Chapter 46: Endocrine Dysfunction Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 46: Endocrine Dysfunction

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which statement best describes hypopituitarism?

a.

Growth is normal during the first 3 years of life.

b.

Weight is usually more retarded than height.

c.

Skeletal proportions are normal for age.

d.

Most of these children have subnormal intelligence.

ANS: C

In children with hypopituitarism, the skeletal proportions are normal. Growth is within normal limits for the first year of life. Height is usually more delayed than weight. Intelligence is not affected by hypopituitarism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1461

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

2. A child with growth hormone (GH) deficiency is receiving GH therapy. The best time for the GH to be administered is:

a.

At bedtime.

c.

Before meals.

b.

After meals.

d.

On arising in the morning.

ANS: A

Injections are best given at bedtime to more closely approximate the physiologic release of GH. Before or after meals and on arising in the morning are times that do not mimic the physiologic release of the hormone.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1464

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

3. What is the priority nursing goal for a 14-year-old with Graves disease?

a.

Relieving constipation

b.

Allowing the adolescent to make decisions about whether or not to take medication

c.

Verbalizing the importance of adherence to the medication regimen

d.

Developing alternative educational goals

ANS: C

In order to adhere to the medication schedule, children need to understand that the medication must be taken two or three times per day. The adolescent with Graves disease is not likely to be constipated. Adherence to the medication schedule is important to ensure optimal health and wellness. Medications should not be skipped and dose regimens should not be tapered by the child without consultation with the childs medical provider. The management of Graves disease does not interfere with school attendance and does not require alternative educational plans.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1469

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. At what age is sexual development in boys and girls considered to be precocious?

a.

Boys, 11 years; girls, 9 years

c.

Boys, 9 years; girls, 8 years

b.

Boys, 12 years; girls, 10 years

d.

Boys, 10 years; girls, 9.5 years

ANS: C

Manifestations of sexual development before age 9 in boys and age 8 in girls are considered precocious and should be investigated. Boys older than 9 years of age and girls older than 8 years of age fall within the expected range of pubertal onset.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1465

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

5. A child will start treatment for precocious puberty. This involves injections of synthetic:

a.

Thyrotropin.

b.

Gonadotropins.

c.

Somatotropic hormone.

d.

Luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone.

ANS: D

Precocious puberty of central origin is treated with monthly subcutaneous injections of luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone. Thyrotropin, gonadotropin, and somatotropic hormone are not appropriate therapies for precocious puberty.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1465

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

6. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder of the:

a.

Anterior pituitary.

c.

Adrenal cortex.

b.

Posterior pituitary.

d.

Adrenal medulla.

ANS: B

The principal disorder of posterior pituitary hypofunction is diabetes insipidus. The anterior pituitary produces hormones such as growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, gonadotropin, prolactin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The adrenal cortex produces aldosterone, sex hormones, and glucocorticoids. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1466

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

7. The nurse is caring for a child with suspected diabetes insipidus. Which clinical manifestation would she or he expect to observe?

a.

Oliguria

c.

Nausea and vomiting

b.

Glycosuria

d.

Polyuria and polydipsia

ANS: D

Excessive urination accompanied by insatiable thirst is the primary clinical manifestation of diabetes. These symptoms may be so severe that the child does little other than drink and urinate. Oliguria is decreased urine production and is not associated with diabetes insipidus. Glycosuria is associated with diabetes mellitus. Nausea and vomiting are associated with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1466

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

8. A common clinical manifestation of juvenile hypothyroidism is:

a.

Insomnia.

c.

Dry skin.

b.

Diarrhea.

d.

Accelerated growth.

ANS: C

Dry skin, mental decline, and myxedematous skin changes are associated with juvenile hypothyroidism. Children with hypothyroidism are usually sleepy. Constipation is associated with hypothyroidism. Decelerated growth is common in juvenile hypothyroidism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1467

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

9. A goiter is an enlargement or hypertrophy of which gland?

a.

Thyroid

c.

Anterior pituitary

b.

Adrenal

d.

Posterior pituitary

ANS: A

A goiter is an enlargement or hypertrophy of the thyroid gland. Goiter is not associated with the adrenals or the anterior and posterior pituitaries.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1468

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

10. Exophthalmos (protruding eyeballs) may occur in children with:

a.

Hypothyroidism.

c.

Hypoparathyroidism.

b.

Hyperthyroidism.

d.

Hyperparathyroidism.

ANS: B

Exophthalmos is a clinical manifestation of hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism are not associated with exophthalmos.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1469

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

11. The nurse is teaching the parents of a child who is receiving propylthiouracil for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (Graves disease). Which statement made by the parent indicates a correct understanding of the teaching?

a.

I would expect my child to gain weight while taking this medication.

b.

I would expect my child to experience episodes of ear pain while taking this medication.

c.

If my child develops a sore throat and fever, I should contact the physician immediately.

d.

If my child develops the stomach flu, my child will need to be hospitalized.

ANS: C

Children being treated with propylthiouracil must be carefully monitored for the side effects of the drug. Parents must be alerted that sore throat and fever accompany the grave complication of leukopenia. These symptoms should be immediately reported. Weight gain, episodes of ear pain, and stomach flu are not usually associated with leukopenia.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1470

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

12. A child with hypoparathyroidism is receiving vitamin D therapy. The parents should be advised to watch for which sign of vitamin D toxicity?

a.

Headache and seizures

b.

Physical restlessness and voracious appetite without weight gain

c.

Weakness and lassitude

d.

Anorexia and insomnia

ANS: C

Vitamin D toxicity can be a serious consequence of therapy. Parents are advised to watch for signs including weakness, fatigue, lassitude, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Renal impairment is manifested through polyuria, polydipsia, and nocturia. Headaches may be a sign of vitamin D toxicity, but seizures are not. Physical restlessness and a voracious appetite with weight loss are manifestations of hyperthyroidism. Anorexia and insomnia are not characteristic of vitamin D toxicity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1471

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

13. Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and sex steroids are secreted by the:

a.

Thyroid gland.

c.

Adrenal cortex.

b.

Parathyroid glands.

d.

Anterior pituitary.

ANS: C

These hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex. The thyroid gland produces thyroid hormone and thyrocalcitonin. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone. The anterior pituitary produces hormones such as growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, gonadotropin, prolactin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1472

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

14. Chronic adrenocortical insufficiency is also referred to as:

a.

Graves disease.

c.

Cushings syndrome.

b.

Addisons disease.

d.

Hashimotos disease.

ANS: B

Addisons disease is chronic adrenocortical insufficiency. Graves and Hashimotos diseases involve the thyroid gland. Cushings syndrome is a result of excessive circulation of free cortisol.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1473

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

15. A neonate born with ambiguous genitalia is diagnosed with congenital adrenogenital hyperplasia. Therapeutic management includes administration of:

a.

Vitamin D.

c.

Stool softeners.

b.

Cortisone.

d.

Calcium carbonate.

ANS: B

The most common biochemical defect with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is partial or complete 21-hydroxylase deficiency. With complete deficiency, insufficient amounts of aldosterone and cortisol are produced, so circulatory collapse occurs without immediate replacement. Vitamin D, stool softeners, and calcium carbonate have no role in the therapy of adrenogenital hyperplasia.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1472

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

16. What is characteristic of the immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus?

a.

Ketoacidosis is infrequent.

b.

Onset is gradual.

c.

Age at onset is usually younger than 18 years.

d.

Oral agents are often effective for treatment.

ANS: C

The immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus typically has its onset in children or young adults. Peak incidence is between the ages of 10 and 15 years. Infrequent ketoacidosis, gradual onset, and treatment with oral agents are more consistent with type 2 diabetes.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1477

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

17. Which symptom is considered a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?

a.

Nausea

c.

Impaired vision

b.

Seizures

d.

Frequent urination

ANS: D

Hallmarks of diabetes mellitus are glycosuria, polyuria, and polydipsia. Nausea and seizures are not clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Impaired vision is a long-term complication of the disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1478

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

18. What is the most appropriate intervention for the parents of a 6-year-old girl with precocious puberty?

a.

Advise the parents to consider birth control for their daughter.

b.

Explain the importance of having the child foster relationships with same-age peers.

c.

Assure the childs parents that there is no increased risk for sexual abuse because of her appearance.

d.

Counsel parents that there is no treatment currently available for this disorder.

ANS: B

Despite the childs appearance, the child needs to be treated according to her chronologic age and to interact with children in the same age-group. An expected outcome is that the child will adjust socially by exhibiting age-appropriate behaviors and social interactions. Advising the parents of a 6-year-old to put their daughter on birth control is not appropriate and will not reverse the effects of precocious puberty. Parents need to be aware that there is an increased risk of sexual abuse for a child with precocious puberty. Treatment for precocious puberty is the administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone blocker, which slows or reverses the development of secondary sexual characteristics and slows rapid growth and bone aging.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1465

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is suspected in an adolescent. Which clinical manifestation may be present?

a.

Moist skin

c.

Fluid overload

b.

Weight gain

d.

Poor wound healing

ANS: D

Poor wound healing is often an early sign of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Dry skin, weight loss, and dehydration are clinical manifestations of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1478

OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

20. A parent asks the nurse why self-monitoring of blood glucose is being recommended for her child with diabetes. The nurse should base the explanation on knowing that:

a.

It is a less expensive method of testing.

b.

It is not as accurate as laboratory testing.

c.

Children are better able to manage the diabetes.

d.

The parents are better able to manage the disease.

ANS: C

Blood glucose self-management has improved diabetes management and can be used successfully by children from the time of diagnosis. Insulin dosages can be adjusted based on blood sugar results. Blood glucose monitoring is more expensive but provides improved management. It is as accurate as equivalent testing done in laboratories. The ability to self-test allows the child to balance diet, exercise, and insulin. The parents are partners in the process, but the child should be taught how to manage the disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1480

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

21. The parents of a child who has just been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes ask about exercise. The nurse should explain that:

a.

Exercise will increase blood glucose.

b.

Exercise should be restricted.

c.

Extra snacks are needed before exercise.

d.

Extra insulin is required during exercise.

ANS: C

Exercise lowers blood glucose levels, which can be compensated for by extra snacks. Exercise is encouraged and not restricted unless indicated by other health conditions. Extra insulin is contraindicated because exercise decreases blood glucose levels.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1481

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

22. A child eats some sugar cubes after experiencing symptoms of hypoglycemia. This rapid-releasing sugar should be followed by:

a.

Saturated and unsaturated fat.

c.

Several glasses of water.

b.

Fruit juice.

d.

Complex carbohydrate and protein.

ANS: D

Symptoms of hypoglycemia are treated with a rapid-releasing sugar source followed by a complex carbohydrate and protein. Saturated and unsaturated fat, fruit juice, and several glasses of water do not provide the child with complex carbohydrate and protein necessary to stabilize the blood sugar.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1481

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

23. Manifestations of hypoglycemia include:

a.

Lethargy.

c.

Nausea and vomiting.

b.

Thirst.

d.

Shaky feeling and dizziness.

ANS: D

Some of the clinical manifestations of hypoglycemia include shaky feelings; dizziness; difficulty concentrating, speaking, focusing, and coordinating; sweating; and pallor. Lethargy, thirst, and nausea and vomiting are manifestations of hyperglycemia.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1482

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

24. The nurse is caring for an 11-year-old boy who has recently been diagnosed with diabetes. What should be included in the teaching plan for daily injections?

a.

The parents do not need to learn the procedure.

b.

He is old enough to give most of his own injections.

c.

Self-injections will be possible when he is closer to adolescence.

d.

He can learn about self-injections when he is able to reach all injection sites.

ANS: B

School-age children are able to give their own injections. Parents should participate in learning and giving the insulin injections. He is already old enough to administer his own insulin. The child is able to use thighs, abdomen, part of the hip, and arm. Assistance can be obtained if other sites are used.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1487

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

25. The nurse is discussing various sites used for insulin injections with a child and her family. Which site usually has the fastest rate of absorption?

a.

Arm

c.

Buttock

b.

Leg

d.

Abdomen

ANS: D

The abdomen has the fastest rate of absorption but the shortest duration. The arm has a fast rate of absorption but short duration. The leg has a slow rate of absorption but a long duration. The buttock has the slowest rate of absorption and the longest duration.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1487

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

26. What should a nurse advise the parents of a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus who is not eating as a result of a minor illness?

a.

Give the child half his regular morning dose of insulin.

b.

Substitute simple carbohydrates or calorie-containing liquids for solid foods.

c.

Give the child plenty of unsweetened, clear liquids to prevent dehydration.

d.

Take the child directly to the emergency department.

ANS: B

A sick-day diet of simple carbohydrates or calorie-containing liquids will maintain normal serum glucose levels and decrease the risk of hypoglycemia. The child should receive his regular dose of insulin even if he does not have an appetite. If the child is not eating as usual, he needs calories to prevent hypoglycemia. During periods of minor illness, the child with type 1 diabetes mellitus can be managed safely at home.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1482

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

27. Which laboratory finding confirms that a child with type 1 diabetes is experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis?

a.

No urinary ketones

c.

Elevated serum carbon dioxide

b.

Low arterial pH

d.

Elevated serum phosphorus

ANS: B

Severe insulin deficiency produces metabolic acidosis, which is indicated by a low arterial pH. Urinary ketones, often in large amounts, are present when a child is in diabetic ketoacidosis. Serum carbon dioxide is decreased in diabetic ketoacidosis. Serum phosphorus is decreased in diabetic ketoacidosis.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1483

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

28. A child with hypopituitarism is being started on growth hormone (GH) therapy. Nursing considerations should be based on which of the following?

a.

Treatment is most successful if it is started during adolescence.

b.

Treatment is considered successful if children attain full stature by adulthood.

c.

Replacement therapy requires daily subcutaneous injections.

d.

Replacement therapy will be required throughout the childs lifetime.

ANS: C

Additional support is required for children who require hormone replacement therapy, such as preparation for daily subcutaneous injections and education for self-management during the school-age years. Young children, obese children, and those who are severely GH deficient have the best response to therapy. When therapy is successful, children can attain their actual or near-final adult height at a slower rate than their peers. Replacement therapy is not needed after attaining final height. They are no longer GH deficient.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1464

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

29. An adolescent is being seen in the clinic for evaluation of acromegaly. The nurse understands that which occurs with acromegaly?

a.

There is a lack of growth hormone (GH) being produced.

b.

There is excess GH after closure of the epiphyseal plates.

c.

There is an excess of GH before the closure of the epiphyseal plates.

d.

There is a lack of thyroid hormone being produced.

ANS: B

Excess GH after closure of the epiphyseal plates results in acromegaly. A lack of growth hormone results in delayed growth or even dwarfism. Gigantism occurs when there is hypersecretion of GH before the closure of the epiphyseal plates. Cretinism is associated with hypothyroidism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1464

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

30. The nurse is admitting a toddler with the diagnosis of juvenile hypothyroidism. Which is a common clinical manifestation of this disorder?

a.

Insomnia

c.

Dry skin

b.

Diarrhea

d.

Accelerated growth

ANS: C

Dry skin, mental decline, and myxedematous skin changes are associated with juvenile hypothyroidism. Children with hypothyroidism are usually sleepy. Constipation is associated with hypothyroidism. Decelerated growth is common in juvenile hypothyroidism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1468

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

31. Which clinical manifestation may occur in the child who is receiving too much methimazole (Tapazole) for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (Graves disease)?

a.

Seizures

c.

Pancreatitis or cholecystitis

b.

Enlargement of all lymph glands

d.

Lethargy and somnolence

ANS: D

Parents should be aware of the signs of hypothyroidism that can occur from overdosage of the drug. The most common manifestations are lethargy and somnolence. Seizures and pancreatitis are not associated with the administration of Tapazole. Enlargement of the salivary and cervical lymph glands occurs.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1469

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

32. The parent of a child with diabetes mellitus asks the nurse when urine testing will be necessary. The nurse should explain that urine testing is necessary for which?

a.

Glucose is needed before administration of insulin.

b.

Glucose is needed four times a day.

c.

Glycosylated hemoglobin is required.

d.

Ketonuria is suspected.

ANS: D

Urine testing is still performed to detect evidence of ketonuria. Urine testing for glucose is no longer indicated because of the poor correlation between blood glucose levels and glycosuria. Glycosylated hemoglobin analysis is performed on a blood sample.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 1478

OBJ: Nursing Process: Teaching/Learning

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

33. To help the adolescent deal with diabetes, the nurse must consider which characteristic of adolescence?

a.

Desire to be unique

b.

Preoccupation with the future

c.

Need to be perfect and similar to peers

d.

Need to make peers aware of the seriousness of hypoglycemic reactions

ANS: C

Adolescence is a time when the individual wants to be perfect and similar to peers. Having diabetes makes adolescents different from their peers. Adolescents do not wish to be unique; they desire to fit in with the peer group and are usually not future oriented. Forcing peer awareness of the seriousness of hypoglycemic reactions would further alienate the adolescent with diabetes. The peer group would focus on the differences.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1490

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

34. The nurse is implementing care for a school-age child admitted to the pediatric intensive care in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Which prescribed intervention should the nurse implement first?

a.

Begin 0.9% saline solution intravenously as prescribed.

b.

Administer regular insulin intravenously as prescribed.

c.

Place child on a cardiac monitor.

d.

Place child on a pulse oximetry monitor.

ANS: A

All patients with DKA experience dehydration (10% of total body weight in severe ketoacidosis) because of the osmotic diuresis, accompanied by depletion of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, and magnesium). The initial hydrating solution is 0.9% saline solution. Insulin therapy should be started after the initial rehydration bolus because serum glucose levels fall rapidly after volume expansion. The child should be placed on the cardiac and pulse oximetry monitors after the rehydrating solution has been initiated.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1483

OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

35. A nurse is reviewing the laboratory results on a school-age child with hypoparathyroidism. Which results are consistent with this condition?

a.

Decreased serum phosphorus

c.

Increased serum glucose

b.

Decreased serum calcium

d.

Decreased serum cortisol

ANS: B

The diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism is made on the basis of clinical manifestations associated with decreased serum calcium and increased serum phosphorus. Decreased serum phosphorus would be seen in hyperparathyroidism, elevated glucose in diabetes, and decreased serum cortisol in adrenocortical insufficiency (Addisons disease).

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1470

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

36. Nursing care of a child diagnosed with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) should include (Select all that apply):

a.

Weigh daily.

b.

Encourage fluids.

c.

Turn frequently.

d.

Maintain nothing by mouth.

e.

Restrict fluids.

ANS: A, E

Increased secretion of ADH causes the kidney to resorb water, which increases fluid volume and decreases serum osmolarity with a progressive reduction in sodium concentration. The immediate management of the child is to restrict fluids. The child should also be weighed at the same time each day. Encouraging fluids, turning frequently, and maintaining nothing by mouth are not associated with SIADH.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1467

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

37. Which children admitted to the pediatric unit would the nurse monitor closely for development of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) (Select all that apply)?

a.

A newly diagnosed preschooler with type 1 diabetes

b.

A school-age child returning from surgery for removal of a brain tumor

c.

An infant with suspected meningitis

d.

An adolescent with blunt abdominal trauma following a car accident

e.

A school-age child with head trauma

ANS: B, C, E

Childhood SIADH usually is caused by disorders affecting the central nervous system, such as infections (meningitis), head trauma, and brain tumors. Type 1 diabetes and blunt abdominal trauma are not likely to cause SIADH.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1467

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

38. A child is diagnosed with hypothyroidism. The nurse should expect to assess which symptoms associated with hypothyroidism (Select all that apply)?

a.

Weight loss

b.

Fatigue

c.

Diarrhea

d.

Dry, thick skin

e.

Cold intolerance

ANS: B, D, E

A child with hypothyroidism will display fatigue; dry, thick skin; and cold intolerance. Weight loss and diarrhea are signs of hyperthyroidism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1468

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

39. The nurse should expect to assess which clinical manifestations in an adolescent with Cushings syndrome (Select all that apply)?

a.

Hyperglycemia

b.

Hyperkalemia

c.

Hypotension

d.

Cushingoid features

e.

Susceptibility to infections

ANS: A, D, E

In Cushings syndrome, physiologic disturbances seen are cushingoid features, hyperglycemia, susceptibility to infection, hypertension, and hypokalemia.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1474

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity: Physiologic Adaptation

40. A nurse is planning care for a school-age child with type 1 diabetes. Which insulin preparations are rapid and short acting (Select all that apply)?

a.

Novolin N

b.

Lantus

c.

NovoLog

d.

Novolin R

ANS: C, D

Rapid-acting insulin (e.g., NovoLog) reaches the blood within 15 minutes after injection. The insulin peaks 30 to 90 minutes later and may last as long as 5 hours. Short-acting (regular) insulin (e.g., Novolin R) usually reaches the blood within 30 minutes after injection. The insulin peaks 2 to 4 hours later and stays in the blood for about 4 to 8 hours. Intermediate-acting insulins (e.g., Novolin N) reach the blood 2 to 6 hours after injection. The insulins peak 4 to 14 hours later and stay in the blood for about 14 to 20 hours. Long-acting insulin (e.g., Lantus) takes 6 to 14 hours to start working. It has no peak or a very small peak 10 to 16 hours after injection. The insulin stays in the blood between 20 and 24 hours.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1480

OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

41. The nurse is caring for a school-age child with hyperthyroidism (Graves disease). Which clinical manifestations should the nurse monitor that may indicate a thyroid storm (Select all that apply)?

a.

Constipation

b.

Hypotension

c.

Hyperthermia

d.

Tachycardia

e.

Vomiting

ANS: C, D, E

A child with a thyroid storm will have severe irritability and restlessness, vomiting, diarrhea, hyperthermia, hypertension, severe tachycardia, and prostration.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 1469

OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

COMPLETION

42. The clinic nurse is reviewing hemoglobin A1c levels on several children with type 1 diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c levels of less than _____ % are a goal for children with type 1 diabetes. Record your answer as a whole number.

ANS:

7

The measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c) levels is a satisfactory method for assessing control of type 1 diabetes. As red blood cells circulate in the bloodstream, glucose molecules gradually attach to the hemoglobin A molecules and remain there for the lifetime of the red blood cell, approximately 120 days. The attachment is not reversible; therefore, this glycosylated hemoglobin reflects the average blood glucose levels over the previous 2 to 3 months. The test is a satisfactory method for assessing control, detecting incorrect testing, monitoring the effectiveness of changes in treatment, defining patients goals, and detecting nonadherence. Hemoglobin A1c levels of less than 7% are a well-established goal at most care centers.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 1479

OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity

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