Chapter 5: Nursing Research as a Basis for Practice Nursing School Test Banks

Potter & Perry: Fundamentals of Nursing, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse may use a number of different types of research approaches that the nurse may use when conducting a study. Which of the following is an example of an exploratory type of research?

a.

Establishing facts and relations of past events

b.

Refining a hypothesis on the relations among phenomena

c.

Portraying the characteristics of persons, situations, or groups

d.

Testing how well a program, practice, or policy is working

ANS: b

b. An example of an exploratory type of research is to develop or refine a hypothesis about the relations among phenomena.

a. An example of a historical type of research is to establish facts and relations concerning past events.

c. An example of a descriptive type of research is accurately to portray characteristics of persons, situations, or groups and the frequency with which certain events or characteristics occur.

d. An example of an evaluation type of research is to test how well a program, practice, or policy is working.

REF: Text Reference: p. 77

2. The Health Information Portability and Privacy Act (HIPAA) was implemented in 200c. This newly implemented legislation may influence nursing research in the area of:

a.

The cost of the study

b.

Where the study may be published

c.

What type of study may be conducted

d.

How the data will be obtained and protected

ANS: d

d. HIPAA regulations identify how protected health information of potential research subjects is to be managed. The researcher must be able to ensure that the data will be protected and used only by the researcher.

a. HIPAA regulations should not influence the area of cost in nursing research.

b. The focus of HIPAA regulations is not on where a study may be published.

c. HIPAA regulations should not influence the type of study conducted.

REF: Text Reference: p. 82

3. As nurses move forward in their education, different roles may be assumed in regard to research. The expected research role for the baccalaureate-prepared nurse is to:

a.

Assume the role of a clinical expert

b.

Identify clinical nursing problems in practice

c.

Develop methods of inquiry relevant to nursing

d.

Acquire funding for research projects

ANS: b

b. Nurses with a baccalaureate degree are prepared to read research critically and use existing standards to determine the readiness of the findings for clinical practice. They also participate in research activities through identification of clinical problems in nursing practice.

a. Nurses with a masters degree assume the role of clinical expert and are able to create a climate in which research-based change can be implemented into practice.

c. Doctoral prepared nurses are prepared to design studies independently including the development of methods of inquiry relevant to nursing.

d. Doctoral prepared nurses are responsible for acquiring funding for research from public and private sources.

REF: Text Reference: p. 83

4. A nurse researcher distributed an explanatory information sheet to subjects solicited for participation in her study about the purpose of the study. Which of the following ethical principles that guide research was this researcher using?

a.

Protection of subjects

b.

Freedom from harm

c.

Confidentiality of subjects

d.

Informed consent

ANS: d

d. As a component of informed consent, research subjects are given full and complete information about the purpose of the study, procedures, data collection, potential harm and benefits, and alternative methods of treatment.

a. In the case of research, institutions have Health Information Portability and Privacy Act (HIPAA) regulations that identify how protected health information of research subjects is to be managed. The nurse researcher who follows HIPAA guidelines is following the principle of protection of subjects.

b. Research aspects such as minimizing the risk to participants, allowing reasonable risk to participants in relation to anticipated benefits, and monitoring the research to ensure the safety of participants follows the ethical standard of freedom from harm.

c. Confidentiality guarantees that any information provided by the subject will not be reported in any manner that identifies the subject and will not be made accessible to people outside the research team. Describing how confidentiality is maintained is a component of informed consent.

REF: Text Reference: p. 84

5. The nurse takes on ethical responsibilities when conducting research with human subjects. Which of the following violates an ethical responsibility associated with informed consent?

a.

Providing alternatives, including the right of refusal and standard practices

b.

Using data obtained before the initiation of the study

c.

Explaining the possibility of unknown risks when appropriate

d.

Adhering to verbal and written agreements

ANS: b

b. Using data obtained before the initiation of the study would be a breach of privacy because the participant has not yet given informed consent for use of those data.

a. Within the consent document, the researcher must outline alternative methods of treatment and alternatives to participation, including the right to withdraw from the study at any given time.

c. One component of informed consent is the inclusion of informing the research subject of the potential harm and benefits. This would include the risks to the subject (including financial risks) and the potential for no benefit.

d. Adhering to verbal and written agreements is central to informed consent and the implementation of ethical research.

REF: Text Reference: p. 82

6. Nurses need to become familiar with the elements of a research publication. A brief explanation of the type of measurement to be used is found in which section of a study?

a.

Introduction

b.

Conclusions

c.

Results

d.

Methods

ANS: d

d. The Methods section of a study includes the description of the sample (what or who was studied), type of data collected, and the device or instrument used to measure empirical information.

a. The Introduction section presents the purpose, a summary of literature used to formulate the study, and the hypothesis tested or the research questions posed.

b. The Conclusion consists of the author summarizing implications that can be drawn from the study.

c. The Results section contains a description of the results obtained in the study, including appropriate statistical tests used to analyze the data.

REF: Text Reference: p. 84

7. The nurse is conducting a research project on optimal time frames for postoperative ambulation of clients. After identifying the problem, the next step in the research process is to:

a.

Select the population

b.

Review the literature

c.

Identify the instrument to use for data analysis

d.

Obtain approval to conduct the study

ANS: b

b. After identifying the problem, the next step in the research process is to review the literature to determine what is known about the problem.

a. Following identification of the problem and review of the literature, the researcher will design the study protocol. Selecting the population is a component of this phase of the research process.

c. Identifying the instrument to use for data analysis occurs during the process of designing the study protocol. This step would occur during the study design phase of the research process after problem identification and literature review has taken place.

d. Obtaining necessary approvals is part of conducting the study, which follows the design phase in the research process.

REF: Text Reference: p. 80

8. A sample of orthopedic clients varies greatly in requests for post-surgical analgesics. Which type of nursing research would best examine a prospective group of clients in determining what factors affect their alterations in comfort?

a.

Historical research

b.

Experimental research

c.

Correlational research

d.

Evaluation research

ANS: c

c. Correlational research explores the interrelations among variables of interest (such as factors affecting client comfort) without any active intervention by the researcher.

a. Historical research is designed to establish facts and relations concerning past events. It would not use prospective groups of clients.

b. In experimental research, the investigator controls the study variable and randomly assigns subjects to different conditions.

d. Evaluation research tests how well a program, practice, or policy is working.

REF: Text Reference: p. 77

9. A nurse researcher desires to use the experimental research process instead of the nursing process method. Which of the following best lends itself to this process?

a.

The effects of therapeutic touch on a geriatric client with Alzheimers disease

b.

Using humor as an intervention with clients in a sample group who are recovering from orthopedic surgery

c.

Determining the blood pressure patterns of a client who recently had a cerebrovascular accident (i.e., stroke)

d.

Ranking three nursing diagnoses for a newly admitted client with diabetes mellitus

ANS: b

b. In experimental research, the investigator controls the study variable (use of humor) and randomly assigns subjects to different conditions (those who receive humor as an intervention, and those who do not).

a. The effects of therapeutic touch on a geriatric client with Alzheimers disease lends itself to the nursing process as a nursing intervention, perhaps to assist a client in meeting a goal of preventing social isolation. To use the experimental research process, other clients would have to be involved, ( i.e., a group of clients with Alzheimers disease who receive therapeutic touch, and a group of clients with Alzheimers disease who do not receive therapeutic touch to determine whether therapeutic touch had any effect).

c. Determining the blood-pressure patterns of a client who recently had a cerebrovascular accident is a part of the assessment phase of the nursing process. No variable is being controlled by the nurse, as would be in an experimental research study.

d. Setting priorities in nursing diagnosis for client care is an example of using the nursing process.

REF: Text Reference: p. 77

10. The nurse is looking at different strategies for learning and incorporating new information into practice. A strategy that uses problem solving is demonstrated by:

a.

Practicing vital signs over and over until competent

b.

Seeking information from the nurse manager on the clients status

c.

Reviewing Maslows Hierarchy in a reference textbook or on the Internet

d.

Trying different types of colostomy dressings for maximal effect

ANS: d

d. Trying various ways of resolving clients health care needs or evaluating health care products, as in trying different types of colostomy dressings for maximal effect, is an example of the problem-solving strategy for knowledge acquisition.

a. Practicing skills is an example of gaining experience to increase ones knowledge.

b. Information seeking is a strategy used to obtain knowledge from experts in a particular field.

c. Reviewing Maslows hierarchy in a reference textbook or on the Internet is another example of acquiring knowledge through information seeking.

REF: Text Reference: p. 76

11. A nurse researcher has completed a study involving the use of intravenous analgesics for post-surgical discomfort. The description of the 16 clients used for the study would best be written in which part of the research report?

a.

Introduction section

b.

Methods section

c.

Results section

d.

Discussion section

ANS: b

b. A description of the clients used is found in the Methods section of the research study.

a. The Introductory section presents the purpose of the study, a summary of literature and the hypotheses tested or questions posed.

c. The Results section contains a description of the results obtained in the study, including appropriate statistical tests used to analyze the data.

d. The Discussion section presents the authors interpretation of the results, including conclusions and implications that can be drawn form the study.

REF: Text Reference: p. 84

12. A nurse works on a neurological nursing unit. She reads about a case study involving the potential positive effects of the early stimulation of clients after head injury. Which of the following questions should be a priority consideration of this nurse before use of the research results?

a.

Were ethical principles maintained?

b.

What was the cost of the study?

c.

Were the results of this study published in other journals?

d.

Are the clients in the study similar to clients on her neurological unit?

ANS: d

d. Determination of whether the subjects and environment in the study are similar to the clients for whom the nurse provides care in the particular practice setting is necessary before research can be considered for use in practice.

a. Even though research may indicate that ethical principles were maintained, it does not necessarily mean that it is feasible to apply the findings in practice. For example, cost issues may limit the use of research findings.

b. Although cost may be a consideration in determining the feasibility of applying research findings, it is not the priority consideration for research use. The research findings would first have to be applicable to the practice setting and client population.

c. The number of journals that published the research results of the study should not be the priority consideration in implementation of its findings. To judge the scientific worth of the study, however, it is important to examine the amount of supportive evidence provided by other scientific studies that have obtained similar results.

REF: Text Reference: p. 84

13. The nurse is going to use a predictive type of question as the basis for the research study. An example of a predictive type of question for research is:

a.

If guided imagery is used, will stress levels be reduced?

b.

How often does the stress reaction occur?

c.

What does guided imagery mean to clients?

d.

What creates an increase in stress levels?

ANS: a

a. This question is an example of a predictive type of question because it connects stress reduction with the use of guided imagery.

b. This question does not predict any outcome, but rather focuses on frequency of a response, which could be used in data collection.

c. This question does not predict any type of outcome, but rather explores meaning to gain understanding.

d. This question explores factors that affect a phenomenon. It is not a predictive type of question.

REF: Text Reference: p. 79

Copyright 2005 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

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