Chapter 44: Genitourinary Dysfunction Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 44: Genitourinary Dysfunction

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which diagnostic test allows visualization of the renal parenchyma and renal pelvis without exposure to external beam radiation or radioactive isotopes?

a.

Renal ultrasound

c.

Intravenous pyelography

b.

Computed tomography

d.

Voiding cystourethrography

ANS: A

The transmission of ultrasonic waves through the renal parenchyma allows visualization of the renal parenchyma and renal pelvis without exposure to external beam radiation or radioactive isotopes. Computed tomography uses external radiation, and sometimes contrast media are used. Intravenous pyelography uses contrast medium and external radiation for x-ray films. Contrast medium is injected into the bladder through the urethral opening for voiding cystourethrography. External radiation for x-ray films is used before, during, and after voiding.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1396

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. Which diagnostic finding is present when a child has primary nephrotic syndrome?

a.

Hyperalbuminemia

c.

Leukocytosis

b.

Positive ASO titer

d.

Proteinuria

ANS: D

Large amounts of protein are lost through the urine as a result of an increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane. Hypoalbuminemia is present because of loss of albumin through the defective glomerulus and the livers inability to synthesize proteins to balance the loss. ASO titer is negative in a child with primary nephrotic syndrome. Leukocytosis is not a diagnostic finding in primary nephrotic syndrome.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1406

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

3. Which factor predisposes a child to urinary tract infections?

a.

Increased fluid intake

c.

Prostatic secretions in males

b.

Short urethra in young girls

d.

Frequent emptying of the bladder

ANS: B

The short urethra in females provides a ready pathway for invasions of organisms. Increased fluid intake and frequent bladder emptying offer protective measures against urinary tract infections. Prostatic secretions have antibacterial properties that inhibit bacteria.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1399

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

4. What should the nurse recommend to prevent urinary tract infections in young girls?

a.

Wearing cotton underpants

b.

Limiting bathing as much as possible

c.

Increasing fluids; decreasing salt intake

d.

Cleansing the perineum with water after voiding

ANS: A

Cotton underpants are preferable to nylon underpants. No evidence exists that limiting bathing, increasing fluids, decreasing salt intake, or cleansing the perineum with water decreases urinary tract infections in young girls.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1401

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

5. The nurse is assisting the pediatric provider with a newborn examination. The provider notes that the infant has hypospadias. The nurse understands that hypospadias refers to:

a.

Absence of a urethral opening.

b.

Penis shorter than usual for age.

c.

Urethral opening along dorsal surface of penis.

d.

Urethral opening along ventral surface of penis.

ANS: D

Hypospadias is a congenital condition in which the urethral opening is located anywhere along the ventral surface of the penis. The urethral opening is present, but not at the glans. Hypospadias does not refer to the size of the penis. When the urethral opening is along the dorsal surface of the penis, it is known as epispadias.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1403

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

6. The narrowing of the preputial opening of the foreskin is called:

a.

Chordee.

c.

Epispadias.

b.

Phimosis.

d.

Hypospadias.

ANS: B

Phimosis is the narrowing or stenosis of the preputial opening of the foreskin. Chordee is the ventral curvature of the penis. Epispadias is the meatal opening on the dorsal surface of the penis. Hypospadias is a congenital condition in which the urethral opening is located anywhere along the ventral surface of the penis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1403

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

7. An objective of care for the child with nephrosis is to:

a.

Reduce blood pressure.

b.

Reduce excretion of urinary protein.

c.

Increase excretion of urinary protein.

d.

Increase ability of tissues to retain fluid.

ANS: B

The objectives of therapy for the child with nephrosis include reduction of the excretion of urinary protein, reduction of fluid retention, prevention of infection, and minimizing of complications associated with therapy. Blood pressure is usually not elevated in nephrosis. Increased excretion of urinary protein and increased ability of tissues to retain fluid are part of the disease process and must be reversed.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1404

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

8. Therapeutic management of nephrosis includes:

a.

Corticosteroids.

c.

Long-term diuretics.

b.

Antihypertensive agents.

d.

Increased fluids to promote diuresis.

ANS: A

Corticosteroids are the first line of therapy for nephrosis. Response is usually seen within 7 to 21 days. Antihypertensive agents and long-term diuretic therapy are usually not necessary. A diet that has fluid and salt restrictions may be indicated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1404

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

9. A common side effect of corticosteroid therapy is:

a.

Fever.

c.

Weight loss.

b.

Hypertension.

d.

Increased appetite.

ANS: D

Side effects of corticosteroid therapy include an increased appetite. Fever is not a side effect of therapy. It may be an indication of infection. Hypertension is not usually associated with initial corticosteroid therapy. Weight gain, not weight loss, is associated with corticosteroid therapy.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1404

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

10. The nurse closely monitors the temperature of a child with nephrosis. The purpose of this is to detect an early sign of:

a.

Infection.

c.

Encephalopathy.

b.

Hypertension.

d.

Edema.

ANS: A

Infection is a constant source of danger to edematous children and those receiving corticosteroid therapy. An increased temperature could be an indication of an infection, but it is not an indication of hypertension or edema. Encephalopathy is not a complication usually associated with nephrosis. The child will most likely have neurologic signs and symptoms.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1405

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. The diet of a child with nephrosis usually includes:

a.

High protein.

c.

Low fat.

b.

Salt restriction.

d.

High carbohydrate.

ANS: B

Salt is usually restricted (but not eliminated) during the edema phase. The child has very little appetite during the acute phase. Favorite foods are provided (with the exception of high-salt ones) in an attempt to provide nutritionally complete meals.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1406

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

12. A child is admitted with acute glomerulonephritis. The nurse would expect the urinalysis during this acute phase to show:

a.

Bacteriuria and hematuria.

b.

Hematuria and proteinuria.

c.

Bacteriuria and increased specific gravity.

d.

Proteinuria and decreased specific gravity.

ANS: B

Urinalysis during the acute phase characteristically shows hematuria and proteinuria. Bacteriuria and changes in specific gravity are not usually present during the acute phase.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1406

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

13. The most appropriate nursing diagnosis for the child with acute glomerulonephritis is:

a.

Risk for Injury related to malignant process and treatment.

b.

Deficient Fluid Volume related to excessive losses.

c.

Excess Fluid Volume related to decreased plasma filtration.

d.

Excess Fluid Volume related to fluid accumulation in tissues and third spaces.

ANS: C

Glomerulonephritis has a decreased filtration of plasma. The decrease in plasma filtration results in an excessive accumulation of water and sodium that expands plasma and interstitial fluid volumes, leading to circulatory congestion and edema. No malignant process is involved in acute glomerulonephritis. A fluid volume excess is found. The fluid accumulation is secondary to the decreased plasma filtration, not fluid accumulation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1406

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

14. What should the nurse include in a teaching plan for the parents of a child with vesicoureteral reflux?

a.

The importance of taking prophylactic antibiotics

b.

Suggestions for how to maintain fluid restrictions

c.

The use of bubble baths as an incentive to increase bath time

d.

The need for the child to hold urine for 6 to 8 hours

ANS: A

Prophylactic antibiotics are used to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a child with vesicoureteral reflux, although this treatment plan has become controversial. Fluids are not restricted when a child has vesicoureteral reflux. In fact, fluid intake should be increased as a measure to prevent UTIs. Bubble baths should be avoided to prevent urethral irritation and possible UTI. To prevent UTIs, the child should be taught to void frequently and never resist the urge to urinate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1400

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

15. The most common cause of acute renal failure in children is:

a.

Pyelonephritis.

c.

Urinary tract obstruction.

b.

Tubular destruction.

d.

Severe dehydration.

ANS: D

The most common cause of acute renal failure in children is dehydration or other causes of poor perfusion that may respond to restoration of fluid volume. Pyelonephritis and tubular destruction are not common causes of acute renal failure in children. Obstructive uropathy may cause acute renal failure, but it is not the most common cause.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1409

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

16. The primary clinical manifestations of acute renal failure are:

a.

Oliguria and hypertension.

c.

Proteinuria and muscle cramps.

b.

Hematuria and pallor.

d.

Bacteriuria and facial edema.

ANS: A

The principal feature of acute renal failure is oliguria. Hematuria and pallor, proteinuria and muscle cramps, and bacteriuria and facial edema are not principal features of acute renal failure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1410

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

17. The nurse is caring for a child with acute renal failure. What clinical manifestation should he or she recognize as a sign of hyperkalemia?

a.

Dyspnea

c.

Oliguria

b.

Seizure

d.

Cardiac arrhythmia

ANS: D

Hyperkalemia is the most common threat to the life of the child. Signs of hyperkalemia include electrocardiographic anomalies such as prolonged QRS complex, depressed ST segments, peaked T waves, bradycardia, or heart block. Dyspnea, seizure, and oliguria are not manifestations of hyperkalemia.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1411

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

18. When a child has chronic renal failure, the progressive deterioration produces a variety of clinical and biochemical disturbances that eventually are manifested in the clinical syndrome known as:

a.

Uremia.

c.

Proteinuria.

b.

Oliguria.

d.

Pyelonephritis.

ANS: A

Uremia is the retention of nitrogenous products, producing toxic symptoms. Oliguria is diminished urine output. Proteinuria is the presence of protein, usually albumin, in the urine. Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1411

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

19. A major complication in a child with chronic renal failure is:

a.

Hypokalemia.

b.

Metabolic alkalosis.

c.

Water and sodium retention.

d.

Excessive excretion of blood urea nitrogen.

ANS: C

Chronic renal failure leads to water and sodium retention, which contributes to edema and vascular congestion. Hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and retention of blood urea nitrogen are complications of chronic renal failure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1412

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

20. Which clinical manifestation would be seen in a child with chronic renal failure?

a.

Hypotension

c.

Hypokalemia

b.

Massive hematuria

d.

Unpleasant uremic breath odor

ANS: D

Children with chronic renal failure have a characteristic breath odor resulting from the retention of waste products. Hypertension may be a complication of chronic renal failure. With chronic renal failure, little or no urine output occurs. Hyperkalemia is a concern in chronic renal failure.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1412

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

21. One of the clinical manifestations of chronic renal failure is uremic frost. What best describes this term?

a.

Deposits of urea crystals in urine

b.

Deposits of urea crystals on skin

c.

Overexcretion of blood urea nitrogen

d.

Inability of body to tolerate cold temperatures

ANS: B

Uremic frost is the deposition of urea crystals on the skin, not in the urine. The kidneys are unable to excrete blood urea nitrogen, leading to elevated levels. There is no relation between cold temperatures and uremic frost.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1412

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

22. Calcium carbonate is given with meals to a child with chronic renal disease. The purpose of this is to:

a.

Prevent vomiting.

b.

Bind phosphorus.

c.

Stimulate appetite.

d.

Increase absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

ANS: B

Oral calcium carbonate preparations combine with phosphorus to decrease gastrointestinal absorption and the serum levels of phosphate; serum calcium levels are increased by the calcium carbonate, and vitamin D administration is necessary to increase calcium absorption. Calcium carbonate does not prevent vomiting, stimulate appetite, or increase the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1412

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

23. The diet of a child with chronic renal failure is usually characterized as:

a.

High in protein.

b.

Low in vitamin D.

c.

Low in phosphorus.

d.

Supplemented with vitamins A, E, and K.

ANS: C

Dietary phosphorus is controlled to prevent or control the calcium/phosphorus imbalance by the reduction of protein and milk intake. Protein should be limited in chronic renal failure to decrease intake of phosphorus. Vitamin D therapy is administered in chronic renal failure to increase calcium absorption. Supplementation with vitamins A, E, and K is not part of dietary management in chronic renal disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1412

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

24. The nurse is caring for an adolescent who has just started dialysis. The child seems always angry, hostile, or depressed. The nurse should recognize that this is most likely related to:

a.

Neurologic manifestations that occur with dialysis.

b.

Physiologic manifestations of renal disease.

c.

Adolescents having few coping mechanisms.

d.

Adolescents often resenting the control and enforced dependence imposed by dialysis.

ANS: D

Older children and adolescents need control. The necessity of dialysis forces the adolescent into a dependent relationship, which results in these behaviors. Neurologic manifestations that occur with dialysis and physiologic manifestations of renal disease are a function of the age of the child, not neurologic or physiologic manifestations of the dialysis. Adolescents do have coping mechanisms, but they need to have some control over their disease management.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1413

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

25. An advantage of peritoneal dialysis is that:

a.

Treatments are done in hospitals.

b.

Protein loss is less extensive.

c.

Dietary limitations are not necessary.

d.

Parents and older children can perform treatments.

ANS: D

Peritoneal dialysis is the preferred form of dialysis for parents, infants, and children who wish to remain independent. Parents and older children can perform the treatments themselves. Treatments can be done at home. Protein loss is not significantly different. The dietary limitations are necessary, but they are not as stringent as those for hemodialysis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1413

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

26. Which statement is descriptive of renal transplantation in children?

a.

It is an acceptable means of treatment after age 10 years.

b.

It is preferred means of renal replacement therapy in children.

c.

Children can receive kidneys only from other children.

d.

The decision for transplantation is difficult since a relatively normal lifestyle is not possible.

ANS: B

Renal transplantation offers the opportunity for a relatively normal lifestyle versus dependence on dialysis and is the preferred means of renal replacement therapy in end-stage renal disease. It can be done in children as young as age 6 months. Both children and adults can serve as donors for renal transplant purposes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1413

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

27. Which intervention is appropriate when examining a male infant for cryptorchidism?

a.

Cooling the examiners hands

c.

Eliciting the cremasteric reflex

b.

Taking a rectal temperature

d.

Warming the room

ANS: D

For the infants comfort, the infant should be examined in a warm room with the examiners hands warmed. Testes can retract into the inguinal canal if the infant is upset or cold. Examining the infant with cold hands is uncomfortable for the infant and likely to cause the infants testes to retract into the inguinal canal. It may also cause the infant to be uncooperative during the examination. A rectal temperature yields no information about cryptorchidism. Testes can retract into the inguinal canal if the cremasteric reflex is elicited. This can lead to an incorrect diagnosis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1403

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

28. The narrowing of preputial opening of foreskin is called:

a.

Chordee

c.

Epispadias

b.

Phimosis

d.

Hypospadias

ANS: B

Phimosis is the narrowing or stenosis of the preputial opening of the foreskin. Chordee is the ventral curvature of the penis. Epispadias is the meatal opening on the dorsal surface of the penis. Hypospadias is a congenital condition in which the urethral opening is located anywhere along the ventral surface of the penis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1403

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

29. The nurse is admitting a school-age child in acute renal failure with reduced glomerular filtration rate. Which urine test is the most useful clinical indication of glomerular filtration rate?

a.

pH

c.

Creatinine clearance

b.

Osmolality

d.

Protein level

ANS: C

The most useful clinical indication of glomerular filtration is the clearance of creatinine. It is a substance that is freely filtered by the glomerulus and secreted by the renal tubule cells. The pH and osmolality are not estimates of glomerular filtration. Although protein in the urine demonstrates abnormal glomerular permeability, it is not a measure of filtration rate.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1395

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

30. The nurse is conducting an assessment on a school-age child with urosepsis. Which assessment finding should the nurse expect?

a.

Fever with a positive blood culture

c.

Oliguria and hypertension

b.

Proteinuria and edema

d.

Anemia and thrombocytopenia

ANS: A

Symptoms of urosepsis include a febrile urinary tract infection coexisting with systemic signs of bacterial illness; blood culture reveals the presence of a urinary pathogen. Proteinuria and edema are symptoms of minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Oliguria and hypertension are symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis. Anemia and thrombocytopenia are symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1395

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

31. A mother asks the nurse what would be the first indication that acute glomerulonephritis is improving. The nurses best response should be that the:

a.

Blood pressure will stabilize.

c.

Urine will be free of protein.

b.

Child will have more energy.

d.

Urinary output will increase.

ANS: D

An increase in urinary output may signal resolution of the acute glomerulonephritis. If blood pressure is elevated, stabilization usually occurs with the improvement in renal function. The child having more energy and the urine being free of protein are related to the improvement in urinary output.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1406

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

32. The nurse is teaching the parent about the diet of a child experiencing severe edema associated with acute glomerulonephritis. Which information should the nurse include in the teaching?

a.

You will need to decrease the number of calories in your childs diet.

b.

Your childs diet will need an increased amount of protein.

c.

You will need to avoid adding salt to your childs food.

d.

Your childs diet will consist of low-fat, low-carbohydrate foods.

ANS: C

For most children, a regular diet is allowed, but it should contain no added salt. The child should be offered a regular diet with favorite foods. Severe sodium restrictions are not indicated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1407

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

33. A preschool child is being admitted to the hospital with dehydration and a urinary tract infection (UTI). Which urinalysis result should the nurse expect with these conditions?

a.

WBC <1; specific gravity 1.008

c.

WBC >2; specific gravity 1.016

b.

WBC <2; specific gravity 1.025

d.

WBC >2; specific gravity 1.030

ANS: D

The white blood cell count (WBC) in a routine urinalysis should be <1 or 2. Over that amount indicates a urinary tract inflammatory process. The urinalysis specific gravity for children with normal fluid intake is 1.016 to 1.022. When the specific gravity is high, dehydration is indicated. A low specific gravity is seen with excessive fluid intake, distal tubular dysfunction, or insufficient antidiuretic hormone secretion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1398

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

34. The nurse is conducting teaching for an adolescent being discharged to home after a renal transplantation. The adolescent needs further teaching if which statement is made?

a.

I will report any fever to my primary health care provider.

b.

I am glad I only have to take the immunosuppressant medication for two weeks.

c.

I will observe my incision for any redness or swelling.

d.

I wont miss doing kidney dialysis every week.

ANS: B

The immunosuppressant medications are taken indefinitely after a renal transplantation, so they should not be discontinued after 2 weeks. Reporting a fever and observing an incision for redness and swelling are accurate statements. The adolescent is correct in indicating dialysis will not need to be done after the transplantation.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1415

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

35. The nurse is teaching parents of a child with chronic renal failure (CRF) about the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) subcutaneous injections. Which statement indicates the parents have understood the teaching?

a.

These injections will help with the hypertension.

b.

Were glad the injections only need to be given once a month.

c.

The red blood cell count should begin to improve with these injections.

d.

Urine output should begin to improve with these injections.

ANS: C

Anemia in children with CRF is related to decreased production of erythropoietin. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is being offered to these children as thrice-weekly or weekly subcutaneous injections and is replacing the need for frequent blood transfusions. The parents understand the teaching if they say that the red blood cell count will begin to improve with these injections.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1413

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

36. A school-age child with chronic renal failure is admitted to the hospital with a serum potassium level of 5.2 mEq/L. Which prescribed medication should the nurse plan to administer?

a.

Spironolactone (Aldactone)

b.

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)

c.

Lactulose (Cephulac)

d.

Calcium carbonate (Calcitab)

ANS: B

Normal serum potassium levels in a school-age child are 3.5 to 5 mEq/L. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is administered to reduce serum potassium levels. Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic and should not be used if the serum potassium is elevated. Lactulose is administered to reduce ammonia levels in patients with liver disease. Calcium carbonate may be prescribed as a calcium supplement, but it will not reduce serum potassium levels.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1411

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

37. The nurse is caring for an infant with a suspected urinary tract infection. Which clinical manifestations would be observed (Select all that apply)?

a.

Vomiting

b.

Jaundice

c.

Failure to gain weight

d.

Swelling of the face

e.

Back pain

f.

Persistent diaper rash

ANS: A, C, F

Vomiting, failure to gain weight, and persistent diaper rash are clinical manifestations observed in an infant with a urinary tract infection. Jaundice, swelling of the face, and back pain would not be observed in an infant with a urinary tract infection.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1400

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

38. A child with secondary enuresis who complains of dysuria or urgency should be evaluated for what condition (Select all that apply)?

a.

Hypocalciuria

b.

Nephrotic syndrome

c.

Glomerulonephritis

d.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

e.

Diabetes mellitus

ANS: D, E

Complaints of dysuria or urgency from a child with secondary enuresis suggest the possibility of a UTI. If accompanied by excessive thirst and weight loss, these symptoms may indicate the onset of diabetes mellitus. An excessive loss of calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria) can be associated with complaints of painful urination, urgency, frequency, and wetting. Nephrotic syndrome is not usually associated with complaints of dysuria or urgency. Glomerulonephritis is not a likely cause of dysuria or urgency.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1395

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

39. A school-age child is admitted to the hospital with acute glomerulonephritis and oliguria. Which dietary menu items should be allowed for this child (Select all that apply)?

a.

Apples

b.

Bananas

c.

Cheese

d.

Carrot sticks

e.

Strawberries

ANS: A, D, E

Moderate sodium restriction and even fluid restriction may be instituted for children with acute glomerulonephritis. Foods with substantial amounts of potassium and sodium are generally restricted during the period of oliguria. Apples, carrot sticks, and strawberries would be items low in sodium and allowed. Bananas are high in potassium and cheese is high in sodium. Those items would be restricted.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1407

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

40. A school-age child has been admitted to the hospital with an exacerbation of nephrotic syndrome. Which clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to assess (Select all that apply)?

a.

Weight loss

b.

Facial edema

c.

Cloudy, smoky browncolored urine

d.

Fatigue

e.

Frothy-appearing urine

ANS: B, D, E

A child with nephrotic syndrome will present with facial edema, fatigue, and frothy-appearing urine (proteinuria). Weight gain, not loss, is expected because of the fluid retention. Cloudy, smoky browncolored urine is seen with acute glomerulonephritis but not with nephrotic syndrome because there is no gross hematuria associated with nephrotic syndrome.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1404

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

Leave a Reply