANS: A

The incidence of congenital heart disease is approximately 50% in children with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). A family history of congenital heart disease, not acquired heart disease, increases the risk of giving birth to a child with CHD. Infants born to mothers who are insulin dependent have an increased risk of CHD. Infants identified as having certain genetic defects, such as Turners syndrome, have a higher incidence of CHD.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1321

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

35. Which intervention should be included in the plan of care for an infant with the nursing diagnosis of Excess Fluid Volume related to congestive heart failure?

a.

Weigh the infant every day on the same scale at the same time.

b.

Notify the physician when weight gain exceeds more than 20 g/day.

c.

Put the infant in a car seat to minimize movement.

d.

Administer digoxin (Lanoxin) as ordered by the physician.

ANS: A

Excess fluid volume may not be overtly visible. Weight changes may indicate fluid retention. Weighing the infant on the same scale at the same time each day ensures consistency. An excessive weight gain for an infant is an increase of more than 50 g/day. With fluid volume excess, skin will be edematous. The infants position should be changed frequently to prevent undesirable pooling of fluid in certain areas. Lanoxin is used in the treatment of congestive heart failure to improve cardiac function. Diuretics will help the body get rid of excess fluid.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1334

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

36. The nurse assessing a premature newborn infant auscultates a continuous machinery-like murmur. This finding is associated with which congenital heart defect?

a.

Pulmonary stenosis

c.

Ventricular septal defect

b.

Patent ductus arteriosus

d.

Coarctation of the aorta

ANS: B

The classic murmur associated with patent ductus arteriosus is a machinery-like one that can be heard throughout both systole and diastole. A systolic ejection murmur that may be accompanied by a palpable thrill is a manifestation of pulmonary stenosis. The characteristic murmur associated with ventricular septal defect is a loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur. A systolic murmur that is accompanied by an ejection click may be heard on auscultation when coarctation of the aorta is present.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1323

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

37. What is an expected assessment finding in a child with coarctation of the aorta?

a.

Orthostatic hypotension

b.

Systolic hypertension in the lower extremities

c.

Blood pressure higher on the left side of the body

d.

Disparity in blood pressure between the upper and lower extremities

ANS: D

The classic finding in children with coarctation of the aorta is a disparity in pulses and blood pressures between the upper and lower extremities. Orthostatic hypotension is not present with coarctation of the aorta. Systolic hypertension may be detected in the upper extremities. The left arm may not accurately reflect systolic hypertension because the left subclavian artery can be involved in the coarctation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1324

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

38. A child with pulmonary atresia exhibits cyanosis with feeding. On reviewing this childs laboratory values, the nurse is not surprised to notice which abnormality?

a.

Polycythemia

c.

Dehydration

b.

Infection

d.

Anemia

ANS: A

Polycythemia is a compensatory response to chronic hypoxia. The body attempts to improve tissue oxygenation by producing additional red blood cells and thereby increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Infection is not a clinical consequence of cyanosis. Although dehydration can occur in cyanotic heart disease, it is not a compensatory mechanism for chronic hypoxia. It is not a clinical consequence of cyanosis. Anemia may develop as a result of increased blood viscosity. Anemia is not a clinical consequence of cyanosis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1337

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

39. When assessing a child for possible congenital heart defects (CHDs), where should the nurse measure blood pressure?

a.

The right arm

c.

All four extremities

b.

The left arm

d.

Both arms while the child is crying

ANS: C

When a CHD is suspected, the blood pressure should be measured in all four extremities while the child is quiet. Discrepancies between upper and lower extremities may indicate cardiac disease. Blood pressure measurements for upper and lower extremities are compared during an assessment for CHDs. Blood pressure measurements when the child is crying are likely to be elevated; thus the readings will be inaccurate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1334

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

40. What is the nurses first action when planning to teach the parents of an infant with a congenital heart defect (CHD)?

a.

Assess the parents anxiety level and readiness to learn.

b.

Gather literature for the parents.

c.

Secure a quiet place for teaching.

d.

Discuss the plan with the nursing team.

ANS: A

Any effort to organize the right environment, plan, or literature is of no use if the parents are not ready to learn or have high anxiety. Decreasing their level of anxiety is often needed before new information can be processed. A baseline assessment of prior knowledge should be taken into consideration before developing any teaching plan. Locating a quiet place for meeting with parents is appropriate; however, an assessment should be done before any teaching is done. Discussing a teaching plan with the nursing team is appropriate after an assessment of the parents knowledge and readiness.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1339

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

41. For what reason might a newborn infant with a cardiac defect, such as coarctation of the aorta, that results in a right-to-left shunt receive prostaglandin E1?

a.

To decrease inflammation

c.

To decrease respirations

b.

To control pain

d.

To improve oxygenation

ANS: D

Prostaglandin E1 is given to infants with a right-to-left shunt to keep the ductus arteriosus patent. This will improve oxygenation and increase pulmonary blood flow.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1324

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

42. What is the appropriate priority nursing action for the infant with a CHD who has an increased respiratory rate, is sweating, and is not feeding well?

a.

Recheck the infants blood pressure.

c.

Withhold oral feeding.

b.

Alert the physician.

d.

Increase the oxygen rate.

ANS: B

These are signs of early congestive heart failure, and the physician should be notified. Although rechecking blood pressure may be indicated, it is not the priority action. Withholding the infants feeding is an incomplete response to the problem. Increasing oxygen may alleviate symptoms; however, medications such as digoxin and furosemide are necessary to improve heart function and fluid retention. Notifying the physician is the priority nursing action.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1331

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

43. A nurse is teaching an adolescent about primary hypertension. The nurse knows that which of the following is correct?

a.

Primary hypertension should be treated with diuretics as soon as it is detected.

b.

Congenital heart defects are the most common cause of primary hypertension.

c.

Primary hypertension may be treated with weight reduction.

d.

Primary hypertension is not affected by exercise.

ANS: C

Primary hypertension in children may be treated with weight reduction and exercise programs. If ineffective, pharmacologic intervention may be needed. Primary hypertension is considered an inherited disorder.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1350

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

44. An adolescent being seen by the nurse practitioner for a sports physical is identified as having hypertension. On further testing, it is discovered the child has a cardiac abnormality. The initial treatment of secondary hypertension initially involves:

a.

Weight control and diet.

b.

Treating the underlying disease.

c.

Administration of digoxin.

d.

Administration of b-adrenergic receptor blockers.

ANS: B

Identification of the underlying disease should be the first step in treating secondary hypertension. Weight control and diet are nonpharmacologic treatments for primary hypertension. Digoxin is indicated in the treatment of congestive heart failure. b-Adrenergic receptor blockers are indicated in the treatment of primary hypertension.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1350

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

45. The nurse is preparing an adolescent for discharge after a cardiac catheterization. Which statement by the adolescent would indicate a need for further teaching?

a.

I should avoid tub baths but may shower.

b.

I have to stay on strict bed rest for 3 days.

c.

I should remove the pressure dressing the day after the procedure.

d.

I may attend school but should avoid exercise for several days.

ANS: B

The child does not need to be on strict bed rest for 3 days. Showers are recommended; children should avoid a tub bath. The pressure dressing is removed the day after the catheterization and replaced by an adhesive bandage to keep the area clean. Strenuous activity must be avoided for several days, but the child can return to school.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1320

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

46. Surgical closure of the ductus arteriosus would:

a.

Stop the loss of unoxygenated blood to the systemic circulation.

b.

Decrease the edema in legs and feet.

c.

Increase the oxygenation of blood.

d.

Prevent the return of oxygenated blood to the lungs.

ANS: D

The ductus arteriosus allows blood to flow from the higher-pressure aorta to the lower-pressure pulmonary artery, causing a right-to-left shunt. If this is surgically closed, no additional oxygenated blood (from the aorta) will return to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. The aorta carries oxygenated blood to the systemic circulation. Because of the higher pressure in the aorta, blood is shunted into the pulmonary artery and the pulmonary circulation. Edema in the legs and feet is usually a sign of heart failure. This repair would not directly affect the edema. Increasing the oxygenation of blood would not interfere with the return of oxygenated blood to the lungs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1323

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

47. A nurse is teaching nursing students the physiology of congenital heart defects. Which defect results in decreased pulmonary blood flow?

a.

Atrial septal defect

c.

Ventricular septal defect

b.

Tetralogy of Fallot

d.

Patent ductus arteriosus

ANS: B

Tetralogy of Fallot results in decreased blood flow to the lungs. The pulmonic stenosis increases the pressure in the right ventricle, causing the blood to go from right to left across the interventricular septal defect. Atrial and ventricular septal defects and patent ductus arteriosus result in increased pulmonary blood flow.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1327

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

48. The nurse is talking to a parent of an infant with heart failure about feeding the infant. Which statement about feeding the child is correct?

a.

You may need to increase the caloric density of your infants formula.

b.

You should feed your baby every 2 hours.

c.

You may need to increase the amount of formula your infant eats with each feeding.

d.

You should place a nasal oxygen cannula on your infant during and after each feeding.

ANS: A

The metabolic rate of infants with heart failure is greater because of poor cardiac function and increased heart and respiratory rates. Their caloric needs are greater than those of the average infants, yet their ability to take in the calories is diminished by their fatigue. Infants with heart failure should be fed every 3 hours; a 2-hour schedule does not allow for enough rest, and a 4-hour schedule is too long. Fluids must be carefully monitored because of the heart failure. Infants do not require supplemental oxygen with feedings.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1334

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

49. The nurse is admitting a child with rheumatic fever. Which therapeutic management should the nurse expect to implement?

a.

Administering penicillin

b.

Avoiding salicylates (aspirin)

c.

Imposing strict bed rest for 4 to 6 weeks

d.

Administering corticosteroids if chorea develops

ANS: A

The goal of medical management is the eradication of the hemolytic streptococci. Penicillin is the drug of choice. Salicylates can be used to control the inflammatory process, especially in the joints, and reduce the fever and discomfort. Bed rest is recommended for the acute febrile stage, but it does not need to be strict. The chorea is transient and will resolve without treatment.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1345

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

50. Which action by the school nurse is important in the prevention of rheumatic fever?

a.

Encourage routine cholesterol screenings.

b.

Conduct routine blood pressure screenings.

c.

Refer children with sore throats for throat cultures.

d.

Recommend salicylates instead of acetaminophen for minor discomforts.

ANS: C

Nurses have a role in preventionprimarily in screening school-age children for sore throats caused by group A b-hemolytic streptococci. They can achieve this by actively participating in throat culture screening or by referring children with possible streptococcal sore throats for testing. Cholesterol and blood pressure screenings do not facilitate the recognition and treatment of group A b-hemolytic streptococci. Salicylates should be avoided routinely because of the risk of Reyes syndrome after viral illnesses.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1346

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Reduction of Risk Potential

51. A preschool child is scheduled for an echocardiogram. Parents ask the nurse whether they can hold the child during the procedure. The nurse should answer with which response?

a.

You will be able to hold your child during the procedure.

b.

Your child can be active during the procedure, but cant sit in your lap.

c.

Your child must lie quietly; sometimes a mild sedative is administered before the procedure.

d.

The procedure is invasive so your child will be restrained during the echocardiogram.

ANS: C

Although an echocardiogram is noninvasive, painless, and associated with no known side effects, it can be stressful for children. The child must lie quietly in the standard echocardiographic positions; crying, nursing, being held, or sitting up often leads to diagnostic errors or omissions. Therefore, infants and young children may need a mild sedative; older children benefit from psychologic preparation for the test. The distraction of a video or movie is often helpful.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1352

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

52. The nurse is caring for an infant with congestive heart disease (CHD). The nurse should plan which intervention to decrease cardiac demands?

a.

Organize nursing activities to allow for uninterrupted sleep.

b.

Allow the infant to sleep through feedings during the night.

c.

Wait for the infant to cry to show definite signs of hunger.

d.

Discourage parents from rocking the infant

ANS: A

The infant requires rest and conservation of energy for feeding. Every effort is made to organize nursing activities to allow for uninterrupted periods of sleep. Whenever possible, parents are encouraged to stay with their infant to provide the holding, rocking, and cuddling that help children sleep more soundly. To minimize disturbing the infant, changing bed linens and complete bathing are done only when necessary. Feeding is planned to accommodate the infants sleep and wake patterns. The child is fed at the first sign of hunger, such as when sucking on fists, rather than waiting until he or she cries for a bottle because the stress of crying exhausts the limited energy supply. Because infants with CHD tire easily and may sleep through feedings, smaller feedings every 3 hours may be helpful.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1335

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

53. Nursing interventions for the child after a cardiac catheterization include which of the following (Select all that apply)?

a.

Allow ambulation as tolerated.

b.

Monitor vital signs every 2 hours.

c.

Assess the affected extremity for temperature and color.

d.

Check pulses above the catheterization site for equality and symmetry.

e.

Remove pressure dressing after 4 hours.

f.

Maintain a patent peripheral intravenous catheter until discharge.

ANS: C, F

The extremity that was used for access for the cardiac catheterization must be checked for temperature and color. Coolness and blanching may indicate arterial occlusion. The child should have a patent peripheral intravenous line to ensure adequate hydration. Allowing ambulation, monitoring vital signs every 2 hours, checking pulses, and removing the pressure dressing after 4 hours are interventions that do not apply to a child after a cardiac catheterization.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1320

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

54. Which clinical manifestations would the nurse expect to see as shock progresses in a child and becomes decompensated shock (Select all that apply)?

a.

Thirst and diminished urinary output

b.

Irritability and apprehension

c.

Cool extremities and decreased skin turgor

d.

Confusion and somnolence

e.

Normal blood pressure and narrowing pulse pressure

f.

Tachypnea and poor capillary refill time

ANS: C, D, F

Cool extremities, decreased skin turgor, confusion, somnolence, tachypnea, and poor capillary refill time are beginning signs of decompensated shock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1356

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

55. A child has a total cholesterol level of 180 mg/dL. What dietary recommendations should the nurse make to the child and the childs parents (Select all that apply)?

a.

Replace whole milk with 2% or 1% milk

b.

Increase servings of red meat

c.

Increase servings of fish

d.

Avoid excessive intake of fruit juices

e.

Limit servings of whole grain

ANS: A, C, D

A low-fat diet includes using nonfat or low-fat dairy products, limiting red meat intake, and increasing intake of fish, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. Children should avoid excessive intake of fruit juices and other sweetened drinks, sugars, and saturated fats.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1346

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

56. A nurse is conducting discharge teaching to parents about the care of their infant after cardiac surgery. The nurse instructs the parents to notify the physician if what conditions occur (Select all that apply)?

a.

Respiratory rate of 36 at rest

b.

Appetite slowly increasing

c.

Temperature above 37.7 C (100 F)

d.

New, frequent coughing

e.

Turning blue or bluer than normal

ANS: C, D, E

The parents should be instructed to notify the physician after their infants cardiac surgery for a temperature above 37.7 C (100 F); new, frequent coughing; and any episodes of the infant turning blue or bluer than normal. A respiratory rate of 36 at rest for an infant is within normal expectations, and it is expected that the appetite will increase slowly.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1342

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

57. The nurse is conducting discharge teaching about signs and symptoms of heart failure to parents of an infant with a repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Which signs and symptoms should the nurse include (Select all that apply)?

a.

Warm flushed extremities

b.

Weight loss

c.

Decreased urinary output

d.

Sweating (inappropriate)

e.

Fatigue

ANS: C, D, E

The signs and symptoms of heart failure include decreased urinary output, sweating, and fatigue. Other signs include pale, cool extremities, not warm and flushed, and weight gain, not weight loss.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1331

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

COMPLETION

58. Which is the acceptable mg/dl level, or below this level, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level for a child from a family with heart disease? _____ Record your answer as a whole number.

ANS:

110

The low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) contain low concentrations of triglycerides, high levels of cholesterol, and moderate levels of protein. LDL is the major carrier of cholesterol to the cells. Cells use cholesterol for synthesis of membranes and steroid production. Elevated circulating LDL is a strong risk factor in cardiovascular disease. For children from families with a history of heart disease, the LDL should be <110.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1346

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

MATCHING

An infant with an unrepaired tetralogy of Fallot defect is becoming extremely cyanotic during a routine blood draw. Which interventions should the nurse implement? Place in order from the highest-priority intervention to the lowest-priority intervention.

a.

Administer 100% oxygen by blow-by.

b.

Place infant in knee-chest position.

c.

Remain calm.

d.

Give morphine subcutaneously or by an existing intravenous line.

59. First priority

60. Second priority

61. Third priority

62. Fourth priority

59. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 1338 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Hypercyanotic spells, also referred to as blue spells or tet spells because they are often seen in infants with tetralogy of Fallot, may occur in any child whose heart defect includes obstruction to pulmonary blood flow and communication between the ventricles. The infant becomes acutely cyanotic and hyperpneic because sudden infundibular spasm decreases pulmonary blood flow and increases right-to-left shunting. Because profound hypoxemia causes cerebral hypoxia, hypercyanotic spells require prompt assessment and treatment to prevent brain damage or possibly death. The infant should first be placed in the knee-chest position to reduce blood returning to the heart. Next, 100% oxygen is given to alleviate the hypoxemia. Morphine is next administered to reduce infundibular spasms. Last, the nurse should remain calm.

60. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 1338 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Hypercyanotic spells, also referred to as blue spells or tet spells because they are often seen in infants with tetralogy of Fallot, may occur in any child whose heart defect includes obstruction to pulmonary blood flow and communication between the ventricles. The infant becomes acutely cyanotic and hyperpneic because sudden infundibular spasm decreases pulmonary blood flow and increases right-to-left shunting. Because profound hypoxemia causes cerebral hypoxia, hypercyanotic spells require prompt assessment and treatment to prevent brain damage or possibly death. The infant should first be placed in the knee-chest position to reduce blood returning to the heart. Next, 100% oxygen is given to alleviate the hypoxemia. Morphine is next administered to reduce infundibular spasms. Last, the nurse should remain calm.

61. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 1338 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Hypercyanotic spells, also referred to as blue spells or tet spells because they are often seen in infants with tetralogy of Fallot, may occur in any child whose heart defect includes obstruction to pulmonary blood flow and communication between the ventricles. The infant becomes acutely cyanotic and hyperpneic because sudden infundibular spasm decreases pulmonary blood flow and increases right-to-left shunting. Because profound hypoxemia causes cerebral hypoxia, hypercyanotic spells require prompt assessment and treatment to prevent brain damage or possibly death. The infant should first be placed in the knee-chest position to reduce blood returning to the heart. Next, 100% oxygen is given to alleviate the hypoxemia. Morphine is next administered to reduce infundibular spasms. Last, the nurse should remain calm.

62. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application

REF: 1338 OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

NOT: Hypercyanotic spells, also referred to as blue spells or tet spells because they are often seen in infants with tetralogy of Fallot, may occur in any child whose heart defect includes obstruction to pulmonary blood flow and communication between the ventricles. The infant becomes acutely cyanotic and hyperpneic because sudden infundibular spasm decreases pulmonary blood flow and increases right-to-left shunting. Because profound hypoxemia causes cerebral hypoxia, hypercyanotic spells require prompt assessment and treatment to prevent brain damage or possibly death. The infant should first be placed in the knee-chest position to reduce blood returning to the heart. Next, 100% oxygen is given to alleviate the hypoxemia. Morphine is next administered to reduce infundibular spasms. Last, the nurse should remain calm.

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