Chapter 5: Chronic Illness and Older Adults Nursing School Test Banks

Chapter 5: Chronic Illness and Older Adults

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. When caring for an older patient with hypertension who has been hospitalized after a transient ischemic (TIA), which topic is the most important for the nurse to include in the discharge teaching?

a.

Effect of atherosclerosis on blood vessels

b.

Mechanism of action of anticoagulant drug therapy

c.

Symptoms indicating that the patient should contact the health care provider

d.

Impact of the patients family history on likelihood of developing a serious stroke

ANS: C

One of the tasks for patients with chronic illnesses is to prevent and manage a crisis. The patient needs instruction on recognition of symptoms of hypertension and TIA and appropriate actions to take if these symptoms occur. The other information also may be included in patient teaching but is not as essential in the patients self-management of the illness.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 63

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. The nurse performs a comprehensive geriatric assessment of a patient who is being assessed for admission to an assisted living facility. Which question is the most important for the nurse to ask?

a.

Have you had any recent infections?

b.

How frequently do you see a doctor?

c.

Do you have a history of heart disease?

d.

Are you able to prepare your own meals?

ANS: D

The patients functional abilities, rather than the presence of an acute or chronic illness, are more useful in determining how well the patient might adapt to an assisted living situation. The other questions will also provide helpful information but are not as useful in providing a basis for determining patient needs or for developing interventions for the older patient.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 71

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. An older patient who takes multiple medications for chronic cardiac and pulmonary diseases is alert and lives with a daughter who works during the day. During a clinic visit, the patient verbalizes to the nurse that she has a strained relationship with her daughter and does not enjoy being alone all day. Which nursing diagnosis should the nurse assign as the priority for this patient?

a.

Risk for injury related to drug interactions

b.

Social isolation related to weakness and fatigue

c.

Compromised family coping related to the patients many care needs

d.

Caregiver role strain related to need to adjust family employment schedule

ANS: A

The patients age and multiple medications indicate a risk for injury caused by interactions between the multiple drugs being taken and a decreased drug metabolism rate. Problems with social isolation, caregiver role strain, or compromised family coping are not physiologic priorities. Drug-drug interactions could cause the most harm to the patient and is therefore the priority.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 73-74

TOP: Nursing Process: Diagnosis MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. The nurse plans to complete a thorough assessment of an older patient. Which method should the nurse use to gather the most complete information?

a.

Use a geriatric assessment instrument to evaluate the patient.

b.

Ask the patient to write down medical problems and medications.

c.

Interview both the patient and the primary caregiver for the patient.

d.

Review the patients medical record for a history of medical problems.

ANS: A

The most complete information about the patient will be obtained through the use of an assessment instrument specific to the geriatric population, which includes information about both medical diagnoses and treatments and about functional health patterns and abilities. A review of the medical record, interviews with the patient and caregiver, and written information by the patient are all included in a comprehensive geriatric assessment.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 71

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. An older patient is hospitalized with pneumonia. Which intervention should the nurse implement to provide optimal care for this patient?

a.

Use a standardized geriatric nursing care plan.

b.

Minimize activity level during hospitalization.

c.

Plan for transfer to a long-term care facility upon discharge.

d.

Consider the preadmission functional abilities when setting patient goals.

ANS: D

The plan of care for older adults should be individualized and based on the patients current functional abilities. A standardized geriatric nursing care plan will not address individual patient needs and strengths. A patients need for discharge to a long-term care facility is variable. Activity level should be designed to allow the patient to retain functional abilities while hospitalized and also to allow any additional rest needed for recovery from the acute process.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 71

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. The nurse cares for an older adult patient who lives in a rural area. Which intervention should the nurse plan to implement to best meet this patients needs?

a.

Suggest that the patient move to an urban area.

b.

Assess the patient for chronic diseases that are unique to rural areas.

c.

Ensure transportation to appointments with the health care provider.

d.

Obtain adequate medications for the patient to last for 4 to 6 months.

ANS: C

Transportation can be a barrier to accessing health services in rural areas. The patient living in a rural area may lose the benefits of a familiar situation and social support by moving to an urban area. There are no chronic diseases unique to rural areas. Because medications may change, the nurse should help the patient plan for obtaining medications through alternate means such as the mail or delivery services, not by purchasing large quantities of the medications.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 66-67

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. Which nursing action will be most helpful in decreasing the risk for drug-drug interactions in an older adult?

a.

Teach the patient to have all prescriptions filled at the same pharmacy.

b.

Instruct the patient to avoid taking over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

c.

Make a schedule for the patient as a reminder of when to take each medication.

d.

Have the patient bring all medications, supplements, and herbs to each appointment.

ANS: D

The most information about drug use and possible interactions is obtained when the patient brings all prescribed medications, OTC medications, and supplements to every health care appointment. The patient should discuss the use of any OTC medications with the health care provider and obtain all prescribed medications from the same pharmacy, but use of supplements and herbal medications also need to be considered in order to prevent drug-drug interactions. Use of a medication schedule will help the patient take medications as scheduled but will not prevent drug-drug interactions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (comprehension) REF: 74

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. A patient who has just moved to a long-term care facility has a nursing diagnosis of relocation stress syndrome. Which action should the nurse include in the plan of care?

a.

Remind the patient that making changes is usually stressful.

b.

Discuss the reason for the move to the facility with the patient.

c.

Restrict family visits until the patient is accustomed to the facility.

d.

Have staff members write notes welcoming the patient to the facility.

ANS: D

Having staff members write notes will make the patient feel more welcome and comfortable at the long-term care facility. Discussing the reason for the move and reminding the patient that change is usually stressful will not decrease the patients stress about the move. Family member visits will decrease the patients sense of stress about the relocation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 70

TOP: Nursing Process: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

9. An older patient complains of having no energy and feeling increasingly weak. The patient has had a 12-pound weight loss over the last year. Which action should the nurse take initially?

a.

Ask the patient about daily dietary intake.

b.

Schedule regular range-of-motion exercise.

c.

Discuss long-term care placement with the patient.

d.

Describe normal changes associated with aging to the patient.

ANS: A

In a frail older patient, nutrition is frequently compromised, and the nurses initial action should be to assess the patients nutritional status. Active range of motion may be helpful in improving the patients strength and endurance, but nutritional assessment is the priority because the patient has had a significant weight loss. The patient may be a candidate for long-term care placement, but more assessment is needed before this can be determined. The patients assessment data are not consistent with normal changes associated with aging.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 67

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. The nurse admits an acutely ill, older patient to the hospital. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Speak slowly and loudly while facing the patient.

b.

Obtain a detailed medical history from the patient.

c.

Perform the physical assessment before interviewing the patient.

d.

Ask a family member to go home and retrieve the patients cane.

ANS: C

When a patient is acutely ill, the physical assessment should be accomplished first to detect any physiologic changes that require immediate action. Not all older patients have hearing deficits, and it is insensitive of the nurse to speak loudly and slowly to all older patients. To avoid tiring the patient, much of the medical history can be obtained from medical records. After the initial physical assessment to determine the patients current condition, then the nurse could ask someone to obtain any assistive devices for the patient if applicable.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 71

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. The nurse cares for an alert, homeless older adult patient who was admitted to the hospital with a chronic foot infection. Which intervention is the most appropriate for the nurse to include in the discharge plan for this patient?

a.

Refer the patient to social services for further assessment.

b.

Teach the patient how to assess and care for the foot infection.

c.

Schedule the patient to return to outpatient services for foot care.

d.

Give the patient written information about shelters and meal sites.

ANS: A

An interdisciplinary approach, including social services, is needed when caring for homeless older adults. Even with appropriate teaching, a homeless individual may not be able to maintain adequate foot care because of a lack of supplies or a suitable place to accomplish care. Older homeless individuals are less likely to use shelters or meal sites. A homeless person may fail to keep appointments for outpatient services because of factors such as fear of institutionalization or lack of transportation.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 67

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

12. The home health nurse cares for an older adult patient who lives alone and takes several different prescribed medications for chronic health problems. Which intervention, if implemented by the nurse, would best encourage medication compliance?

a.

Use a marked pillbox to set up the patients medications.

b.

Discuss the option of moving to an assisted living facility.

c.

Remind the patient about the importance of taking medications.

d.

Visit the patient daily to administer the prescribed medications.

ANS: A

Because forgetting to take medications is a common cause of medication errors in older adults, the use of medication reminder devices is helpful when older adults have multiple medications to take. There is no indication that the patient needs to move to assisted living or that the patient does not understand the importance of medication compliance. Home health care is not designed for the patient who needs ongoing assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) or instrumental ADLs (IADLs).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 65

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. The home health nurse visits an older patient with mild forgetfulness. The nurse is most concerned if which information is obtained?

a.

The patient tells the nurse that a close friend recently died.

b.

The patient has lost 10 pounds (4.5 kg) during the last month.

c.

The patient is cared for by a daughter during the day and stays with a son at night.

d.

The patients son uses a marked pillbox to set up the patients medications weekly.

ANS: B

A 10-pound weight loss may be an indication of elder neglect or depression and requires further assessment by the nurse. The use of a marked pillbox and planning by the family for 24-hour care are appropriate for this patient. It is not unusual that an 86-year-old would have friends who have died.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 67

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. Which statement, if made by an older adult patient, would be of most concern to the nurse?

a.

I prefer to manage my life without much help from other people.

b.

I take three different medications for my heart and joint problems.

c.

I dont go on daily walks anymore since I had pneumonia 3 months ago.

d.

I set up my medications in a marked pillbox so I dont forget to take them.

ANS: C

Inactivity and immobility lead rapidly to loss of function in older adults. The nurse should develop a plan to prevent further deconditioning and restore function for the patient. Self-management is appropriate for independently living older adults. On average, an older adult takes seven different medications so the use of three medications is not unusual for this patient. The use of memory devices to assist with safe medication administration is recommended for older adults.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 73

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. The nurse assesses an older patient who takes diuretics and has a possible urinary tract infection (UTI). Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Palpate over the suprapubic area.

b.

Inspect for abdominal distention.

c.

Question the patient about hematuria.

d.

Invite the patient to use the bathroom.

ANS: D

Before beginning the assessment of an older patient with a UTI and on diuretics, the nurse should have the patient empty the bladder because bladder fullness or discomfort will distract from the patients ability to provide accurate information. The patient may seem disoriented if distracted by pain or urgency. The physical assessment data are obtained after the patient is as comfortable as possible.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 71

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

16. Which patient is most likely to need long-term nursing care management?

a.

72-year-old who had a hip replacement after a fall at home

b.

64-year-old who developed sepsis after a ruptured peptic ulcer

c.

76-year-old who had a cholecystectomy and bile duct drainage

d.

63-year-old with bilateral knee osteoarthritis who weighs 350 lb (159 kg)

ANS: D

Osteoarthritis and obesity are chronic problems that will require planning for long-term interventions such as physical therapy and nutrition counseling. The other patients have acute problems that are not likely to require long-term management.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 70

OBJ: Special Questions: Multiple Patients TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

17. When completing an admission assessment on an older adult, the nurse gives the patient a high fall risk score. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Use a bed alarm system on the patients bed.

b.

Administer the prescribed PRN sedative medication.

c.

Ask the health care provider to order a vest restraint.

d.

Place the patient in a geri-chair near the nurses station.

ANS: A

The use of the least restrictive restraint alternative is required. Physical or chemical restraints may be necessary, but the nurses first action should be an alternative such as a bed alarm.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 75

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

18. An older adult patient presents with a broken arm and visible scattered bruises healing at different stages. Which action should the nurse take first?

a.

Notify an elder protective services agency about the possible abuse.

b.

Make a referral for a home assessment visit by the home health nurse.

c.

Have the family member stay in the waiting area while the patient is assessed.

d.

Ask the patient how the injury occurred and observe the family members reaction.

ANS: C

The initial action should be assessment and interviewing of the patient. The patient should be interviewed alone because the patient will be unlikely to give accurate information if the abuser is present. If abuse is occurring, the patient should not be discharged home for a later assessment by a home health nurse. The nurse needs to collect and document data before notifying the elder protective services agency.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 68-69

OBJ: Special Questions: Prioritization TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

19. The family of an older patient with chronic health problems and increasing weakness is considering placement in a long-term care (LTC) facility. Which action by the nurse will be most helpful in assisting the patient to make this transition?

a.

Have the family select a LTC facility that is relatively new.

b.

Obtain the patients input about the choice of a LTC facility.

c.

Ask that the patient be placed in a private room at the facility.

d.

Explain the reasons for the need to live in LTC to the patient.

ANS: B

The stress of relocation is likely to be less when the patient has input into the choice of the facility. The age of the long-term care facility does not indicate a better fit for the patient or better quality of care. Although some patients may prefer a private room, others may adjust better when given a well-suited roommate. The patient should understand the reasons for the move but will make the best adjustment when involved with the choice to move and the choice of the facility.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 70

TOP: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity

20. The nurse manages the care of older adults in an adult health day care center. Which

action can the nurse delegate to unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)?

a.

Obtain information about food and medication allergies from patients.

b.

Take blood pressures daily and document in individual patient records.

c.

Choose social activities based on the individual patient needs and desires.

d.

Teach family members how to cope with patients who are cognitively impaired.

ANS: B

Measurement and documentation of vital signs are included in UAP education and scope of practice. Obtaining patient health history, planning activities based on the patient assessment, and patient education are all actions that require critical thinking and will be done by the registered nurse.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 72

OBJ: Special Questions: Delegation TOP: Nursing Process: Planning

MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Which nursing actions will the nurse take to assess for possible malnutrition in an older adult patient (select all that apply)?

a.

Observe for depression.

b.

Review laboratory results.

c.

Assess teeth and oral mucosa.

d.

Ask about transportation needs.

e.

Determine food likes and dislikes.

ANS: A, B, C, D

The laboratory results, especially albumin and cholesterol levels, may indicate chronic poor protein intake or high-fat/cholesterol intake. Transportation impacts patients ability to shop for groceries. Depression may lead to decreased appetite. Oral sores or teeth in poor condition may decrease the ability to chew and swallow. Food likes and dislikes are not necessarily associated with malnutrition.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (application) REF: 67

TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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